Characterization of Microroughness Parameters in Cu and Cu2O Nanoparticles Embedded in Carbon Film

The morphological parameter of a thin film surface can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such information, roughness contributions of the surface have been successfully extracted.

Experimental Design and Performance Analysis in Plasma Arc Surface Hardening

In this paper, the experimental design of using the Taguchi method is employed to optimize the processing parameters in the plasma arc surface hardening process. The processing parameters evaluated are arc current, scanning velocity and carbon content of steel. In addition, other significant effects such as the relation between processing parameters are also investigated. An orthogonal array, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to investigate the effects of these processing parameters. Through this study, not only the hardened depth increased and surface roughness improved, but also the parameters that significantly affect the hardening performance are identified. Experimental results are provided to verify the effectiveness of this approach.

Curing Methods Yield Multiple Refractive Index of Benzocyclobutene Polymer Film

Refractive index control of benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) is achieved by facilitating different conditions during the thermal curing of BCB film. Refractive index (RI) change of 1.49% is obtained with curing of BCB film using an oven, while the RI change is 0.1% when the BCB is cured using a hotplate. The two different curing methods exhibit a temperature dependent refractive index change of the BCB photosensitive polymer. By carefully controlling the curing conditions, multiple layers of BCB with different RI can be fabricated, which can then be applied in the fabrication of optical waveguides.

Physical and Chemical Investigation of Polycaprolactone, Nanohydroxyapatite and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Nanocomposite Scaffolds

Aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds of PVA/PCL/nHA were fabricated by electrospinning method. The composite nanofibrous scaffolds were subjected to detailed analysis. Morphological investigations revealed that the prepared nanofibers have uniform morphology and the average fiber diameters of aligned and random scaffolds were 135.5 and 290 nm, respectively. The obtained scaffolds have a porous structure with porosity of 88 and 76% for random and aligned nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, FTIR analysis demonstrated that there were strong intramolecular interactions between the molecules of PVA/PCL/nHA. On the other hand, mechanical characterizations show that aligning the nanofibers, could significantly improve the rigidity of the resultant biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds.

Numerical Simulation of Investment Casting of Gold Jewelry: Experiments and Validations

This paper proposes the numerical simulation of the investment casting of gold jewelry. It aims to study the behavior of fluid flow during mould filling and solidification and to optimize the process parameters, which lead to predict and control casting defects such as gas porosity and shrinkage porosity. A finite difference method, computer simulation software FLOW-3D was used to simulate the jewelry casting process. The simplified model was designed for both numerical simulation and real casting production. A set of sensor acquisitions were allocated on the different positions of the wax tree of the model to detect filling times, while a set of thermocouples were allocated to detect the temperature during casting and cooling. Those detected data were applied to validate the results of the numerical simulation to the results of the real casting. The resulting comparisons signify that the numerical simulation can be used as an effective tool in investment-casting-process optimization and casting-defect prediction.

Novel PES Membrane Reinforced by Nano-WS2 for Enhanced Fouling Resistance

Application of nanoparticles as additives in membrane synthesis for improving the resistance of membranes against fouling has triggered recent interest in new membrane types. However, most nanoparticle-enhanced membranes suffer from the tradeoff between permeability and selectivity. In this study, nano-WS2 was explored as the additive in membrane synthesis by non-solvent induced phase separation. Blended PES-WS2 flat-sheet membranes with the incorporation of ultra-low concentrations of nanoparticles (from 0.025 to 0.25%, WS2/PES ratio) were manufactured and investigated in terms of permeability, fouling resistance and solute rejection. Remarkably, a significant enhancement in the permeability was observed as a result of the incorporation of ultra-low fractions of nano-WS2 to the membrane structure. Optimal permeability values were obtained for modified membranes with 0.10% nanoparticle/polymer concentration ratios. Furthermore, fouling resistance and solute rejection were significantly improved by the incorporation of nanoparticles into the membrane matrix. Specifically, fouling resistance of modified membrane can increase by around 50%.

Insertion of Thiazolidinediones into Carbon Nanotube

In this study we investigate the insertion of pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic effects.

Springback Property and Texture Distribution of Grained Pure Copper

To improve the material characteristics of single- and poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also analyzed. A grain refinement procedure was performed to obtain a grained structure. Furthermore, some analytical results related to crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from SEM-EBSD analyses. Results showed that these grained metallic materials have peculiar springback characteristics with various bending angles.

Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, and Metallurgical Transformations in Arc Welding: Application to 16MND5 Steel

Arc welding creates a weld pool to realize continuity between pieces of assembly. The thermal history of the weld is dependent on heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool. The metallurgical transformation during welding and cooling are modeled in the literature only at solid state neglecting the fluid flow. In the present paper we associate a heat transfer – fluid flow and metallurgical model for the 16MnD5 steel. The metallurgical transformation model is based on Leblond model for the diffusion kinetics and on the Koistinen-Marburger equation for Marteniste transformation. The predicted thermal history and metallurgical transformations are compared to a simulation without fluid phase. This comparison shows the great importance of the fluid flow modeling.

Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate

Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.

Physico-Mechanical Properties of Jute-Coir Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Polypropylene Composites

The term hybrid composite refers to the composite containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers. It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to filler loading variation. In the present work composites were manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural, impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests, the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite resulted the best set of mechanical properties.

Mathematical Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation: A Review

In the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method, use of Carbon dioxide flooding whereby CO2 is injected into an oil reservoir to increase output when extracting oil resulted significant recovery worldwide. The carbon dioxide function as a pressurizing agent when mixed into the underground crude oil will reduce its viscosity and will enable a rapid oil flow. Despite the CO2’s advantage in the oil recovery, it may result to asphaltene precipitation a problem that will cause the reduction of oil produced from oil wells. In severe cases, asphaltene precipitation can cause costly blockages in oil pipes and machinery. This paper presents reviews of several studies done on mathematical modeling of asphaltene precipitation. The synthesized result from several researches done on this topic can be used as guide in order to better understand asphaltene precipitation. Likewise, this can be used as initial reference for students, and new researchers doing study on asphaltene precipitation.

Mechanical Properties of Particle Boards from Maize Cob and Urea-Formaldehyde Resin

Particle boards were prepared from Maize cob (MC) and urea-formaldehyde resin (UFR) on compression moulding machine. The amount of MC was varied from 50-120g while 30g of UFR was kept constant. Some mechanical properties of the particle boards were tested using the standard ASM methods. The results show that as the MC content increased from 50- 120g in 30g UFR, the hardness increased from about 6.89 x 102 to7.51 x 102MPa. Impact strength decreased from 3.3x 10-2 to 0.45 x 10-2J/M2, while tensile strength initially increased from 2.63 x 102 to 3.14 x 102 MPa as the MC increased from 50 to 60g in 30g UFR, thereafter, it decreased to about 1.35 x 102MPa at 120g in 30g content.

The Sequestration of Heavy Metals Contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area using Natural Zeolite

For more than 120 years, gold mining formed the backbone the South Africa-s economy. The consequence of mine closure was observed in large-scale land degradation and widespread pollution of surface water and groundwater. This paper investigates the feasibility of using natural zeolite in removing heavy metals contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA), a water stream with high levels of heavy metals and radionuclide pollution. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption behavior of natural zeolite with respect to Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. The data was analysed using the Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms. Langmuir was found to correlate the adsorption of Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ better, with the adsorption capacity of 11.9 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g, 1.3 mg/g, and 14.7 mg/g, respectively. Two kinetic models namely, pseudo-first order and pseudo second order were also tested to fit the data. Pseudo-second order equation was found to be the best fit for the adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite. Zeolite functionalization with humic acid increased its uptake ability.

The Role of Ga to Improve AlN-Nucleation Layer for Al0.1Ga0.9N/Si(111)

Group-III nitride material as particularly AlxGa1-xN is one of promising optoelectronic materials to require for shortwavelength devices. To achieve the high-quality AlxGa1-xN films for a high performance of such devices, AlN-nucleation layers are the important factor. To improve the AlN-nucleation layers with a variation of Ga-addition, XRD measurements were conducted to analyze the crystalline quality of the subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N with the minimum ω-FWHMs of (0002) and (10-10) reflections of 425 arcsec and 750 arcsec, respectively. SEM and AFM measurements were performed to observe the surface morphology and TEM measurements to identify the microstructures and orientations. Results showed that the optimized Ga-atoms in the Al(Ga)Nnucleation layers improved the surface diffusion to form moreuniform crystallites in structure and size, better alignment of each crystallite, and better homogeneity of island distribution. This, hence, improves the orientation of epilayers on the Si-surface and finally improves the crystalline quality and reduces the residual strain of subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N layers.

Structure and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Fe2O3/TiO2 Catalysts Fabricated by Heterogeneous Precipitation

The aim of our work is to study phase composition, particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD), magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle size.

A Study of Recycle Materials to Develop for Auto Part

At the present, auto part industries have become higher challenge in strategy market. As this consequence, manufacturers need to have better response to customers in terms of quality, cost, and delivery time. Moreover, they need to have a good management in factory to comply with international standard maximum capacity and lower cost. This would lead companies to have to order standard part from aboard and become the major cost of inventory. The development of auto part research by recycling materials experiment is to compare the auto parts from recycle materials to international auto parts (CKD). Factors studied in this research were the recycle material ratios of PU-foam, felt, and fabric. Results of recycling materials were considered in terms of qualities and properties on the parameters such as weight, sound absorption, water absorption, tensile strength, elongation, and heat resistance with the CKD. The results were showed that recycling materials would be used to replace for the CKD.

Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators

This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.

Green Building Materials: Hemp Oil Based Biocomposites

Novel acrylated epoxidized hemp oil (AEHO) based bioresins were successfully synthesised, characterized and applied to biocomposites reinforced with woven jute fibre. Characterisation of the synthesised AEHO consisted of acid number titrations and FTIR spectroscopy to assess the success of the acrylation reaction. Three different matrices were produced (vinylester (VE), 50/50 blend of AEHO/VE and 100% AEHO) and reinforced with jute fibre to form three different types of biocomposite samples. Mechanical properties in the form of flexural and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were investigated and compared for the different samples. Results from the mechanical tests showed that AEHO and 50/50 based neat bioresins displayed lower flexural properties compared with the VE samples. However when applied to biocomposites and compared with VE based samples, AEHO biocomposites demonstrated comparable flexural performance and improved ILSS. These results are attributed to improved fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion due to surface-chemical compatibility between the natural fibres and bioresin.

Hydrogen Sensor Based on Surface Activated WO3 Films by Pd Nanoclusters

Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method. Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic precursor was introduced on the series of films with different morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium configuration on the surface.