Abstract: In this paper we present a generic approach for the problem of the blind estimation of the parameters of linear and convolutional error correcting codes. In a non-cooperative context, an adversary has only access to the noised transmission he has intercepted. The intercepter has no knowledge about the parameters used by the legal users. So, before having acess to the information he has first to blindly estimate the parameters of the error correcting code of the communication. The presented approach has the main advantage that the problem of reconstruction of such codes can be expressed in a very simple way. This allows us to evaluate theorical bounds on the complexity of the reconstruction process but also bounds on the estimation rate. We show that some classical reconstruction techniques are optimal and also explain why some of them have theorical complexities greater than these experimentally observed.
Abstract: The resident registration number was adopted for the purposes of enhanced services for resident convenience and effective performance of governmental administrative affairs. However, it has been used for identification purposes customarily and irrationally in line with the development and spread of the Internet. In response to the growing concern about the leakage of collected RRNs and possible abuses of stolen RRNs, e.g. identity theft, for crimes, the Korean Communications Commission began to take legal/regulatory actions in 2011 to minimize the online collection and use of resident registration numbers. As the use of the RRN was limited after the revision of the Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, etc., online business providers were required to have alternatives to the RRN for the purpose of identifying the user's identity and age, in compliance with the law, and settling disputes with customers. This paper presents means of verifying the personal identity by taking advantage of the commonly used infrastructure and simply replacing personal information entered and stored, without requiring users to enter their RRNs.
Abstract: The least mean square (LMS) algorithmis one of the
most well-known algorithms for mobile communication systems
due to its implementation simplicity. However, the main limitation
is its relatively slow convergence rate. In this paper, a booster
using the concept of Markov chains is proposed to speed up the
convergence rate of LMS algorithms. The nature of Markov
chains makes it possible to exploit the past information in the
updating process. Moreover, since the transition matrix has a
smaller variance than that of the weight itself by the central limit
theorem, the weight transition matrix converges faster than the
weight itself. Accordingly, the proposed Markov-chain based
booster thus has the ability to track variations in signal
characteristics, and meanwhile, it can accelerate the rate of
convergence for LMS algorithms. Simulation results show that the
LMS algorithm can effectively increase the convergence rate and
meantime further approach the Wiener solution, if the
Markov-chain based booster is applied. The mean square error is
also remarkably reduced, while the convergence rate is improved.
Abstract: In recent years, everything is trending toward digitalization
and with the rapid development of the Internet technologies,
digital media needs to be transmitted conveniently over the network.
Attacks, misuse or unauthorized access of information is of great
concern today which makes the protection of documents through
digital media a priority problem. This urges us to devise new data
hiding techniques to protect and secure the data of vital significance.
In this respect, steganography often comes to the fore as a tool for
hiding information. Steganography is a process that involves hiding
a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. It is of
Greek origin and means "covered or hidden writing". The goal of
steganography is covert communication. Here the carrier can be sent
to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiver only
knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work
has been carried out by different researchers on steganography. In this
work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding
information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The
proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixels using
some mathematical function and then finds the 8 neighborhood of
the each selected pixel and map each bit of the secret message in
each of the neighbor pixel coordinate position in a specified manner.
Before embedding a checking has been done to find out whether the
selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundary of the image or not.
This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden
and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.
Abstract: The objective of the present communication is to
develop new genuine exponentiated mean codeword lengths and to
study deeply the problem of correspondence between well known
measures of entropy and mean codeword lengths. With the help of
some standard measures of entropy, we have illustrated such a
correspondence. In literature, we usually come across many
inequalities which are frequently used in information theory.
Keeping this idea in mind, we have developed such inequalities via
coding theory approach.
Abstract: Recently, as information industry and mobile
communication technology are developing, this study is conducted on
the new concept of intelligent structures and maintenance techniques
that applied wireless sensor network, USN (Ubiquitous Sensor
Network), to social infrastructures such as civil and architectural
structures on the basis of the concept of Ubiquitous Computing that
invisibly provides human life with computing, along with mutually
cooperating, compromising and connecting networks each other by
having computers within all objects around us.
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the capability
of wireless communication of sensor node embedded in reinforced
concrete structure with a basic experiment on an electric wave
permeability of sensor node by fabricating molding with variables of
concrete thickness and steel bars that are mostly used in constructing
structures to determine the feasibility of application to constructing
structures with USN.
At this time, with putting the pitches of steel bars, the thickness of
concrete placed, and the intensity of RF signal of a
transmitter-receiver as variables and when wireless communication
module was installed inside, the possible communication distance of
plain concrete and the possible communication distance by the pitches
of steel bars was measured in the horizontal and vertical direction
respectively. Besides, for the precise measurement of diminution of an
electric wave, the magnitude of an electric wave in the range of used
frequencies was measured by using Spectrum Analyzer. The
phenomenon of diminution of an electric wave was numerically
analyzed and the effect of the length of wavelength of frequencies was
analyzed by the properties of a frequency band area.
As a result of studying the feasibility of an application to
constructing structures with wireless sensor, in case of plain concrete,
it shows 45cm for the depth of permeability and in case of reinforced
concrete with the pitches of 5cm, it shows 37cm and 45cm for the
pitches of 15cm.
Abstract: Short Message Service (SMS) has grown in
popularity over the years and it has become a common way of
communication, it is a service provided through General System
for Mobile Communications (GSM) that allows users to send text
messages to others.
SMS is usually used to transport unclassified information, but
with the rise of mobile commerce it has become a popular tool for
transmitting sensitive information between the business and its
clients. By default SMS does not guarantee confidentiality and
integrity to the message content.
In the mobile communication systems, security (encryption)
offered by the network operator only applies on the wireless link.
Data delivered through the mobile core network may not be
protected. Existing end-to-end security mechanisms are provided
at application level and typically based on public key
The main concern in a public-key setting is the authenticity of
the public key; this issue can be resolved by identity-based (IDbased)
cryptography where the public key of a user can be derived
from public information that uniquely identifies the user.
This paper presents an encryption mechanism based on the IDbased
scheme using Elliptic curves to provide end-to-end security
for SMS. This mechanism has been implemented over the standard
SMS network architecture and the encryption overhead has been
estimated and compared with RSA scheme. This study indicates
that the ID-based mechanism has advantages over the RSA
mechanism in key distribution and scalability of increasing
security level for mobile service.
Abstract: In this study, we propose a network architecture for
providing secure access to information resources of enterprise
network from remote locations in a wireless fashion. Our proposed
architecture offers a very promising solution for organizations which
are in need of a secure, flexible and cost-effective remote access
methodology. Security of the proposed architecture is based on
Virtual Private Network technology and a special role based access
control mechanism with location and time constraints. The flexibility
mainly comes from the use of Internet as the communication medium
and cost-effectiveness is due to the possibility of in-house
implementation of the proposed architecture.
Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are increasing in importance everyday, especially since the 90’s (last decade of birth for the Millennials generation). While social interactions involving the Millennials generation have been studied, a lack of investigation remains regarding the use of the ICT by this generation as well as the impact on outcomes in education and professional training. Observing and interviewing students preparing a MSc, we aimed at characterizing the interaction students-ICT during the courses. We found that up to 50% of the students (mainly female) could use ICT during courses at a rate of 0.84 occurrence/minutes for some of them, and they thought this involvement did not disturb learning, even was helpful. As recent researches show that multitasking leads people think they are much better than they actually are, further observations with assessments are needed to conclude whether or not the use ICT by students during the courses is a real strength.
Abstract: Cryptographic protocols are widely used in various
applications to provide secure communications. They are usually
represented as communicating agents that send and receive messages.
These agents use their knowledge to exchange information and
communicate with other agents involved in the protocol. An agent
knowledge can be partitioned into explicit knowledge and procedural
knowledge. The explicit knowledge refers to the set of information
which is either proper to the agent or directly obtained from other
agents through communication. The procedural knowledge relates to
the set of mechanisms used to get new information from what is
already available to the agent.
In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which specifies
the explicit knowledge of an agent involved in a cryptographic
protocol. Modelling this knowledge is crucial for the specification,
analysis, and implementation of cryptographic protocols. We also,
report on a prototype tool that allows the representation and the
manipulation of the explicit knowledge.
Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed
communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM
systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average
Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power
Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of
large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the
amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper,
we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and
SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by
the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the
SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly
reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with
OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our
proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with
low complexities computation. This approach also avoids
randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to
decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be
generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is
not required to transmit side information (SI).
Abstract: The massive proliferation of affordable computers, Internet broadband connectivity and rich education content has created a global phenomenon in which information and communication technology (ICT) is being used to transform education. Therefore, there is a need to redesign the educational system to meet the needs better. The advent of computers with sophisticated software has made it possible to solve many complex problems very fast and at a lower cost. This paper introduces the characteristics of the current E-Learning and then analyses the concept of cloud computing and describes the architecture of cloud computing platform by combining the features of E-Learning. The authors have tried to introduce cloud computing to e-learning, build an e-learning cloud, and make an active research and exploration for it from the following aspects: architecture, construction method and external interface with the model.
Abstract: Unstructured peer-to-peer networks are popular due to
its robustness and scalability. Query schemes that are being used in
unstructured peer-to-peer such as the flooding and interest-based
shortcuts suffer various problems such as using large communication
overhead long delay response. The use of routing indices has been a
popular approach for peer-to-peer query routing. It helps the query
routing processes to learn the routing based on the feedbacks
collected. In an unstructured network where there is no global
information available, efficient and low cost routing approach is
needed for routing efficiency.
In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for query-feedback
oriented routing indices to achieve routing efficiency in unstructured
network at a minimal cost. The approach also applied information
retrieval technique to make sure the content of the query is
understandable and will make the routing process not just based to
the query hits but also related to the query content. Experiments have
shown that the proposed mechanism performs more efficient than
Abstract: The last decade has seen an early majority of people
The last decade, the role of the of the information communication
technologies has increased in improving the social and business life
of people. Today, it is recognized that game could contribute to
enhance virtual rehabilitation by better engaging patients. Our
research study aims to develop a game based system enhancing
cognitive and physical capabilities of elderly people. To this end, the
project aims to develop a low cost hand held system based on
existing game such as Wii, PSP, or Xbox. This paper discusses the
concepts and requirements for developing such game for elderly
people. Based on the requirement elicitation, we intend to develop a
prototype related to sport and dance activities.
Abstract: With the rapid growth in business size, today-s businesses orient Throughout thirty years local, national and international experience in medicine as a medical student, junior doctor and eventually Consultant and Professor in Anaesthesia, Intensive Care and Pain Management, I note significant generalised dissatisfaction among medical students and doctors regarding their medical education and practice. We repeatedly hear complaints from patients about the dysfunctional health care system they are dealing with and subsequently the poor medical service that they are receiving. Medical students are bombarded with lectures, tutorials, clinical rounds and various exams. Clinicians are weighed down with a never-ending array of competing duties. Patients are extremely unhappy about the long waiting lists, loss of their records and the continuous deterioration of the health care service. This problem has been reported in different countries by several authors [1,2,3]. In a trial to solve this dilemma, a genuine idea has been suggested implementing computer technology in medicine [2,3]. Computers in medicine are a medium of international communication of the revolutionary advances being made in the application of the computer to the fields of bioscience and medicine [4,5]. The awareness about using computers in medicine has recently increased all over the world. In Misr University for Science & Technology (MUST), Egypt, medical students are now given hand-held computers (Laptop) with Internet facility making their medical education accessible, convenient and up to date. However, this trial still needs to be validated. Helping the readers to catch up with the on going fast development in this interesting field, the author has decided to continue reviewing the literature, exploring the state-of-art in computer based medicine and up dating the medical professionals especially the local trainee Doctors in Egypt. In part I of this review article we will give a general background discussing the potential use of computer technology in the various aspects of the medical field including education, research, clinical practice and the health care service given to patients. Hope this will help starting changing the culture, promoting the awareness about the importance of implementing information technology (IT) in medicine, which is a field in which such help is needed. An international collaboration is recommended supporting the emerging countries achieving this target.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to introduce an advanced
system for the support of processing of medical image information,
and the terminology related to this system, which can be an important
element to a faster transition to a fully digitalized hospital.
The core of the system is a set of DICOM compliant applications
running over a dedicated computer network. The whole integrated
system creates a collaborative platform supporting daily routines in
the radiology community, developing communication channels,
supporting the exchange of information and special consultations
among various medical institutions as well as supporting medical
training for practicing radiologists and medical students. It gives the
users outside of hospitals the tools to work in almost the same
conditions as in the radiology departments.
Abstract: Implementing Information Technology/ Information
System (IT/IS) is critical for every industry as its potential benefits
have been to motivate many industries including the Malaysian
construction industry to invest in it. To successfully implement IT/IS
has become the major concern for every organisation. Identifying the
critical success factors (CSFs) has become the main agenda for
researchers, academicians and practitioners due to the wide number
of failures reported. This research paper seeks to identify the CSFs
that influence the successful implementation of IT/IS in construction
industry in Malaysia. Limited factors relating to people issue will be
highlighted here to showcase some as it becomes one of the major
contributing factors to the failure. Three (3) organisations have
participated in this study. Semi-structured interviews are employed as
they offer sufficient flexibility to ensure that all relevant factors are
covered. Several key issues contributing to successful
implementations of IT/IS are identified. The results of this study
reveal that top management support, communication, user
involvement, IT staff roles and responsibility, training/skills, leader/
IT Leader, organisation culture, knowledge/ experience, motivation,
awareness, focus and ambition, satisfaction, teamwork/ collaboration,
willingness to change, attitude, commitment, management style,
interest in IT, employee behaviour towards collaborative
environment, trust, interpersonal relationship, personal characteristic
and competencies are significantly associated with the successful
implementations of IT/IS. It is anticipated that this study will create
awareness and contribute to a better understanding amongst
construction industry players and will assist them to successfully
Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the significance of
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and
competitiveness to the profit efficiency of commercial banks in
Malaysia. The profit efficiency of commercial banks in Malaysia, the
dependent variable, was estimated using the Stochastic Frontier
Approach (SFA) on a sample of unbalanced panel data, covering 23
commercial banks, between 1995 to 2007. Based on the empirical
results, ICT was not found to exert a significant impact on profit
efficiency, whereas competitiveness, non ICT stock expenditure and
ownership were significant contributors. On the other hand, the size
of banks was found to have significantly reduced profit efficiency,
opening up for various interpretations of the interrelated role of ICT
Abstract: Rural areas of Tanzania are still disadvantaged in terms of diffusion of IP-based services; this is due to lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructures, especially lack of connectivity. One of the limitations for connectivity problems in rural areas of Tanzania is the high cost to establish infrastructures for IP-based services [1-2]. However the cost of connectivity varies from one technology to the other and at the same time, the cost is also different from one operator (service provider) to another within the country. This paper presents development of software system to calculate cost of connectivity to rural areas of Tanzania. The system is developed to make an easy access of connectivity cost from different technologies and different operators. The development of the calculator follows the V-model software development lifecycle. The calculator is used to evaluate the economic viability of different technologies considered as being potential candidates to provide rural connectivity. In this paper, the evaluation is based on the techno-economic analysis approach.
Abstract: Malaysia is aggressive in promoting the usage of ICT
to its mass population through the support by the government
policies and programs targeting the general population. However,
with the uneven distribution of the basic telecommunication
infrastructure between the urban and rural area, cost for being
“interconnected" that is considered high among the poorer rural
population and the lack of local contents that suit the rural population
needs or lifestyles, it is still a challenge for Malaysia to achieve its
Vision 2020 Agenda moving the nation towards an information
society by the year 2020. Among the existing programs that have
been carried out by the government to encourage the usage of ICT by
the rural population is “Kedaikom", a community telecenter with the
general aim is to engage the community to get exposed and to use the
ICT, encouraging the diffusion of the ICT technology to the rural
population. The research investigated by using a questionnaire
survey of how Kedaikom, as a community telecenter could play a
role in encouraging the rural or underserved community to use the
ICT. The result from the survey has proven that the community
telecenter could bridge the digital divide between the underserved
rural population and the well-accessed urban population in Malaysia.
More of the rural population, especially from the younger generation
and those with higher educational background are using the
community telecenter to be connected to the ICT.