Abstract: Subsurface erosion in river banks and its details, in
spite of its occurrence in various parts of the world has rarely been
paid attention by researchers. In this paper, quantitative concept of
the subsurface bank erosion has been investigated for vertical banks.
Vertical banks were simulated experimentally by considering a sandy
erodible layer overlaid by clayey one under uniformly distributed
constant overhead pressure. Results of the experiments are indicated
that rate of sandy layer erosion is decreased by an increase in
overburden; likewise, substituting 20% of coarse (3.5 mm) sand layer
bed material by fine material (1.4 mm) may lead to a decrease in
erosion rate by one-third. This signifies the importance of the bed
material composition effect on sandy layers erosion due to subsurface
erosion in river banks.
Abstract: During this day a considerable amount of Leachate is produced with high amounts of organic material and nutrients needed plants. This study has done in order to scrutinize the effect of Leachate compost on the pH, EC and organic matter percentage in the form of statistical Factorial plan through randomizing block design with three main and two minor treatments and also three replications during three six month periods. Major treatments include N: Irrigation with the region-s well water as a control, I: Frequent irrigation with well water and Leachate, C: Mixing Leachate and water well (25 percent leachate + 75 percent ordinary well water) and secondary treatments, include DI: surface drip irrigation and SDI: sub surface drip irrigation. Results of this study indicated significant differences between treatments and also there were mixing up with the control treatment in the reduction of pH, increasing soluble salts and also increasing the organic matter percentage. This increase is proportional to the amount of added Leachate and in the treatment also proportional to higher mixture of frequent treatment. Therefore, since creating an acidic pH increases the ability to absorb some nutrient elements such as phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper and manganese are increased and the other hand, organic materials also improve many physical and chemical properties of soil are used in Leachate trash Consider health issues as refined in the green belts around cities as a liquid fertilizer recommended.
Abstract: Two short sediment cores collected from mangrove
areas of Manori and Thane creeks along Mumbai coast were analysed
for sediment composition and metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr
and V). The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix proved
that there is a significant relationship between metal concentration
and finer grain size in Manori creek while poor correlation was
observed in Thane creek. Based on the enrichment factor, the present
metal to background metal ratios clearly reflected maximum
enrichment of Cu and Pb in Manori creek and Mn in Thane creek.
Geoaccumulation index calculated indicate that the study area is
unpolluted with respect to Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn and Cr in both the
cores while moderately polluted with Cu and Pb in Manori creek.
Based on contamination degree, both the core sediments were found
to be considerably contaminated with metals.
Abstract: Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that has peaked to an alarming rate in recent decades. It can be found in tropical and sub-tropical climate. In Malaysia, dengue has been declared as one of the national health threat to the public. This study aimed to map the spatial distributions of dengue cases in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor via a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistic tools. Data related to dengue was gathered from the various government health agencies. The location of dengue cases was geocoded using a handheld GPS Juno SB Trimble. A total of 197 dengue cases occurring in 2003 were used in this study. Those data then was aggregated into sub-district level and then converted into GIS format. The study also used population or demographic data as well as the boundary of Hulu Langat. To assess the spatial distribution of dengue cases three spatial statistics method (Moran-s I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation) were applied together with spatial analysis in the GIS environment. Those three indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution and average distance of dengue incidence and to locate the hot spot of dengue cases. The results indicated that the dengue cases was clustered (p < 0.01) when analyze using Moran-s I with z scores 5.03. The results from ANN analysis showed that the average nearest neighbor ratio is less than 1 which is 0.518755 (p < 0.0001). From this result, we can expect the dengue cases pattern in Hulu Langat district is exhibiting a cluster pattern. The z-score for dengue incidence within the district is -13.0525 (p < 0.0001). It was also found that the significant spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidences occurs at an average distance of 380.81 meters (p < 0.0001). Several locations especially residential area also had been identified as the hot spots of dengue cases in the district.
Abstract: Cameron Highlands is a mountainous area subjected
to torrential tropical showers. It extracts 5.8 million liters of water
per day for drinking supply from its rivers at several intake points.
The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands, however, has
deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture,
excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction
activities in rapidly developing urban areas. On the other hand, these
pollution sources known as non-point pollution sources are diverse
and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate.
Hence, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide
an extensive approach to evaluate landuse and other mapping
characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of non-point sources
of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess
pollution sources has been developed by using Cameron Highlands
Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS, databases, as well as
pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual
runoff is created by forest, 3.56 × 108 m3/yr followed by urban
development, 1.46 × 108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development
causes highest BOD load (1.31 × 106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural
activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for
phosphorus (6.91 × 104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50 × 105 kgN/yr),
respectively. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are
suggested to be applied to reduce pollution level in the area.
Abstract: The influence of human activities produced by dams
along the river beds is minor, but the location of accumulation of
water directly influences the hydrological regime. The most
important effect of the influence of damming on the way water flows
decreases the frequency of floods. The water rate controls the water
flow of the dams. These natural reservoirs become dysfunctional and,
as a result, a new distribution of flow in the downstream sector,
where maximum flow is, brings about, in this case, higher values. In
addition to fishing, middle and lower courses of rivers located by
accumulation also have a role in mitigating flood waves, thus
providing flood protection. The Vaslui also ensures a good part of the
needs of the town water supply. The most important lake is Solesti,
close to the Vaslui River, opened in 1974. A hydrological regime of
accumulation is related to an anthropogenic and natural drainage
system. The design conditions and their manoeuvres drain or fill the
Abstract: In this research, a part of Aghche basin in Isfahan
province with an area about 2000 hectars, was chosen to be obtain
curve number coefficient runoff and W indicator in second Cook
method By using aerial photos 1968 and 1995, the satellite data of
the IRS in 2008. Then the process of land use changes in the period
of study and its effect on the changes of curve number (CN), W
indicator and surface runoff coefficient (C) of the basin was
investigated. These results showed that on the track of these land use
changes the weight averages curve number (CN), surface runoff
coefficient (C) and W indicator of the basin were increased to 0.92,
0.02 and 0.78 unit in the first period of study and 1.18, 0.03, 0.99
Unit in the second period of study respectively.
Abstract: Analytical investigation of the sedimentation
processes in the river engineering and hydraulic structures is of vital
importance as this can affect water supply for the cultivating lands in
the command area. The reason being that gradual sediment formation
behind the reservoir can reduce the nominal capacity of these dams.
The aim of the present paper is to analytically investigate
sedimentation process along the river course and behind the storage
reservoirs in general and the Eastern Intake of the Dez Diversion weir
in particular using the SHARC software. Results of the model
indicated the water level at 115.97m whereas the real time
measurement from the river cross section was 115.98 m which
suggests a significantly close relation between them. The average
transported sediment load in the river was measured at 0.25mm ,
from which it can be concluded that nearly 100% of the suspended
loads in river are moving which suggests no sediment settling but
indicates that almost all sediment loads enters into the intake. It was
further showed the average sediment diameter entering the intake to
be 0.293 mm which in turn suggests that about 85% of suspended
sediments in the river entre the intake. Comparison of the results
from the SHARC model with those obtained form the SSIIM
software suggests quite similar outputs but distinguishing the
SHARC model as more appropriate for the analysis of simpler
problems than other model.
Abstract: This paper introduces the application of seismic wave method in earthquake prediction and early estimation. The advantages of the seismic wave method over the traditional earthquake prediction method are demonstrated. An example is presented in this study to show the accuracy and efficiency of using the seismic wave method in predicting a medium-sized earthquake swarm occurred in Wencheng, Zhejiang, China. By applying this method, correct predictions were made on the day after this earthquake swarm started and the day the maximum earthquake occurred, which provided scientific bases for governmental decision-making.
Abstract: The Želazny Most tailing pond is one of the largest
facilities worldwide for waste disposal from the copper mines located
in South-West Poland. A potential failure of the dam would allow
more than 10 million cubic meters of contaminated slurry to flow to
the valley, causing immense environmental problems to the
surrounding area. Thus, the determination of the strength properties
of the dam's soils and their variability is of utmost importance.
An extensive site investigation consisting of more than 480 cone
penetration tests (CPTs) with or without pore water pressure
measurements were conducted within a period of 13 years to study
the mechanical properties of the tailings body. The present work
investigates the point variability of the soil strength parameters
(effective friction angle
Abstract: The purpose of this investigation is to relate the rain
power and the overland flow power to soil erodibility to assess the
effects of both parameters on soil erosion using variable rainfall
intensity on remoulded agricultural soil. Six rainfall intensities were
used to simulate the natural rainfall and are as follows: 12.4mm/h,
20.3mm/h, 28.6mm/h, 52mm/h, 73.5mm/h and 103mm/h. The results
have shown that the relationship between overland flow power and
rain power is best represented by a linear function (R2=0.99). As
regards the relationships between soil erodibility factor and rain and
overland flow powers, the evolution of both parameters with the
erodibility factor follow a polynomial function with high coefficient
of determination. From their coefficients of determination (R2=0.95)
for rain power and (R2=0.96) for overland flow power, we can
conclude that the flow has more power to detach particles than rain.
This could be explained by the fact that the presence of particles,
already detached by rain and transported by the flow, give the flow
more weight and then contribute to the detachment of particles by
Abstract: Snow cover is an important phenomenon in
hydrology, hence modeling the snow accumulation and melting is an
important issue in places where snowmelt significantly contributes to
runoff and has significant effect on water balance. The physics-based
models are invariably distributed, with the basin disaggregated into
zones or grid cells. Satellites images provide valuable data to verify
the accuracy of spatially distributed model outputs. In this study a
spatially distributed physically based model (WetSpa) was applied to
predict snow cover and melting in the Latyan dam watershed in Iran.
Snowmelt is simulated based on an energy balance approach. The
model is applied and calibrated with one year of observed daily
precipitation, air temperature, windspeed, and daily potential
evaporation. The predicted snow-covered area is compared with
remotely sensed images (MODIS). The results show that simulated
snow cover area SCA has a good agreement with satellite image
snow cover area SCA from MODIS images. The model performance
is also tested by statistical and graphical comparison of simulated and
measured discharges entering the Latyan dam reservoir.
Abstract: Many studies have been conducted for derivation of
attenuation relationships worldwide, however few relationships have
been developed to use for the seismic region of Iranian plateau and
only few of these studies have been conducted for derivation of
attenuation relationships for parameters such as uniform duration.
Uniform duration is the total time during which the acceleration is
larger than a given threshold value (default is 5% of PGA). In this
study, the database was same as that used previously by Ghodrati
Amiri et al. (2007) with same correction methods for earthquake
records in Iran. However in this study, records from earthquakes with
MS< 4.0 were excluded from this database, each record has
individually filtered afterward, and therefore the dataset has been
expanded. These new set of attenuation relationships for Iran are
derived based on tectonic conditions with soil classification into rock
and soil. Earthquake parameters were chosen to be
hypocentral distance and magnitude in order to make it easier to use
the relationships for seismic hazard analysis. Tehran is the capital
city of Iran wit ha large number of important structures. In this study,
a probabilistic approach has been utilized for seismic hazard
assessment of this city. The resulting uniform duration against return
period diagrams are suggested to be used in any projects in the area.
Abstract: This paper presents a review on published literature
and experimental works on local sands for possible use as proppant,
specifically those from Terengganu coastal area. This includes
examination on characteristics of sand samples and selection of
experiments for proppant testing. Sand samples from identified areas
were tested according to particle size distribution, density, roundness
and sphericity, turbidity and mineralogy. Results from sand samples
were compared against proppant specifications set by API RP 56 and
selected commercial proppants. The present study found that the size
distribution, sphericity, turbidity and bulk density of Terengganu
sands are at par with some of commercial proppants. Nevertheless,
Terengganu sand samples do not completely surpass the required
roundness for use as proppant.
Abstract: Most paddy rice fields in East Asia are small parcels,
and the weather conditions during the growing season are usually
cloudy. FORMOSAT-2 multi-spectral images have an 8-meter
resolution and one-day recurrence, ideal for mapping paddy rice fields
in East Asia. To map rice fields, this study first determined the
transplanting and the most active tillering stages of paddy rice and
then used multi-temporal images to distinguish different growing
characteristics between paddy rice and other ground covers. The
unsupervised ISODATA (iterative self-organizing data analysis
techniques) and supervised maximum likelihood were both used to
discriminate paddy rice fields, with training areas automatically
derived from ten-year cultivation parcels in Taiwan. Besides original
bands in multi-spectral images, we also generated normalized
difference vegetation index and experimented with object-based
pre-classification and post-classification. This paper discusses results
of different image classification methods in an attempt to find a
precise and automatic solution to mapping paddy rice in Taiwan.
Abstract: The presence of cold air with the convergent
topography of the Lut valley over the valley-s sloping terrain can
generate Low Level Jets (LLJ). Moreover, the valley-parallel
pressure gradients and northerly LLJ are produced as a result of the
large-scale processes. In the numerical study the regional MM5
model was run leading to achieve an appropriate dynamical analysis
of flows in the region for summer and winter. The results of this
study show the presence of summer synoptical systems cause the
formation of north-south pressure gradients in the valley which could
be led to the blowing of winds with the velocity more than 14 ms-1
and vulnerable dust and wind storms lasting more than 120 days.
Whereas the presence of cold air masses in the region in winter,
cause the average speed of LLJs decrease. In this time downslope
flows are noticeable in creating the night LLJs.
Abstract: Establishing pumping stations is one of the most common ways of providing water from rivers. There are many issues involved in the design and operation of pumping stations most important of which is the problem of sedimentation. One of the significant issues which must be taken into consideration in designing pumping stations is the operation method and technical matters related to it. Safety and convenience of operation is one of the issues that must be always considered by the designer. Some of the major issues in making decisions regarding the type of design for the station are geographical condition, the location of the station and availability of experts in maintenance and operation of the station. Dimensions of the station must allow free movement for checking and operating pumps after installation of pumps and plumbing system.
Abstract: Hydraulic conductivity is one parameter important for predicting the movement of water and contaminants dissolved in the water through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity is measured on soil samples in the lab and sometimes tests carried out in the field. The hydraulic conductivity has been related to soil particle diameter by a number of investigators. In this study, 25 set of soil samples with sand texture. The results show approximately success in predicting hydraulic conductivity from particle diameters data. The following relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data (R2 = 0.52): Where d10, d50 and d60, are the soil particle diameter (mm) that 10%, 50% and 60% of all soil particles are finer (smaller) by weight and Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity is expressed in m/day. The results of regression analysis showed that d10 play a more significant role with respect to Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity (m/day), and has been named as the effective parameter in Ks calculation.
Abstract: Climate change is a cumulative change in weather
patterns over a period of time. Trend analysis using non-parametric
Mann-Kendall test may help to determine the existence and
magnitude of any statistically significant trend in the climatic data.
Another index called Sen slope may be used to quantify the
magnitude of such trends. A toolbar extension to ESRI ArcGIS
named Arc Trends has been developed in this study for performing
the above mentioned tasks. To study the temporal trend of
meteorological parameters, 32 years (1971-2002) monthly
meteorological data were collected for 133 selected stations over
different agro-ecological regions of India. Both the maximum and
minimum temperatures were found to be rising. A significant
increasing trend in the relative humidity and a consistent significant
decreasing trend in the wind speed all over the country were found.
However, a general increase in rainfall was not found in recent years.
Abstract: The usual method of river flow diversion involves construction of tunnels and cofferdams. Given the fact that the cost of diversion works could be as high as 10-20% of the total dam construction cost, due attention should be paid to optimum design of the diversion works. The cost of diversion works depends, on factors, such as: the tunnel dimensions and the intended tunneling support measures during and after excavation; quality and characterizes of the rock through which the tunnel should be excavated; the dimensions of the upstream (and downstream) cofferdams; and the magnitude of river flood the system is designed to divert. In this paper by use of the cost of unit prices for tunnel excavation, tunnel lining, tunnel support (rock bolt + shotcrete) and cofferdam fill the cost function was determined. The function is then minimized by the aid of PSO Algorithm (particle swarm optimization). It is found that the optimum diameter and the total diversion cost are directly related to the river flood discharge (Q). It has also shown that in addition to optimum diameter design discharge (Q), river length, tunnel length, is mainly a function of the ratios (not the absolute values) of the unit prices and does not depend on the overall price levels in the respective country. The results of optimization use in some of the case study lead us to significant changes in the cost.