#### International Journal of Engineering, Mathematical and Physical Sciences

ISSN: 2517-9934

Total 2581 content found

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## Solution of Two-Point Nonlinear Boundary Problems Using Taylor Series Approximation and the Ying Buzu Shu Algorithm

One of the major challenges faced in solving initial and boundary problems is how to find approximate solutions with minimal deviation from the exact solution without so much rigor and complications. The Taylor series method provides a simple way of obtaining an infinite series which converges to the exact solution for initial value problems and this method of solution is somewhat limited for a two point boundary problem since the infinite series has to be truncated to include the boundary conditions. In this paper, the Ying Buzu Shu algorithm is used to solve a two point boundary nonlinear diffusion problem for the fourth and sixth order solution and compare their relative error and rate of convergence to the exact solution.

## The Analysis of Different Classes of Weighted Fuzzy Petri Nets and Their Features

This paper presents the analysis of six different classes of Petri nets: fuzzy Petri nets (FPN), generalized fuzzy Petri nets (GFPN), parameterized fuzzy Petri nets (PFPN), T2GFPN, flexible generalized fuzzy Petri nets (FGFPN), binary Petri nets (BPN). These classes were simulated in the special software PNeS® for the analysis of its pros and cons on the example of models which are dedicated to the decision-making process of passenger transport logistics. The paper includes the analysis of two approaches: when input values are filled with the experts’ knowledge; when fuzzy expectations represented by output values are added to the point. These approaches fulfill the possibilities of triples of functions which are replaced with different combinations of t-/s-norms.

## Optimizing Data Evaluation Metrics for Fraud Detection Using Machine Learning

The use of technology has benefited society in more ways than one ever thought possible. Unfortunately, as society’s knowledge of technology has advanced, so has its knowledge of ways to use technology to manipulate others. This has led to a simultaneous advancement in the world of fraud. Machine learning techniques can offer a possible solution to help decrease these advancements. This research explores how the use of various machine learning techniques can aid in detecting fraudulent activity across two different types of fraudulent datasets, and the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 were recorded for each method. Each machine learning model was also tested across five different training and testing splits in order to discover which split and technique would lead to the most optimal results.

## The Possibility of Solving a 3x3 Rubik’s Cube under 3 Seconds

Rubik's cube was invented in 1974. Since then, speedcubers all over the world try their best to break the world record again and again. The newest record is 3.47 seconds. There are many factors that affect the timing including turns per second (tps), algorithm, finger trick, and hardware of the cube. In this paper, the lower bound of the cube solving time will be discussed using convex optimization. Extended analysis of the world records will be used to understand how to improve the timing. With the understanding of each part of the solving step, the paper suggests a list of speed improvement technique. Based on the analysis of the world record, there is a high possibility that the 3 seconds mark will be broken soon.

## Truck Routing Problem Considering Platooning and Drivers’ Breaks

Truck platooning refers to a convoy of digitally connected automated trucks traveling safely with a small inter-vehicle gap. It has been identified as one of the most promising and applicable technologies towards automated and sustainable freight transportation. Although truck platooning delivers significant energy-saving benefits, it cannot be realized without good coordination of drivers’ shifts to lead the platoons subject to their mandatory breaks. Therefore, this study aims to route a fleet of trucks to their destinations using the least amount of fuel by maximizing platoon opportunities under the regulations of drivers’ mandatory breaks. We formulate this platoon coordination problem as a mixed-integer linear programming problem and solve it by CPLEX. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed model. In addition, we also explore the impacts of drivers’ compulsory breaks on the fuel-savings performance. The results show a slight increase in the total fuel costs in the presence of drivers’ compulsory breaks, thanks to driving-while-resting benefit provided for the trailing trucks. This study may serve as a guide for the operators of automated freight transportation.

## Matrix Completion with Heterogeneous Observation Cost Using Sparsity-Number of Column-Space

The matrix completion problem has been studied broadly under many underlying conditions. In many real-life scenarios, we could expect elements from distinct columns or distinct positions to have a different cost. In this paper, we explore this generalization under adaptive conditions. We approach the problem under two different cost models. The first one is that entries from different columns have different observation costs, but, within the same column, each entry has a uniform cost. The second one is any two entry has different observation cost, despite being the same or different columns. We provide complexity analysis of our algorithms and provide tightness guarantees.

## JEWEL: A Cosmological Model Due to the Geometrical Displacement of Galactic Object Like Black, White and Worm Holes

Stellar objects such as black, white and worm holes can be the subject of speculative reasoning if represented in a simplified and geometric form in order to be able to move them; and the cosmological model is one of the most important contents in relation to speculations that can then open the way to other aspects that are not strictly speculative but practical, precisely in the Universe represented by us. In this work, thanks to the hypothesis of a very large number of black, white and worm holes present in our Universe, we imagine that they can be moved; it was therefore thought to align them on a plane and following a redistribution, and the boundaries of this plane were ideally joined, giving rise to a sphere that has the stellar objects examined radially distributed. Thanks to geometrical displacements of these stellar objects that do not make each one of them lose their functionality in the region in which they are located, at the end of the speculative process it is possible to highlight a spherical layer that allows a flow from the outside and inside this spherical shell allowing to relate to other external and internal spherical layers; this aspect that seems useful to describe the universe we live in, for example inside one of the spherical shells just described. The name "Jewel" was chosen because, imagining the speculative process present in this work at the end of steps, the cosmological model tends to be "luminous". This cosmological model includes, for each internal part of a generic layer, different and numerous moments of our universe thanks to an eternal flow inward. There are many aspects to explore, one of these is the connection between the outermost and the inside of the spherical layers.

## Using Statistical Significance and Prediction to Test Long/Short Term Public Services and Patients Cohorts: A Case Study in Scotland

Health and Social care (HSc) services planning and scheduling are facing unprecedented challenges, due to the pandemic pressure and also suffer from unplanned spending that is negatively impacted by the global financial crisis. Data-driven approaches can help to improve policies, plan and design services provision schedules using algorithms that assist healthcare managers to face unexpected demands using fewer resources. The paper discusses services packing using statistical significance tests and machine learning (ML) to evaluate demands similarity and coupling. This is achieved by predicting the range of the demand (class) using ML methods such as Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Random Forests (RF), and Logistic Regression (LGR). The significance tests Chi-Squared and Student’s test are used on data over a 39 years span for which data exist for services delivered in Scotland. The demands are associated using probabilities and are parts of statistical hypotheses. These hypotheses, as their NULL part, assume that the target demand is statistically dependent on other services’ demands. This linking is checked using the data. In addition, ML methods are used to linearly predict the above target demands from the statistically found associations and extend the linear dependence of the target’s demand to independent demands forming, thus, groups of services. Statistical tests confirmed ML coupling and made the prediction statistically meaningful and proved that a target service can be matched reliably to other services while ML showed that such marked relationships can also be linear ones. Zero padding was used for missing years records and illustrated better such relationships both for limited years and for the entire span offering long-term data visualizations while limited years periods explained how well patients numbers can be related in short periods of time or that they can change over time as opposed to behaviours across more years. The prediction performance of the associations were measured using metrics such as Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), Area Under Curve (AUC) and Accuracy (ACC) as well as the statistical tests Chi-Squared and Student. Co-plots and comparison tables for the RF, CART, and LGR methods as well as the p-value from tests and Information Exchange (IE/MIE) measures are provided showing the relative performance of ML methods and of the statistical tests as well as the behaviour using different learning ratios. The impact of k-neighbours classification (k-NN), Cross-Correlation (CC) and C-Means (CM) first groupings was also studied over limited years and for the entire span. It was found that CART was generally behind RF and LGR but in some interesting cases, LGR reached an AUC = 0 falling below CART, while the ACC was as high as 0.912 showing that ML methods can be confused by zero-padding or by data’s irregularities or by the outliers. On average, 3 linear predictors were sufficient, LGR was found competing well RF and CART followed with the same performance at higher learning ratios. Services were packed only when a significance level (p-value) of their association coefficient was more than 0.05. Social factors relationships were observed between home care services and treatment of old people, low birth weights, alcoholism, drug abuse, and emergency admissions. The work found  that different HSc services can be well packed as plans of limited duration, across various services sectors, learning configurations, as confirmed by using statistical hypotheses.

## A Large Dataset Imputation Approach Applied to Country Conflict Prediction Data

This study demonstrates an alternative stochastic imputation approach for large datasets when preferred commercial packages struggle to iterate due to numerical problems. A large country conflict dataset motivates the search to impute missing values well over a common threshold of 20% missingness. The methodology capitalizes on correlation while using model residuals to provide the uncertainty in estimating unknown values. Examination of the methodology provides insight toward choosing linear or nonlinear modeling terms. Static tolerances common in most packages are replaced with tailorable tolerances that exploit residuals to fit each data element. The methodology evaluation includes observing computation time, model fit, and the comparison of known  values to replaced values created through imputation. Overall, the country conflict dataset illustrates promise with modeling first-order interactions, while presenting a need for further refinement that mimics predictive mean matching.

## Development of Nondestructive Imaging Analysis Method Using Muonic X-Ray with a Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detector

In recent years, a nondestructive elemental analysis method based on muonic X-ray measurements has been developed and applied for various samples. Muonic X-rays are emitted after the formation of a muonic atom, which occurs when a negatively charged muon is captured in a muon atomic orbit around the nucleus. Because muonic X-rays have a higher energy than electronic X-rays due to the muon mass, they can be measured without being absorbed by a material. Thus, estimating the two-dimensional (2D) elemental distribution of a sample became possible using an X-ray imaging detector. In this work, we report a non-destructive imaging experiment using muonic X-rays at Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The irradiated target consisted of a polypropylene material, and a double-sided silicon strip detector, which was developed as an imaging detector for astronomical obervation, was employed. A peak corresponding to muonic X-rays from the carbon atoms in the target was clearly observed in the energy spectrum at an energy of 14 keV, and 2D visualizations were successfully reconstructed to reveal the projection image from the target. This result demonstrates the potential of the nondestructive elemental imaging method that is based on muonic X-ray measurement. To obtain a higher position resolution for imaging a smaller target, a new detector system will be developed to improve the statistical analysis in further research.

## On Deterministic Chaos: Disclosing the Missing Mathematics from the Lorenz-Haken Equations

The original 3D Lorenz-Haken equations -which describe laser dynamics- are converted into 2-second-order differential equations out of which the so far missing mathematics is extracted. Leaning on high-order trigonometry, important outcomes are pulled out: A fundamental result attributes chaos to forbidden periodic solutions, inside some precisely delimited region of the control parameter space that governs self-pulsing.

## Bound State Solutions of the Schrödinger Equation for Hulthen-Yukawa Potential in D-Dimensions

In this work, we used the Hulthen-Yukawa potential to obtain the bound state energy eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation in D-dimensions within the frame work of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. We demonstrated the graphical behaviour of the Hulthen and the Yukawa potential and investigated how the screening parameter and the potential depth affected the structure and the nature of the bound state eigenvalues. The results we obtained showed that increasing the screening parameter lowers the energy eigenvalues. Also, the eigenvalues acted as an inverse function of the potential depth. That is, increasing the potential depth reduces the energy eigenvalues.

## Freighter Aircraft Selection Using Entropic Programming for Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

This paper proposes entropic programming for the freighter aircraft selection problem using the multiple criteria decision analysis method. The study aims to propose a systematic and comprehensive framework by focusing on the perspective of freighter aircraft selection. In order to achieve this goal, an integrated entropic programming approach was proposed to evaluate and rank alternatives. The decision criteria and aircraft alternatives were identified from the research data analysis. The objective criteria weights were determined by the mean weight method and the standard deviation method. The proposed entropic programming model was applied to a practical decision problem for evaluating and selecting freighter aircraft. The proposed entropic programming technique gives robust, reliable, and efficient results in modeling decision making analysis problems. As a result of entropic programming analysis, Boeing B747-8F, a freighter aircraft alternative ( a3), was chosen as the most suitable freighter aircraft candidate.

## Strongly Coupled Finite Element Formulation of Electromechanical Systems with Integrated Mesh Morphing using Radial Basis Functions

The paper introduces a method to efficiently simulate nonlinear changing electrostatic fields occurring in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Large deflections of the capacitor electrodes usually introduce nonlinear electromechanical forces on the mechanical system. Traditional finite element methods require a time-consuming remeshing process to capture exact results for this physical domain interaction. In order to accelerate the simulation process and eliminate the remeshing process, a formulation of a strongly coupled electromechanical transducer element will be introduced which uses a combination of finite-element with an advanced mesh morphing technique using radial basis functions (RBF). The RBF allows large geometrical changes of the electric field domain while retain high element quality of the deformed mesh. Coupling effects between mechanical and electrical domains are directly included within the element formulation. Fringing field effects are described accurate by using traditional arbitrary shape functions.

## On the Algorithmic Iterative Solutions of Conjugate Gradient, Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Methods for Solving Systems of Linear Equations

In this paper, efforts were made to examine and compare the algorithmic iterative solutions of conjugate gradient method as against other methods such as Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi approaches for solving systems of linear equations of the form Ax = b, where A is a real n x n symmetric and positive definite matrix. We performed algorithmic iterative steps and obtained analytical solutions of a typical 3 x 3 symmetric and positive definite matrix using the three methods described in this paper (Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi and Conjugate Gradient methods) respectively. From the results obtained, we discovered that the Conjugate Gradient method converges faster to exact solutions in fewer iterative steps than the two other methods which took much iteration, much time and kept tending to the exact solutions.

## Adaptive Kalman Filter for Noise Estimation and Identification with Bayesian Approach

Bayesian approach can be used for parameter identification and extraction in state space models and its ability for analyzing sequence of data in dynamical system is proved in different literatures. In this paper, adaptive Kalman filter with Bayesian approach for identification of variances in measurement parameter noise is developed. Next, it is applied for estimation of the dynamical state and measurement data in discrete linear dynamical system. This algorithm at each step time estimates noise variance in measurement noise and state of system with Kalman filter. Next, approximation is designed at each step separately and consequently sufficient statistics of the state and noise variances are computed with a fixed-point iteration of an adaptive Kalman filter. Different simulations are applied for showing the influence of noise variance in measurement data on algorithm. Firstly, the effect of noise variance and its distribution on detection and identification performance is simulated in Kalman filter without Bayesian formulation. Then, simulation is applied to adaptive Kalman filter with the ability of noise variance tracking in measurement data. In these simulations, the influence of noise distribution of measurement data in each step is estimated, and true variance of data is obtained by algorithm and is compared in different scenarios. Afterwards, one typical modeling of nonlinear state space model with inducing noise measurement is simulated by this approach. Finally, the performance and the important limitations of this algorithm in these simulations are explained.

## Military Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Multiplicative Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Multiplicative multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) method is a systematic decision support system to aid decision makers reach appropriate decisions. The application of multiplicative MCDMA in the military aircraft selection problem is significant for proper decision making process, which is the decisive factor in minimizing expenditures and increasing defense capability and capacity. Nine military fighter aircraft alternatives were evaluated by ten decision criteria to solve the decision making problem. In this study, multiplicative MCDMA model aims to evaluate and select an appropriate military fighter aircraft for the Air Force fleet planning. The ranking results of multiplicative MCDMA model were compared with the ranking results of additive MCDMA, logarithmic MCDMA, and regrettive MCDMA models under the L2 norm data normalization technique to substantiate the robustness of the proposed method. The final ranking results indicate the military fighter aircraft Su-57 as the best available solution.

## Discrete Breeding Swarm for Cost Minimization of Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Parallel Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is a multi-objective and multi constrains NP-optimization problem. Traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques have been widely used; however, they could be trapped into the local minimum without reaching the optimum solution. Thus, we propose a hybrid Artificial Intelligence (AI) model with Discrete Breeding Swarm (DBS) added to traditional AI to avoid this trapping. This model is applied in the cost minimization of the Car Sequencing and Operator Allocation (CSOA) problem. The practical experiment shows that our model outperforms other techniques in cost minimization.

## The Contribution of Edgeworth, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Methods in Financial Data

Edgeworth Approximation, Bootstrap and Monte Carlo Simulations have a considerable impact on the achieving certain results related to different problems taken into study. In our paper, we have treated a financial case related to the effect that have the components of a Cash-Flow of one of the most successful businesses in the world, as the financial activity, operational activity and investing activity to the cash and cash equivalents at the end of the three-months period. To have a better view of this case we have created a Vector Autoregression model, and after that we have generated the impulse responses in the terms of Asymptotic Analysis (Edgeworth Approximation), Monte Carlo Simulations and Residual Bootstrap based on the standard errors of every series created. The generated results consisted of the common tendencies for the three methods applied, that consequently verified the advantage of the three methods in the optimization of the model that contains many variants.

## De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.