Closed form Delay Model for on-Chip VLSIRLCG Interconnects for Ramp Input for Different Damping Conditions

Fast delay estimation methods, as opposed to simulation techniques, are needed for incremental performance driven layout synthesis. On-chip inductive effects are becoming predominant in deep submicron interconnects due to increasing clock speed and circuit complexity. Inductance causes noise in signal waveforms, which can adversely affect the performance of the circuit and signal integrity. Several approaches have been put forward which consider the inductance for on-chip interconnect modelling. But for even much higher frequency, of the order of few GHz, the shunt dielectric lossy component has become comparable to that of other electrical parameters for high speed VLSI design. In order to cope up with this effect, on-chip interconnect has to be modelled as distributed RLCG line. Elmore delay based methods, although efficient, cannot accurately estimate the delay for RLCG interconnect line. In this paper, an accurate analytical delay model has been derived, based on first and second moments of RLCG interconnection lines. The proposed model considers both the effect of inductance and conductance matrices. We have performed the simulation in 0.18μm technology node and an error of as low as less as 5% has been achieved with the proposed model when compared to SPICE. The importance of the conductance matrices in interconnect modelling has also been discussed and it is shown that if G is neglected for interconnect line modelling, then it will result an delay error of as high as 6% when compared to SPICE.

Performance Analysis of MIMO Based Multi-User Cooperation Diversity Over Various Fading Channels

In this paper, hybrid FDMA-TDMA access technique in a cooperative distributive fashion introducing and implementing a modified protocol introduced in [1] is analyzed termed as Power and Cooperation Diversity Gain Protocol (PCDGP). A wireless network consists of two users terminal , two relays and a destination terminal equipped with two antennas. The relays are operating in amplify-and-forward (AF) mode with a fixed gain. Two operating modes: cooperation-gain mode and powergain mode are exploited from source terminals to relays, as it is working in a best channel selection scheme. Vertical BLAST (Bell Laboratories Layered Space Time) or V-BLAST with minimum mean square error (MMSE) nulling is used at the relays to perfectly detect the joint signals from multiple source terminals. The performance is analyzed using binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme and investigated over independent and identical (i.i.d) Rayleigh, Ricean-K and Nakagami-m fading environments. Subsequently, simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide better signal quality of uplink users in a cooperative communication system using hybrid FDMATDMA technique.

Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Study on the Evaluation of the Chaotic Cipher System Using the Improved Volterra Filters and the RBFN Mapping

In this paper, we propose a chaotic cipher system consisting of Improved Volterra Filters and the mapping that is created from the actual voice by using Radial Basis Function Network. In order to achieve a practical system, the system supposes to use the digital communication line, such as the Internet, to maintain the parameter matching between the transmitter and receiver sides. Therefore, in order to withstand the attack from outside, it is necessary that complicate the internal state and improve the sensitivity coefficient. In this paper, we validate the robustness of proposed method from three perspectives of "Chaotic properties", "Randomness", "Coefficient sensitivity".

Analysis of Delay and Throughput in MANET for DSR Protocol

A wireless Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration, in which all nodes potentially contribute to the routing process.In this paper, we report the simulation results of four different scenarios for wireless ad hoc networks having thirty nodes. The performances of proposed networks are evaluated in terms of number of hops per route, delay and throughput with the help of OPNET simulator. Channel speed 1 Mbps and simulation time 600 sim-seconds were taken for all scenarios. For the above analysis DSR routing protocols has been used. The throughput obtained from the above analysis (four scenario) are compared as shown in Figure 3. The average media access delay at node_20 for two routes and at node_20 for four different scenario are compared as shown in Figures 4 and 5. It is observed that the throughput will degrade when it will follow different hops for same source to destination (i.e. it has dropped from 1.55 Mbps to 1.43 Mbps which is around 9.7%, and then dropped to 0.48Mbps which is around 35%).

In Search of an SVD and QRcp Based Optimization Technique of ANN for Automatic Classification of Abnormal Heart Sounds

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been extensively used for classification of heart sounds for its discriminative training ability and easy implementation. However, it suffers from overparameterization if the number of nodes is not chosen properly. In such cases, when the dataset has redundancy within it, ANN is trained along with this redundant information that results in poor validation. Also a larger network means more computational expense resulting more hardware and time related cost. Therefore, an optimum design of neural network is needed towards real-time detection of pathological patterns, if any from heart sound signal. The aims of this work are to (i) select a set of input features that are effective for identification of heart sound signals and (ii) make certain optimum selection of nodes in the hidden layer for a more effective ANN structure. Here, we present an optimization technique that involves Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and QR factorization with column pivoting (QRcp) methodology to optimize empirically chosen over-parameterized ANN structure. Input nodes present in ANN structure is optimized by SVD followed by QRcp while only SVD is required to prune undesirable hidden nodes. The result is presented for classifying 12 common pathological cases and normal heart sound.

A New Digital Transceiver Circuit for Asynchronous Communication

A new digital transceiver circuit for asynchronous frame detection is proposed where both the transmitter and receiver contain all digital components, thereby avoiding possible use of conventional devices like monostable multivibrators with unstable external components such as resistances and capacitances. The proposed receiver circuit, in particular, uses a combinational logic block yielding an output which changes its state as soon as the start bit of a new frame is detected. This, in turn, helps in generating an efficient receiver sampling clock. A data latching circuit is also used in the receiver to latch the recovered data bits in any new frame. The proposed receiver structure is also extended from 4- bit information to any general n data bits within a frame with a common expression for the output of the combinational logic block. Performance of the proposed hardware design is evaluated in terms of time delay, reliability and robustness in comparison with the standard schemes using monostable multivibrators. It is observed from hardware implementation that the proposed circuit achieves almost 33 percent speed up over any conventional circuit.

Electronic System Design for Respiratory Signal Processing

This paper presents the design related to the electronic system design of the respiratory signal, including phases for processing, followed by the transmission and reception of this signal and finally display. The processing of this signal is added to the ECG and temperature sign, put up last year. Under this scheme is proposed that in future also be conditioned blood pressure signal under the same final printed circuit and worked.

Transmission Performance of Millimeter Wave Multiband OFDM UWB Wireless Signal over Fiber System

Performance of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultrawideband (UWB) signal generation using frequency quadrupling technique and transmission over fiber is experimentally investigated. The frequency quadrupling is achived by using only one Mach- Zehnder modulator (MZM) that is biased at maximum transmission (MATB) point. At the output, a frequency quadrupling signal is obtained then sent to a second MZM. This MZM is used for MBOFDM UWB signal modulation. In this work, we demonstrate 30- GHz mm-wave wireless that carries three-bands OFDM UWB signals, and error vector magnitude (EVM) is used to analyze the transmission quality. It is found that our proposed technique leads to an improvement of 3.5 dB in EVM at 40% of local oscillator (LO) modulation with comparison to the technique using two cascaded MZMs biased at minimum transmission (MITB) point.

Matrix-Interleaved Serially Concatenated Block Codes for Speech Transmission in Fixed Wireless Communication Systems

In this paper, we study a class of serially concatenated block codes (SCBC) based on matrix interleavers, to be employed in fixed wireless communication systems. The performances of SCBC¬coded systems are investigated under various interleaver dimensions. Numerical results reveal that the matrix interleaver could be a competitive candidate over conventional block interleaver for frame lengths of 200 bits; hence, the SCBC coding based on matrix interleaver is a promising technique to be employed for speech transmission applications in many international standards such as pan-European Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), Digital Cellular Systems (DCS) 1800, and Joint Detection Code Division Multiple Access (JD-CDMA) mobile radio systems, where the speech frame contains around 200 bits.

Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

A Neural-Network-Based Fault Diagnosis Approach for Analog Circuits by Using Wavelet Transformation and Fractal Dimension as a Preprocessor

This paper presents a new method of analog fault diagnosis based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs) using wavelet decomposition and fractal dimension as preprocessors. The proposed method has the capability to detect and identify faulty components in an analog electronic circuit with tolerance by analyzing its impulse response. Using wavelet decomposition to preprocess the impulse response drastically de-noises the inputs to the neural network. The second preprocessing by fractal dimension can extract unique features, which are the fed to a neural network as inputs for further classification. A comparison of our work with [1] and [6], which also employs back-propagation (BP) neural networks, reveals that our system requires a much smaller network and performs significantly better in fault diagnosis of analog circuits due to our proposed preprocessing techniques.

Analyzing and Comparing the Hot-spot Thermal Models of HV/LV Prefabricated and Outdoor Oil-Immersed Power Transformers

The most important parameter in transformers life expectancy is the hot-spot temperature level which accelerates the rate of aging of the insulation. The aim of this paper is to present thermal models for transformers loaded at prefabricated MV/LV transformer substations and outdoor situations. The hot-spot temperature of transformers is studied using their top-oil temperature rise models. The thermal models proposed for hot-spot and top-oil temperatures of different operating situations are compared. Since the thermal transfer is different for indoor and outdoor transformers considering their operating conditions, their hot-spot thermal models differ from each other. The proposed thermal models are verified by the results obtained from the experiments carried out on a typical 1600 kVA, 30 /0.4 kV, ONAN transformer for both indoor and outdoor situations.

A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Robust Detection of R-Wave Using Wavelet Technique

Electrocardiogram (ECG) is considered to be the backbone of cardiology. ECG is composed of P, QRS & T waves and information related to cardiac diseases can be extracted from the intervals and amplitudes of these waves. The first step in extracting ECG features starts from the accurate detection of R peaks in the QRS complex. We have developed a robust R wave detector using wavelets. The wavelets used for detection are Daubechies and Symmetric. The method does not require any preprocessing therefore, only needs the ECG correct recordings while implementing the detection. The database has been collected from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and the signals from Lead-II have been analyzed. MatLab 7.0 has been used to develop the algorithm. The ECG signal under test has been decomposed to the required level using the selected wavelet and the selection of detail coefficient d4 has been done based on energy, frequency and cross-correlation analysis of decomposition structure of ECG signal. The robustness of the method is apparent from the obtained results.

A Control Strategy Based on UTT and ISCT for 3P4W UPQC

This paper presents a novel control strategy of a threephase four-wire Unified Power Quality (UPQC) for an improvement in power quality. The UPQC is realized by integration of series and shunt active power filters (APFs) sharing a common dc bus capacitor. The shunt APF is realized using a thee-phase, four leg voltage source inverter (VSI) and the series APF is realized using a three-phase, three leg VSI. A control technique based on unit vector template technique (UTT) is used to get the reference signals for series APF, while instantaneous sequence component theory (ISCT) is used for the control of Shunt APF. The performance of the implemented control algorithm is evaluated in terms of power-factor correction, load balancing, neutral source current mitigation and mitigation of voltage and current harmonics, voltage sag and swell in a three-phase four-wire distribution system for different combination of linear and non-linear loads. In this proposed control scheme of UPQC, the current/voltage control is applied over the fundamental supply currents/voltages instead of fast changing APFs currents/voltages, there by reducing the computational delay and the required sensors. MATLAB/Simulink based simulations are obtained, which support the functionality of the UPQC. MATLAB/Simulink based simulations are obtained, which support the functionality of the UPQC.

Routing in Mobile Wireless Networks for Realtime Multimedia Applications- Reuse of Virtual Circuits

Routing places an important role in determining the quality of service in wireless networks. The routing methods adopted in wireless networks have many drawbacks. This paper aims to review the current routing methods used in wireless networks. This paper proposes an innovative solution to overcome the problems in routing. This solution is aimed at improving the Quality of Service. This solution is different from others as it involves the resuage of the part of the virtual circuits. This improvement in quality of service is important especially in propagation of multimedia applications like video, animations etc. So it is the dire need to propose a new solution to improve the quality of service in ATM wireless networks for multimedia applications especially during this era of multimedia based applications.

Wafer Fab Operational Cost Monitoring and Controlling with Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out

This paper presents Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, which we find useful in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling. It removes the loading and product mix effect in the cost variance analysis. The operation heads, therefore, could immediately focus on identifying areas for cost improvement. Without this, they would have to measure the impact of the loading variance and product mix variance between actual and budgeted prior to make any decision on cost improvement. Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, thereby, increases efficiency in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling.

Grooved Linear Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

A simple impedance matching technique for inset feed grooved microstrip patch antenna based on the concept of coplanar waveguide feed line has been developed and investigated for a printed antenna at X-Band frequency of 10GHz. The proposed technique has been used in the design of Linear Grooved Microstrip patch antenna array. The characteristics of the antenna are determined in terms of Return loss, VSWR, gain, radiation pattern etc. The measured and simulated results presented are found to be in good agreement.