Abstract: This work was focused in to study the compatibility, dispersion and exfoliation of modified nanoclays in biodegradable polymers and evaluate its effect on the physical, mechanical and thermal properties on the biodegradable matrix used. The formulations have been developed with polylactic acid (PLA) and organically modified montmorillonite-type commercial nanoclays (Cloisite 15, Cloisite 20, and Cloisite 30B) in the presence of a plasticizer agent, specifically Polyethylene Glycol of low molecular weight. Different compositions were evaluated, in order to identify the influence of each nanoclayin the polymeric matrix. The mixtures were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (DRX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Tensile Test. These tests have allowed understanding the behavior of each of the mixtures developed.
Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the major steps involved in the conversion from sugarcane bagasse to yield ethanol. This process offers potential for yields and selectivity higher, lower energy costs and milder operating conditions than chemical processes. However, the presence of some factors such as lignin content, crystallinity degree of the cellulose, and particle sizes, limits the digestibility of the cellulose present in the lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreatment aims to improve the access of the enzyme to the substrate. In this study sugarcane bagasse was submitted chemical pretreatment that consisted of two consecutive steps, the first with dilute sulfuric acid (1 % (v/v) H2SO4), and the second with alkaline solutions with different concentrations of NaOH (1, 2, 3 and 4 % (w/v)). Thermal Analysis (TG/ DTG and DTA) was used to evaluate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents in the samples. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological structures of the in natura and chemically treated samples. Results showed that pretreatments were effective in chemical degradation of lignocellulosic materials of the samples, and also was possible to observe the morphological changes occurring in the biomasses after pretreatments.
Abstract: This article summarizes ways to verify neutron
fluence for neutron transmutation doping of silicon with phosphorus
on the LVR-15 reactor. Neutron fluence is determined using
activation detectors placed along the crystal in a strip or encapsulated
in a rod holder. Holders are placed at the centre of a water-filled
capsule or in an aluminum or silicon ingot that simulates a real single
crystal. If the diameter of the crystal is significantly less than the
capsule diameter and water from the primary circuit enters the free
space in the capsule, neutron interaction in the water changes neutron
fluence, affecting axial irradiation homogeneity. The effect of
moving the capsule vertically in the channel relative to maximum
neutron fluence in the reactor core was also measured. Even a small
shift of the capsule-s centre causes great irradiation inhomogeneity.
This effect was measured using activation detectors, and was also
confirmed by MCNP calculation.
Abstract: Novel polystrene-bound Schiff bases and their Pt(IV)
complexes have been prepared from condensation reaction of
polystyrene-A-NH2 with 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 5-fluoro-3-
bromo-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The structures of Pt(IV) complexes
with polystyrene including Schiff bases have been determined by
elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, IR, 1H-NMR, UV-vis,
TG/DTA and AAS. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the
synthesized compounds have been studied by the well-diffusion
method against some selected microorganisms: (Bacillus cereus spp.,
Listeria monocytogenes 4b, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus
aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Brucella abortus, Escherichia
coli, Pseudomonas putida spp., Shigella dysenteria type 10,
Salmonella typhi H).
Abstract: Nylon 6-clay hybrid/neat nylon 6, sheath/core
bicomponent nanocomposite fibers containing 4 wt% of clay in
sheath section were melt spun at different take-up speeds. Their
orientation and crystalline structure were compared to those of neat
nylon 6 fibers. Birefringence measurements showed that the
orientation development in sheath and core parts of bicomponent
fibers was different. Crystallinity results showed that clay did not act
as a nucleating agent for bicomponent fibers. The neat nylon 6 fiber
had a smooth surface while striped pattern was appeared on the
surface of bicomponent fiber containing clay due to thermal
shrinkage of the core part.
Abstract: Extraction of Fe(III) from aqueous solution using Trin-
butyl Phosphate (TBP) as carrier needs a highly acidic medium
(>6N) as it favours formation of chelating complex FeCl3.TBP.
Similarly, stripping of Iron(III) from loaded organic solvents requires
neutral pH or alkaline medium to dissociate the same complex. It is
observed that TBP co-extracts acids along with metal, which causes
reversal of driving force of extraction and iron(III) is re-extracted
back from the strip phase into the feed phase during Liquid Emulsion
Membrane (LEM) pertraction. Therefore, rate of extraction of
different mineral acids (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4) using TBP with and
without presence of metal Fe(III) was examined. It is revealed that in
presence of metal acid extraction is enhanced. Determination of mass
transfer coefficient of both acid and metal extraction was performed
by using Bulk Liquid Membrane (BLM). The average mass transfer
coefficient was obtained by fitting the derived model equation with
experimentally obtained data. The mass transfer coefficient of the
mineral acid extraction is in the order of kHNO3 = 3.3x10-6m/s > kHCl =
6.05x10-7m/s > kH2SO4 = 1.85x10-7m/s. The distribution equilibria of
the above mentioned acids between aqueous feed solution and a
solution of tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in organic solvents have been
investigated. The stoichiometry of acid extraction reveals the
formation of TBP.2HCl, HNO3.2TBP, and TBP.H2SO4 complexes.
Moreover, extraction of Iron(III) by TBP in HCl aqueous solution
forms complex FeCl3.TBP.2HCl while in HNO3 medium forms
Abstract: α-Pinene is the main component of the most
turpentine oils. The hydration of α-pinene with acid catalysts leads to
a complex mixture of monoterpenes. In order to obtain more valuable
products, the α-pinene in the turpentine can be hydrated in dilute
mineral acid solutions to produce α-terpineol. The design of
separation processes requires information on phase equilibrium and
related thermodynamic properties. This paper reports the results of
study on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of system containing α-
pinene + water and α-terpineol + water.
Binary LLE for α-pinene + water system, and α-terpineol + water
systems were determined by experiment at 301K and atmospheric
pressure. The two component mixture was stirred for about 30min,
then the mixture was left for about 2h for complete phase separation.
The composition of both phases was analyzed by using a Gas
Chromatograph. The experimental data were correlated by
considering both NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models.
The LLE data for the system of α-pinene + water and α-terpineol +
water were correlated successfully by the NRTL model. The
experimental data were not satisfactorily fitted by the UNIQUAC
model. The NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the
system of α-pinene + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.0404%. And
the NRTL model (α =0.61) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0058 %. The
NRTL model (α =0.3) correlates the LLE data for the system of α-
terpineol + water at 301K with RMSD of 0.1487% and the NRTL
model (α =0.6) at 301K with RMSD of 0.0032%, between the
experimental and calculated mole fractions.
Abstract: Coal tar is a liquid by-product of the process of coal
gasification and carbonation. This liquid oil mixture contains various
kinds of useful compounds such as phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol.
These compounds are widely used as raw material for insecticides,
dyes, medicines, perfumes, coloring matters, and many others.
This research needed to be done that given the optimum conditions
for the separation of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from the coal tar
by solvent extraction process. The aim of the present work was to
study the effect of two kinds of aqueous were used as solvents:
methanol and acetone solutions, the effect of temperature (298, 306,
and 313K) and mixing (30, 35, and 40rpm) for the separation of
phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar by solvent extraction.
Results indicated that phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol in coal tar
were selectivity extracted into the solvent phase and these
components could be separated by solvent extraction. The aqueous
solution of methanol, mass ratio of solvent to feed, Eo/Ro=1,
extraction temperature 306K and mixing 35 rpm were the most
efficient for extraction of phenol, o-cresol, and p-cresol from coal tar.
Abstract: The Iranian bentonite was first characterized by
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma
mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray
Diffraction (XRD) and BET. The bentonite was then treated
thermally between 150°C-250°C at 15min, 45min and 90min and
also was activated chemically with different concentration of
sulphuric acid (3N, 5N and 10N). Although the results of thermal
activated-bentonite didn-t show any considerable changes in specific
surface area and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), but the results of
chemical treated bentonite demonstrated that such properties have
been improved by acid activation process.
Abstract: In this work we investigated the behavior of methane
hydrates dispersed in crude oils from different fields at temperatures
below 0°C. In case of crude oil emulsion the size of water droplets is
in the range of 50e100"m. The size of hydrate particles formed from
droplets is the same. The self-preservation is not expected in this
field. However, the self-preservation of hydrates with the size of
particles 24±18"m (electron microscopy data) in suspensions is
observed. Similar results were obtained for four different kinds of
crude oil and model system such as asphaltenes, resins and wax in ndecane.
This result can allow developing effective methods to prevent
the formation and elimination of gas-hydrate plugs in pipelines under
low temperature conditions (e. g. in Eastern Siberia). There is a
prospective to use experiment results for working out the technology
of associated petroleum gas recovery.
Abstract: The chemistry of sulphone hydrazide has gained increase interest in both synthetic organic chemistry and biological fields and has considerable value. The therapeutic importance of these compounds is the attractive force to continue research in such a point. The present review covers the literature up to date for the synthesis, reactions and applications of such compounds.
Abstract: Interaction of inorganic water-soluble salts and building stones is studied in the paper. Two types of sandstone and one type of spongillite as representatives of materials used in historical masonry are subjected to experimental testing. Within the performed experiments, measurement of moisture and chloride concentration profiles is done in order to get input data for computational inverse analysis. Using the inverse analysis, moisture diffusivity and chloride diffusion coefficient of investigated materials are accessed. Additionally, the effect of salt presence on water vapor storage is investigated using dynamic vapor sorption device. The obtained data represents valuable information for restoration of historical masonry and give evidence on the performance of studied stones in contact with water soluble salts.
Abstract: Rambutan is a tropical fruit which peel possesses antioxidant properties. This work was conducted to optimize extraction conditions of phenolic compounds from rambutan peel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to optimize subcritical water extraction (SWE) on temperature, extraction time and percent solvent mixture. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for SWE were as follows: temperature 160°C, extraction time 20min. and concentration of 50% ethanol. Comparison of the phenolic compounds from the rambutan peels in maceration 6h, soxhlet 4h, and SWE 20min., it indicated that total phenolic content (using Folin-Ciocalteu-s phenol reagent) was 26.42, 70.29, and 172.47mg of tannic acid equivalent (TAE) per g dry rambutan peel, respectively. The comparative study concluded that SWE was a promising technique for phenolic compounds extraction from rambutan peel, due to much more two times of conventional techniques and shorter extraction times.
Abstract: The present study based on removal of natural dyes of
Roselle petals, then used Roselle petals powder (RPP) as an
adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue dye (as a typical cationic
or basic dye) from aqueous solutions. The present study shows that
used Roselle petals powder exhibit adsorption trend for the dye. The
adsorption processes were carried out at various conditions of
temperatures ranging from 278 to 338 K ± 2 K , concentrations,
processing time and a wide range of pH between 2.5-11. Adsorption
isotherm equations such as Freundlich, and Langmuir were applied to
calculate the values of respective constants. Adsorption study was
found that the currently introduced adsorbent can be used to remove
cationic dyes such as methylene blue from aqueous solutions.
Abstract: Two different superhydrophobic surfaces were
elaborated and their oil repellency behavior was evaluated using
several liquid with different surface tension. A silicone rubber/SiO2
nanocomposite coated (A) on aluminum substrate by “spin-coating"
and the sample B was an anodized aluminum surface covered by
Teflon-like coating. A high static contact angle about ∼162° was
measured for two prepared surfaces on which the water droplet rolloff.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the presence of
micro/nanostructures for both sample A and B similar to that of lotus
However the sample A presented significantly different behaviour
of wettability against the low surface tension liquid. Sample A has
been wetted totally by oil (dodecan) droplet while sample B showed
oleophobic behaviour. Oleophobic property of Teflon like coating
can be contributed to the presence of CF2 and CF3 functional group
which was shown by XPS analysis.
Abstract: The desulfurization of coal using biological methods is an emerging technology. The biodesulfurization process uses the catalytic activity of chemolithotrophic acidpohiles in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 10 L batch stirred tank reactor having 10% pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. After 35 days of experiment, about 64% of pyrite and 21% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The findings of the present study indicate that the biodesulfurization process does have potential in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal. A good mass balance was also obtained with net loss of about 5% showing its feasibility for large scale application.
Abstract: The recovery of metal values and safe disposal of
spent catalyst is gaining interest due to both its hazardous nature and
increased regulation associated with disposal methods. Prior to the
recovery of the valuable metals, removal of entrained deposits limit
the diffusion of lixiviate resulting in low recovery of metals must be
taken into consideration. Therefore, petroleum refinery spent catalyst
was subjected to acetone washing and roasting at 500oC. The treated
samples were investigated for metals bioleaching using
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch reactors and the leaching
efficiencies were compared. It was found out that acetone washed
spent catalysts results in better metal recovery compare to roasted
spent. About 83% Ni, 20% Al, 50% Mo and 73% V were leached
using the acetone washed spent catalyst. In both the cases, Ni, V and
Mo was high compared to Al.
Abstract: This research study the application of the immobilized
TiO2 layer and Cu-TiO2 layer on graphite substrate as a negative
electrode or anode for Li-ion battery. The titania layer was produced
through chemical bath deposition method, meanwhile Cu particles
were deposited electrochemically. A material can be used as an
electrode as it has capability to intercalates Li ions into its crystal
structure. The Li intercalation into TiO2/Graphite and Cu-
TiO2/Graphite were analyzed from the changes of its XRD pattern
after it was used as electrode during discharging process. The XRD
patterns were refined by Le Bail method in order to determine the
crystal structure of the prepared materials. A specific capacity and the
cycle ability measurement were carried out to study the performance
of the prepared materials as negative electrode of the Li-ion battery.
The specific capacity was measured during discharging process from
fully charged until the cut off voltage. A 300 was used as a load.
The result shows that the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with
TiO2/Graphite as negative electrode is 230.87 ± 1.70mAh.g-1 which is
higher than the specific capacity of Li-ion battery with pure graphite
as negative electrode, i.e 140.75 ±0.46mAh.g-1. Meanwhile
deposition of Cu onto TiO2 layer does not increase the specific
capacity, and the value even lower than the battery with
TiO2/Graphite as electrode. The cycle ability of the prepared battery
is only two cycles, due to the Li ribbon which was used as cathode
became fragile and easily broken.
Abstract: This research is to design and implement a new kind
of agitators called differential agitator. The Differential Agitator is an
electro- mechanic set consists of two shafts. The first shaft is the
bearing axis while the second shaft is the axis of the quartet upper
bearing impellers group and the triple lower group which are called
as agitating group. The agitating group is located inside a cylindrical
container equipped especially to contain square directors for the
liquid entrance and square directors called fixing group for the liquid
exit. The fixing group is installed containing the agitating group
inside any tank whether from upper or lower position. The agitating
process occurs through the agitating group bearing causing a lower
pressure over the upper group leading to withdrawing the liquid from
the square directors of the liquid entering and consequently the liquid
moves to the denser place under the quartet upper group. Then, the
liquid moves to the so high pressure area under the agitating group
causing the liquid to exit from the square directors in the bottom of
the container. For improving efficiency, parametric study and shape
optimization has been carried out. A numerical analysis,
manufacturing and laboratory experiments were conducted to design
and implement the differential agitator. Knowing the material
prosperities and the loading conditions, the FEM using ANSYS11
was used to get the optimum design of the geometrical parameters of
the differential agitator elements while the experimental test was
performed to validate the advantages of the differential agitators to
give a high agitation performance of lime in the water as an example.
In addition, the experimental work has been done to express the
internal container shape in the agitation efficiency. The study ended
up with conclusions to maximize agitator performance and optimize
the geometrical parameters to be used for manufacturing the
Abstract: Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal
power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned
carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward
its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon
content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various
concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at
400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To
evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption
capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was
carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to
adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of
treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.