Abstract: The increasing influence of traffic on building
objects and people residing in them should be taken into account in
diagnosis and design. Users of buildings expect that vibrations
occurring in their environment, will not only lead to damage to the
building or its accelerated wear, but neither would affect the required
comfort in rooms designed to accommodate people. This article
describes the methods and principles useful in designing and building
diagnostics located near transportation routes, with particular
emphasis on the impact of traffic vibration on people in buildings. It
also describes the procedures used in obtaining information about the
parameters of vibrations in different cases of diagnostics and design.
A universal algorithm of procedure in diagnostics and design of
buildings taking into account assurance of human vibration comfort
of people residing in the these buildings was presented.
Abstract: In the paper, the results of sensitivity analysis of the influence of initial imperfections on the web stress state of a thinwalled girder are presented. The results of the study corroborate a very good and effective agreement of experiments with theory. Most input random quantities were found experimentally. The change of sensitivity coefficients in dependence on working load value is analysed. The stress was analysed by means of a geometrically and materially non-linear solution by applying the program ANSYS. This research study offers important background for theoretical studies of stability problems, post-critical effects and limit states of thin-walled steel structures.
Abstract: The oil and gas industry has moved towards Load and
Resistance Factor Design through API RP2A - LRFD and the
recently published international standard, ISO-19902, for design of
fixed steel offshore structures. The ISO 19902 is intended to provide
a harmonized design practice that offers a balanced structural fitness
for the purpose, economy and safety. As part of an ongoing work, the
reliability analysis of tubular joints of the jacket structure has been
carried out to calibrate the load and resistance factors for the design
of offshore platforms in Malaysia, as proposed in the ISO.
Probabilistic models have been established for the load effects (wave,
wind and current) and the tubular joints strengths. In this study the
First Order Reliability Method (FORM), coded in MATLAB
Software has been employed to evaluate the reliability index of the
typical joints, designed using API RP2A - WSD and ISO 19902.
Abstract: This research is a comparative study of complexity, as a multidimensional concept, in the context of streetscape composition in Algeria and Japan. 80 streetscapes visual arrays have been collected and then presented to 20 participants, with different cultural backgrounds, in order to be categorized and classified according to their degrees of complexity. Three analysis methods have been used in this research: cluster analysis, ranking method and Hayashi Quantification method (Method III). The results showed that complexity, disorder, irregularity and disorganization are often conflicting concepts in the urban context. Algerian daytime streetscapes seem to be balanced, ordered and regular, and Japanese daytime streetscapes seem to be unbalanced, regular and vivid. Variety, richness and irregularity with some aspects of order and organization seem to characterize Algerian night streetscapes. Japanese night streetscapes seem to be more related to balance, regularity, order and organization with some aspects of confusion and ambiguity. Complexity characterized mainly Algerian avenues with green infrastructure. Therefore, for Japanese participants, Japanese traditional night streetscapes were complex. And for foreigners, Algerian and Japanese avenues nightscapes were the most complex visual arrays.
Abstract: A research program is conducted to evaluate the
mechanical properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete, target
compressive strength at the age of 28 days being more than 150 MPa.
The methodology to develop such mix has been explained. The
material properties, mix design and curing regime are determined.
The material attributes are understood by studying the stress strain
behaviour of UHPC cylinders under uniaxial compressive loading.
The load –crack mouth opening displacement (cmod) of UHPC
beams, flexural strength and fracture energy was evaluated using
third point loading test. Compressive strength and Split tensile
strength results are determined to find out the compressive and tensile
behaviour. Residual strength parameters are presented vividly
explaining the flexural performance, toughness of concrete.Durability
studies were also done to compare the effect of fibre to that of a
control mix For all the studies the Mechanical properties were
evaluated by varying the percentage and aspect ratio of steel fibres
The results reflected that higher aspect ratio and fibre volume
produced drastic changes in the cube strength, cylinder strength, post
peak response, load-cmod, fracture energy flexural strength, split
tensile strength, residual strength and durability. In regards to null
application of UHPC in India, an initiative is undertaken to
comprehend the mechanical behaviour of UHPC, which will be vital
for longer run in commercialization for structural applications.
Abstract: Since prestressed concrete members rely on the tensile
strength of the prestressing strands to resist loads, loss of even few
them could result catastrophic. Therefore, it is important to measure
present residual prestress force. Although there are some techniques
for obtaining present prestress force, some problems still remain. One
method is to install load cell in front of anchor head but this may
increase cost. Load cell is a transducer using the elastic material
property. Anchor head is also an elastic material and this might result
in monitoring monitor present prestress force. Features of fiber optic
sensor such as small size, great sensitivity, high durability can assign
sensing function to anchor head. This paper presents the concept of
smart anchor head which acts as load cell and experiment for the
applicability of it. Test results showed the smart anchor head worked
good and strong linear relationship between load and response.
Abstract: Four design alternatives for lateral force-resisting
systems of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE are presented. Quantitative
comparisons between the different designs are also made. This paper
is intended to provide different feasible lateral systems to be used in
Dubai in light of the available seismic hazard studies of the UAE.
The different lateral systems are chosen in conformance with the
International Building Code (IBC). Moreover, the expected behavior
of each system is highlighted and light is shed on some of the cost
implications associated with lateral system selection.
Abstract: The use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling
for prediction and forecasting variables in water resources
engineering are being increasing rapidly. Infrastructural applications
of ANN in terms of selection of inputs, architecture of networks,
training algorithms, and selection of training parameters in different
types of neural networks used in water resources engineering have
been reported. ANN modeling conducted for water resources
engineering variables (river sediment and discharge) published in
high impact journals since 2002 to 2011 have been examined and
presented in this review. ANN is a vigorous technique to develop
immense relationship between the input and output variables, and
able to extract complex behavior between the water resources
variables such as river sediment and discharge. It can produce robust
prediction results for many of the water resources engineering
problems by appropriate learning from a set of examples. It is
important to have a good understanding of the input and output
variables from a statistical analysis of the data before network
modeling, which can facilitate to design an efficient network. An
appropriate training based ANN model is able to adopt the physical
understanding between the variables and may generate more effective
results than conventional prediction techniques.
Abstract: The expansive nature of soils containing high
amounts of clay minerals can be altered through chemical
stabilization, resulting in a material suitable for construction
purposes. The primary objective of this investigation was to
study the changes induced in the molecular structure of
phosphoric acid stabilized bentonite and lateritic soil using
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform
Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on the obtained data, it
was found that a surface alteration mechanism was the main
reason responsible for the improvement of treated soils.
Furthermore, the results indicated that the Al present in the
octahedral layer of clay minerals were more amenable to
chemical attacks and also partly responsible for the formation
of new products.
Abstract: In this work, the plate bending formulation of the boundary element method - BEM, based on the Reissner?s hypothesis, is extended to the analysis of plates reinforced by beams taking into account the membrane effects. The formulation is derived by assuming a zoned body where each sub-region defines a beam or a slab and all of them are represented by a chosen reference surface. Equilibrium and compatibility conditions are automatically imposed by the integral equations, which treat this composed structure as a single body. In order to reduce the number of degrees of freedom, the problem values defined on the interfaces are written in terms of their values on the beam axis. Initially are derived separated equations for the bending and stretching problems, but in the final system of equations the two problems are coupled and can not be treated separately. Finally are presented some numerical examples whose analytical results are known to show the accuracy of the proposed model.
Abstract: Over a million tonnes of cigarette butts (CBs) are produced worldwide annually. These CBs accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters and pose a serious environmental risk. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Properties including compressive strength, flexural strength, density, water absorption and thermal conductivity of fired clay bricks are reported and discussed. Furthermore, leaching of heavy metals from the manufactured clay bricks was tested. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by about 8 – 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. The compressive strength of bricks tested was 12.57, 5.22 and 3.00 MPa for 2.5, 5.0 and 10 % CB content respectively. Water absorption and initial rate of absorption values increased as density, and hence porosity, of bricks decreased with increasing CB volume. The leaching test results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.
Abstract: For this study, this researcher conducted a precision
network adjustment with QOCA, the precision network adjustment
software developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to perform an
integrated network adjustment on the Unified Control Points managed
by the National Geographic Information Institute. Towards this end,
275 Unified Control Points observed in 2008 were selected before a
network adjustment is performed on those 275 Unified Control Points.
The RMSE on the discrepancies of coordinates as compared to the
results of GLOBK was ±6.07mm along the N axis, ±2.68mm along the
E axis and ±6.49mm along the U axis.
Abstract: Design for Disassembly (DfD) aims to reuse the
structural components instead of demolition followed by recycling of
the demolition debris. This concept preserves the invested embodied
energy of materials, thus reducing inputs of new embodied energy
during materials reprocessing or remanufacturing. Both analytical and
experimental research on a proposed DfD beam-column connection
for use in residential apartments is currently investigated at the
National University of Singapore in collaboration with the Housing
and Development Board of Singapore. The present study reports on
the results of a numerical analysis of the proposed connection utilizing
finite element analysis. The numerical model was calibrated and
validated by comparison against experimental results. Results of a
parametric study will also be presented and discussed.
Abstract: A concrete structure is designed and constructed for its
purpose of use, and is expected to maintain its function for the target
durable years from when it was planned. Nevertheless, as time elapses
the structure gradually deteriorates and then eventually degrades to the
point where the structure cannot exert the function for which it was
planned. The performance of concrete that is able to maintain the level
of the performance required over the designed period of use as it has
less deterioration caused by the elapse of time under the designed
condition is referred to as Durability. There are a number of causes of
durability degradation, but especially chloride damage, carbonation,
freeze-thaw, etc are the main causes. In this study, carbonation, one of
the main causes of deterioration of the durability of a concrete
structure, was investigated via a microstructure analysis technique.
The method for the measurement of carbonation was studied using the
existing indicator method, and the method of measuring the progress
of carbonation in a quantitative manner was simultaneously studied
using a FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared) Spectrometer along with
the microstructure analysis technique.
Abstract: Many footbridges have natural frequencies that
coincide with the dominant frequencies of the pedestrian-induced
load and therefore they have a potential to suffer excessive vibrations
under dynamic loads induced by pedestrians. Some of the design
standards introduce load models for pedestrian loads applicable for
simple structures. Load modeling for more complex structures, on the
other hand, is most often left to the designer. The main focus of this
paper is on the human induced forces transmitted to a footbridge and
on the ways these loads can be modeled to be used in the dynamic
design of footbridges. Also design criteria and load models proposed
by widely used standards were introduced and a comparison was
made. The dynamic analysis of the suspension bridge in Kolin in the
Czech Republic was performed on detailed FEM model using the
ANSYS program system. An attempt to model the load imposed by a
single person and a crowd of pedestrians resulted in displacements
and accelerations that are compared with serviceability criteria.
Abstract: Many computational techniques were applied to
solution of heat conduction problem. Those techniques were the
finite difference (FD), finite element (FE) and recently meshless
methods. FE is commonly used in solution of equation of heat
conduction problem based on the summation of stiffness matrix of
elements and the solution of the final system of equations. Because
of summation process of finite element, convergence rate was
decreased. Hence in the present paper Cellular Automata (CA)
approach is presented for the solution of heat conduction problem.
Each cell considered as a fixed point in a regular grid lead to the
solution of a system of equations is substituted by discrete systems of
equations with small dimensions. Results show that CA can be used
for solution of heat conduction problem.
Abstract: In this study, active tendons with Proportional Integral
Derivation type controllers were applied to a SDOF and a MDOF
building model. Physical models of buildings were constituted with
virtual springs, dampers and rigid masses. After that, equations of
motion of all degrees of freedoms were obtained. Matlab Simulink
was utilized to obtain the block diagrams for these equations of
motion. Parameters for controller actions were found by using a trial
method. After earthquake acceleration data were applied to the
systems, building characteristics such as displacements, velocities,
accelerations and transfer functions were analyzed for all degrees of
freedoms. Comparisons on displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time,
acceleration vs. time and transfer function (Db) vs. frequency (Hz)
were made for uncontrolled and controlled buildings. The results
show that the method seems feasible.
Abstract: There is a acute water problem especially in the dry
season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India)
where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was
made to use the waste water from tannery industry for construction
purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength,
tensile strength, flexural strength etc were studied by casting various
concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams etc and
were found to be satisfactory. Hence some special properties such as
chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack are considered
and comparatively studied with the conventional potable water. In
this experimental study the results of specimens prepared by using
treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the
concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed
that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to
chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures
were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the
adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory.
Abstract: Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a
free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is
simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation
conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial
compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the
local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal
impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic
sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In
addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more
suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression
and recovery processes.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the adjust-
ment of solar shading devices in office buildings in two different
seasons by occupants, and its influence on the lighting control and
indoor illuminance levels. The results show that occupants take
inappropriate measures both in reducing solar radiation in summer
and in admitting solar gains in winter, resulting in an increase in
lighting energy and a reduction in indoor illuminance. Therefore,
movable shading devices, controlled automatically, are suitable for
building applications to reduce energy consumption.