Abstract: With the increase of economic behavior and the upgrade
of living standar, the ratio for people in Taiwan who own automobiles
and motorcycles have recently increased with multiples. Therefore,
parking issues will be a big challenge to facilitate traffic network and
ensure urban life quality. The Parking Guidance and Information
System is one of important systems for Advanced Traveler Information
Services (ATIS). This research proposes a parking guidance and
information system which integrates GPS and 3G network for a map on
the Geographic Information System to solution inadequate of roadside
information kanban. The system proposed in this study mainly includes
Parking Host, Parking Guidance and Information Server, Geographic
Map and Information System as well as Parking Guidance and
Information Browser. The study results show this system can increase
driver-s efficiency to find parking space and efficiently enhance
parking convenience in comparison with roadside kanban system.
Abstract: The study of tourist activities and the mapping of their routes in space and time has become an important issue in tourism management. Here we represent space-time paths for the tourism industry by visualizing individual tourist activities and the paths followed using a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS). Considerable attention has been devoted to the measurement of accessibility to shopping, eating, walking and other services at the tourist destination. I turns out that GIS is a useful tool for studying the spatial behaviors of tourists in the area. The value of GIS is especially advantageous for space-time potential path area measures, especially for the accurate visualization of possible paths through existing city road networks. This study seeks to apply space-time concepts with a detailed street network map obtained from Google Maps to measure tourist paths both spatially and temporally. These paths are further determined based on data obtained from map questionnaires regarding the trip activities of 40 individuals. The analysis of the data makes it possible to determining the locations of the more popular paths. The results can be visualized using 3D GIS to show the areas and potential activity opportunities accessible to tourists during their travel time.
Abstract: Current practice of indigenous Mapping production based on GIS, are mostly produced by professional GIS personnel. Given such persons maintain control over data collection and authoring, it is possible to conceive errors due to misrepresentation or cognitive misunderstanding, causing map production inconsistencies. In order to avoid such issues, this research into tribal GIS interface focuses not on customizing interfaces for individual tribes, but rather generalizing the interface and features based on indigenous tribal user needs. The methods employed differs from the traditional expert top-down approach, and instead gaining deeper understanding into indigenous Mappings and user needs, prior to applying mapping techniques and feature development.
Abstract: Information is power. Geographical information is an
emerging science that is advancing the development of knowledge to
further help in the understanding of the relationship of “place" with
other disciplines such as crime. The researchers used crime data for
the years 2004 to 2007 from the Baguio City Police Office to
determine the incidence and actual locations of crime hotspots.
Combined qualitative and quantitative research methodology was
employed through extensive fieldwork and observation, geographic
visualization with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global
Positioning Systems (GPS), and data mining. The paper discusses
emerging geographic visualization and data mining tools and
methodologies that can be used to generate baseline data for
environmental initiatives such as urban renewal and rejuvenation.
The study was able to demonstrate that crime hotspots can be
computed and were seen to be occurring to some select places in the
Central Business District (CBD) of Baguio City. It was observed that
some characteristics of the hotspot places- physical design and milieu
may play an important role in creating opportunities for crime. A list
of these environmental attributes was generated. This derived
information may be used to guide the design or redesign of the urban
environment of the City to be able to reduce crime and at the same
time improve it physically.
Abstract: This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary
information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in
the field of the history of cartography by examples, including
assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places
and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps
in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and
economic information related to production of early maps. GIS
provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four
basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition,
several historical geographical information systems are introduced.
These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems
(CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic
Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical
Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to
display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to
layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data
structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic
information related to production of early maps is also discussed in
this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals
value of GIS applications in this field.
Abstract: The concentrations of As, Hg, Co, Cr and Cd were
tested for each soil sample, and their spatial patterns were analyzed
by the semivariogram approach of geostatistics and geographical
information system technology. Multivariate statistic approaches
(principal component analysis and cluster analysis) were used to
identify heavy metal sources and their spatial pattern. Principal
component analysis coupled with correlation between heavy metals
showed that primary inputs of As, Hg and Cd were due to
anthropogenic while, Co, and Cr were associated with pedogenic
factors. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patters of
heavy metals. The high pollution sources evaluated was related with
usage of urban and industrial wastewater. The results of this study
helpful for risk assessment of environmental pollution for decision
making for industrial adjustment and remedy soil pollution.
Abstract: In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
Abstract: Day by day technology increases and problems
associated with this technology also increase. Several researches
were carried out to investigate the deployment of such material safely
in geotechnical engineering in particular and civil engineering in
general. However, different types of waste material have such as
cement duct, fly ash and slag been proven to be suitable in several
applications. In this research cement dust mixed with different
percentages of sand will be used in some civil engineering
application as will be explained later in this paper throughout filed
and laboratory test. The used mixer (waste material with sand) prove
high performance, durability to environmental condition, low cost
and high benefits. At higher cement dust ratio, small cement ratio is
valuable for compressive strength and permeability. Also at small
cement dust ratio higher cement ratio is valuable for compressive
Abstract: Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air
pollutants of most concern. It is mainly produced by photochemical
processes involving nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds
in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Ozone levels become
particularly high in regions close to high ozone precursor emissions
and during summer, when stagnant meteorological conditions with
high insolation and high temperatures are common.
In this work, some results of a study about urban ozone
distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest and
most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are
shown. Fourteen sampling campaigns, at least one per month, were
carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during
periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to
ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer.
Later, to evaluate the ozone distribution at the city, the measured
ozone data were analyzed using geostatistical techniques. Thus, first,
during the exploratory analysis of data, it was revealed that they were
distributed normally, which is a desirable property for the subsequent
stages of the geostatistical study. Secondly, during the structural
analysis of data, theoretical spherical models provided the best fit for
all monthly experimental variograms. The parameters of these
variograms (sill, range and nugget) revealed that the maximum
distance of spatial dependence is between 302-790 m and the
variable, air ozone concentration, is not evenly distributed in reduced
distances. Finally, predictive ozone maps were derived for all points
of the experimental study area, by use of geostatistical algorithms
(kriging). High prediction accuracy was obtained in all cases as
cross-validation showed. Useful information for hazard assessment
was also provided when probability maps, based on kriging
interpolation and kriging standard deviation, were produced.
Abstract: Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is widely used today in the areas of geodesy and topography as well as in aeronautics mainly for military purposes. Due to the military usage of GPS, full access and use of this technology is being denied to the civilian user who must then work with a less accurate version. In this paper we focus on the estimation of the receiver coordinates ( X, Y, Z ) and its clock bias ( δtr ) of a fixed point based on pseudorange measurements of a single GPS receiver. Utilizing the instantaneous coordinates of just 4 satellites and their clock offsets, by taking into account the atmospheric delays, we are able to derive a set of pseudorange equations. The estimation of the four unknowns ( X, Y, Z , δtr ) is achieved by introducing an extended Kalman filter that processes, off-line, all the data collected from the receiver. Higher performance of position accuracy is attained by appropriate tuning of the filter noise parameters and by including other forms of biases.
Abstract: The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) in
roadway lighting to show the state of street-lighting and nighttime
accident is demonstrated. Geographical maps were generated
showing colored streets based on how much of the street's length is
illuminated. The night to daytime accidents ratio at intersections
were found along with the state of lighting at those intersections.
The result is a method to show the state of street-lighting at roads and
intersections and a quick guide for decision makers to implement
strategies for better street-lighting to reduce night time traffic
accidents in a particular district.
Abstract: This paper describes an application of a dual satellite
geolocation (DSG) system on identifying and locating the unknown
source of uplink sweeping interference. The geolocation system
integrates the method of joint time difference of arrival (TDOA) and
frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) with ephemeris correction
technique which successfully demonstrated high accuracy in
interference source location. The factors affecting the location error
were also discussed.
Abstract: Currently in many major cities, public transit schedules
are disseminated through lists of routes, grids of stop times and
static maps. This paper describes a web based geographic information
system which disseminates the same schedule information through
intuitive GIS techniques. Using data from Calgary, Canada, an map
based interface has been created to allow users to see routes, stops and
moving buses all at once. Zoom and pan controls as well as satellite
imagery allows users to apply their personal knowledge about the
local geography to achieve faster, and more pertinent transit results.
Using asynchronous requests to web services, users are immersed
in an application where buses and stops can be added and removed
interactively, without the need to wait for responses to HTTP requests.
Abstract: Spatial and mobile computing evolves. This paper
describes a smart modeling platform called “GeoSEMA". This
approach tends to model multidimensional GeoSpatial Evolutionary
and Mobile Agents. Instead of 3D and location-based issues, there
are some other dimensions that may characterize spatial agents, e.g.
discrete-continuous time, agent behaviors. GeoSEMA is seen as a
devoted design pattern motivating temporal geographic-based
applications; it is a firm foundation for multipurpose and
multidimensional special-based applications. It deals with
multipurpose smart objects (buildings, shapes, missiles, etc.) by
stimulating geospatial agents.
Formally, GeoSEMA refers to geospatial, spatio-evolutive and
mobile space constituents where a conceptual geospatial space model
is given in this paper. In addition to modeling and categorizing
geospatial agents, the model incorporates the concept of inter-agents
event-based protocols. Finally, a rapid software-architecture
prototyping GeoSEMA platform is also given. It will be
implemented/ validated in the next phase of our work.
Abstract: The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
Abstract: The significance of emissions from the road transport
sector (such as air pollution, noise, etc) has grown considerably in
recent years. In Australia, 14.3% of national greenhouse gas
emissions in 2000 were the transport sector-s share which 12.9% of
net national emissions were related to a road transport alone.
Considering the growing attention to the green house gas(GHG)
emissions, this paper attempts to provide air pollution modeling
aspects of environmental consequences of the road transport by using
one of the best computer based tools including the Geographic
Information System (GIS). In other word, in this study, GIS and its
applications is explained, models which are used to model air
pollution and GHG emissions from vehicles are described and GIS is
applied in real case study that attempts to forecast GHG emission
from people who travel to work by car in 2031 in Melbourne for
analysing results as thematic maps.
Abstract: Three-dimensional geometric models have been used
to present architectural and engineering works, showing their final
configuration. When the clarification of a detail or the constitution of
a construction step in needed, these models are not appropriate. They
do not allow the observation of the construction progress of a
building. Models that could present dynamically changes of the
building geometry are a good support to the elaboration of projects.
Techniques of geometric modeling and virtual reality were used to
obtain models that could visually simulate the construction activity.
The applications explain the construction work of a cavity wall and a
bridge. These models allow the visualization of the physical
progression of the work following a planned construction sequence,
the observation of details of the form of every component of the
works and support the study of the type and method of operation of
the equipment applied in the construction. These models presented
distinct advantage as educational aids in first-degree courses in Civil
Engineering. The use of Virtual Reality techniques in the
development of educational applications brings new perspectives to
the teaching of subjects related to the field of civil construction.
Abstract: In this study, an inland metropolitan area, Gwangju, in Korea was selected to assess the amplification potential of earthquake motion and provide the information for regional seismic countermeasure. A geographic information system-based expert system was implemented for reliably predicting the spatial geotechnical layers in the entire region of interesting by building a geo-knowledge database. Particularly, the database consists of the existing boring data gathered from the prior geotechnical projects and the surface geo-knowledge data acquired from the site visit. For practical application of the geo-knowledge database to estimate the earthquake hazard potential related to site amplification effects at the study area, seismic zoning maps on geotechnical parameters, such as the bedrock depth and the site period, were created within GIS framework. In addition, seismic zonation of site classification was also performed to determine the site amplification coefficients for seismic design at any site in the study area. KeywordsEarthquake hazard, geo-knowledge, geographic information system, seismic zonation, site period.
Abstract: This paper presents a novel Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) system architecture suitable for civil and military air platforms, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Taking the move from previous research on high-accuracy Differential GNSS (DGNSS) systems design, integration and experimental flight test activities conducted at the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre (CSV-RSV), our research focused on the development of a novel approach to the problem of GNSS ABIA for mission- and safety-critical air vehicle applications and for multi-sensor avionics architectures based on GNSS. Detailed mathematical models were developed to describe the main causes of GNSS signal outages and degradation in flight, namely: antenna obscuration, multipath, fading due to adverse geometry and Doppler shift. Adopting these models in association with suitable integrity thresholds and guidance algorithms, the ABIA system is able to generate integrity cautions (predictive flags) and warnings (reactive flags), as well as providing steering information to the pilot and electronic commands to the aircraft/UAS flight control systems. These features allow real-time avoidance of safety-critical flight conditions and fast recovery of the required navigation performance in case of GNSS data losses. In other words, this novel ABIA system addresses all three cornerstones of GNSS integrity augmentation in mission- and safety-critical applications: prediction (caution flags), reaction (warning flags) and correction (alternate flight path computation).
Abstract: This article describes an interesting and inexpensive laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of electronics, geography and related disciplines. The objective of the proposed experiment is to improve the students’ exposure on the basic principles of instrumentation and to demonstrate an electronic measurement system. A simple electronic curvy length measurement system is presented here. Such a system can be used to measure curvy lengths e.g. length of a river, road or railway line etc. from topographical map. The proposed system is composed of simple functional blocks which are usually demonstrated in laboratory or in theory course of electronics at the undergraduate level. The experiment is assigned to a group of students and it is found that the experiment can fulfill its objectives with high degree of satisfaction.