Abstract: With its spatial data reliability, interpretation and questioning capabilities, Geographical Information Systems make significant contributions to scientists, planners and practitioners. Geographic information systems have received great attention in today's digital world, growing rapidly, and increasing the efficiency of use. Access to and use of current and accurate geographical data, which are the most important components of the Geographical Information System, has become a necessity rather than a need for sustainable and economic development. This project aims to enable sharing of data collected by public institutions and organizations on a web-based platform. Within the scope of the project, INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community) data specifications are considered as a road-map. In this context, Turkey's National Geographic Information System (TUCBS) Integration Project supports sharing spatial data within 61 pilot public institutions as complied with defined national standards. In this paper, which is prepared by the project team members in the TUCBS Integration Project, the technical process with a detailed methodology is explained. In this context, the main technical processes of the Project consist of Geographic Data Analysis, Geographic Data Harmonization (Standardization), Web Service Creation (WMS, WFS) and Metadata Creation-Publication. In this paper, the integration process carried out to provide the data produced by 61 institutions to be shared from the National Geographic Data Portal (GEOPORTAL), have been trying to be conveyed with a detailed methodology.
Abstract: Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is one of the main technologies for generating high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs). DTMs are crucial to several applications, such as topographic mapping, flood zone delineation, geographic information systems (GIS), hydrological modelling, spatial analysis, etc. Laser scanning system generates irregularly spaced three-dimensional cloud of points. Raw ALS data are mainly ground points (that represent the bare earth) and non-ground points (that represent buildings, trees, cars, etc.). Removing all the non-ground points from the raw data is referred to as filtering. Filtering heavily forested areas is considered a difficult and challenging task as the canopy stops laser pulses from reaching the terrain surface. This research presents an approach for removing non-ground points from raw ALS data in densely forested areas. Smoothing splines are exploited to interpolate and fit the noisy ALS data. The presented filter utilizes a weight function to allocate weights for each point of the data. Furthermore, unlike most of the methods, the presented filtering algorithm is designed to be automatic. Three different forested areas in the United Kingdom are used to assess the performance of the algorithm. The results show that the generated DTMs from the filtered data are accurate (when compared against reference terrain data) and the performance of the method is stable for all the heavily forested data samples. The average root mean square error (RMSE) value is 0.35 m.
Abstract: Metropolitan areas need urban transformation and urban renewal in terms of their internal Dynamics. Since 1980, the İstanbul Metropolitan area has been started to urban growth, while the population was increasing and it has brought together masses that have different lifestyles and cultures. Commercial and residential areas' spatial needs and decisions are affected by these different lifestyles. As the terms shopping mall and commercial Street became widespread, consumption trends had changed depending on the socio-economic characteristics of the people. Increase in demand for these areas, the number of shopping centers has increased, while the shopping streets started to be as effective as the shopping centers and have been pedestrianized. In this article, the change in commercial area site selection by the dynamics of the population will be examined in cities that diverged from spatial-temporal limitations. In the study, the analysis of multilayered data using geographic information systems (GIS) will be used as a method. With this method, a more synthesistic approach will be introduced with the collection editing, querying, and analysis of geographical data in computer-based systems. While conducting this analysis, Alemdağ Street in the Ümraniye district of İstanbul, where a pedestrian decision was made, will be based on and the change in the commercial and residential functions before and after the pedestrianization decision will be evaluated.
Abstract: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a multipurpose computer-based tool that provides a sophisticated ability to map and analyze data on different spatial layers. However, GIS is far more easily applied in some policy areas than others. This paper seeks to determine the areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social dimensions, where GIS has been used to date to support efforts to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to discuss potential areas where it might be used more. Based on an extensive analysis of published literature, we ranked the SDGs according to how frequently GIS has been used to study related policy. We found that SDG#15 “Life on Land” is most often addressed with GIS, following by SDG#11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities”, and SDG#13 “Climate Action”. On the other hand, we determined that SDG#2 “Zero Hunger”, SDG#8 “Decent Work and Economic Growth”, and SDG#16 “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions” are least addressed with GIS. The paper outlines some specific ways that GIS might be applied to the SDGs least linked to this tool currently.
Abstract: This research aims to investigate morphological changes in urban patterns in urban renewal areas by using geographic information systems and to reveal pattern differences that occur before and after urban renewal processes by applying a morphological analysis. The concept of urban morphology is not involved in urban renewal and urban planning practices in Turkey. This situation destroys the structural characteristic of urban space which appears as a consequence of changes at city, street or plot level. Different approaches and renewal interventions to urban settlements, which are formed as a reflection of cultural issues, may have positive and negative results. A morphological analysis has been applied to an urban renewal area that covers 325 ha. in Konya, in which city urban renewal projects have gained speed with the increasing of economic investments in this study. The study mentions urban renewal and urban morphology relationship, varied academic approach on the urban morphology issue, urban morphology components, changes in lots pattern and numerical differences that occur on road, construction and green space ratios that are before and after the renewal project, and the results of the morphological analysis. It is seen that the built-up area has significant differences when compared to the previous situation. The amount of green areas decreased significantly in quantitative terms; the transportation systems has been changed completely; and the property ownership has been reconstructed without taking the previous situation into account. Findings show that urban renewal projects in Turkey are put into practice with a rent-oriented approach without making an in-depth analysis. The paper discusses the morphological dimension of urban renewal projects in Turkey through a case study from Konya city.
Abstract: Forest fire, which is, an uncontrolled fire occurring in nature has become a major concern for the Forestry Commission of Ghana (FCG). The forest fires in Ghana usually result in massive destruction and take a long time for the firefighting crews to gain control over the situation. In order to assess the effect of forest fire at local scale, it is important to consider the role fire plays in vegetation composition, biodiversity, soil erosion, and the hydrological cycle. The occurrence, frequency and behaviour of forest fires vary over time and space, primarily as a result of the complicated influences of changes in land use, vegetation composition, fire suppression efforts, and other indigenous factors. One of the forest zones in Ghana with a high level of vegetation stress is the Goaso forest area. The area has experienced changes in its traditional land use such as hunting, charcoal production, inefficient logging practices and rural abandonment patterns. These factors which were identified as major causes of forest fire, have recently modified the incidence of fire in the Goaso area. In spite of the incidence of forest fires in the Goaso forest area, most of the forest services do not provide a cartographic representation of the burned areas. This has resulted in significant amount of information being required by the firefighting unit of the FCG to understand fire risk factors and its spatial effects. This study uses Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System techniques to develop a fire risk hazard model using the Goaso Forest Area (GFA) as a case study. From the results of the study, natural forest, agricultural lands and plantation cover types were identified as the major fuel contributing loads. However, water bodies, roads and settlements were identified as minor fuel contributing loads. Based on the major and minor fuel contributing loads, a forest fire risk hazard model with a reasonable accuracy has been developed for the GFA to assist decision making.
Abstract: This paper explores the effectiveness of approaches used for the implementation of technology within central governments specifically Geographic Information Systems (GIS). It examines the extent to which various strategies to GIS implementation and its roll out to users within an organization is crucial for its long term assimilation. Depending on the contextual requirements, various implementation strategies exist spanning from the most revolutionary to the most evolutionary, which have an influence on the success of GIS projects and the realization of resulting business benefits within the central governments. This research compares between two strategies of GIS implementation within the Lebanese Municipalities. The first strategy is the “Technological Approach” which is focused on technology acquisition, overlaid on existing governmental frameworks. This approach gives minimal attention to capability building and the long term sustainability of the implemented program. The second strategy, referred to as the “Ecological Approach”, is naturally oriented to the function of the organization. This approach stresses on fostering the evolution of the program and on building the human capabilities. The Union of the Joumeh Municipalities will be presented as a case study under the “Ecological Approach” and the role of the GIS Center at the University of Balamand will be highlighted. Thus, this research contributes to the development of knowledge on technology implementation and the vital role of academia in the specific context of the Lebanese public sector so that this experience may pave the way for further applications.
Abstract: Wind energy is rapidly emerging as the primary
source of electricity in the Philippines, although developing an
accurate wind resource model is difficult. In this study, Weather
Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, an open source mesoscale
Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) model, was used to produce a
1-year atmospheric simulation with 4 km resolution on the Ilocos
Region of the Philippines. The WRF output (netCDF) extracts the
annual mean wind speed data using a Python-based Graphical User
Interface. Lastly, wind resource assessment was produced using a
GIS software. Results of the study showed that it is more flexible to
use Python scripts than using other post-processing tools in dealing
with netCDF files. Using WRF Model, Python, and Geographic
Information Systems, a reliable wind resource map is produced.
Abstract: In present study, it was aimed to determine potential
agricultural lands (PALs) in Gokceada (Imroz) Island of Canakkale
province, Turkey. Seven-band Landsat 8 OLI images acquired on
July 12 and August 13, 2013, and their 14-band combination image
were used to identify current Land Use Land Cover (LULC) status.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat
datasets in order to reduce the correlation between the bands. A total
of six Original and PCA images were classified using supervised
classification method to obtain the LULC maps including 6 main
classes (“Forest”, “Agriculture”, “Water Surface”, “Residential Area-
Bare Soil”, “Reforestation” and “Other”). Accuracy assessment was
performed by checking the accuracy of 120 randomized points for
each LULC maps. The best overall accuracy and Kappa statistic
values (90.83%, 0.8791% respectively) were found for PCA images
which were generated from 14-bands combined images called 3-
Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 15 m spatial resolution
(ASTER) was used to consider topographical characteristics. Soil
properties were obtained by digitizing 1:25000 scaled soil maps of
Rural Services Directorate General. Potential Agricultural Lands
(PALs) were determined using Geographic information Systems
(GIS). Procedure was applied considering that “Other” class of
LULC map may be used for agricultural purposes in the future
properties. Overlaying analysis was conducted using Slope (S), Land
Use Capability Class (LUCC), Other Soil Properties (OSP) and Land
Use Capability Sub-Class (SUBC) properties.
A total of 901.62 ha areas within “Other” class (15798.2 ha) of
LULC map were determined as PALs. These lands were ranked as
“Very Suitable”, “Suitable”, “Moderate Suitable” and “Low
Suitable”. It was determined that the 8.03 ha were classified as “Very
Suitable” while 18.59 ha as suitable and 11.44 ha as “Moderate
Suitable” for PALs. In addition, 756.56 ha were found to be “Low
Suitable”. The results obtained from this preliminary study can serve
as basis for further studies.
Abstract: PhilSHORE is a multi-site, multi-device and multicriteria
decision support tool designed to support the development of
tidal current energy in the Philippines. Its platform is based on
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which allows for the
collection, storage, processing, analyses and display of geospatial
data. Combining GIS tools with open source web development
applications, PhilSHORE becomes a webGIS-based marine spatial
planning tool. To date, PhilSHORE displays output maps and graphs
of power and energy density, site suitability and site-device analysis.
It enables stakeholders and the public easy access to the results of
tidal current energy resource assessments and site suitability
analyses. Results of the initial development show that PhilSHORE is
a promising decision support tool for ORE project developments.
Abstract: Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological,
ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over
time and space. These factors have been examined separately and still
require systematic clarification. The present study aimed to investigate
the spatial-temporal clustering relationships between these factors and
dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing
(RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites were used to develop
an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. RS data
gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a
digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information.
Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected
through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and
databases were integrated into geographic information systems,
enabling temporal analysis, spatial statistical analysis and space-time
clustering analysis. Our present results showed that increases in the
number of the combination of ecological factor and socio-economic
and demographic factors with above the average or the presence
contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters.
Abstract: In recent years, geographic information systems (GIS)
and remote sensing using has increased to estimate runoff catchment.
In this research, runoff curve number maps for captive catchment of
Tehran by helping GIS and also remote sensing which based on
factors such as vegetation, lands using, group of soil hydrology and
hydrological conditions were obtained. Runoff curve numbers map
was obtained by combining these maps in ARC GIS and SCS table.
To evaluate the accuracy of the results, the maximum flow rate of
flood which was obtained from curve numbers, was compared with
the measured maximum flood rate at the watershed outlet and
correctness of curve numbers were approved.
Abstract: The Global Positioning System (GPS), satellite-based technology, has been utilized extensively in the last few years in a wide range of Geometrics and Geographic Information Systems’ (GIS) applications. One of the main challenges dealing with GPS-based heights consists of converting them into Mean Sea Level (MSL) heights, which is used in surveys and mapping.
In this research’s work, differences in heights of 50 points, in northern part of Libya has been carried out by using both ordinary leveling (in which Geoid is the reference datum) and GPS techniques (in which Ellipsoid is the reference datum). In addition, this study utilized the EGM2008 model to obtain the undulation values between the ellipsoidal and orthometric heights. From these values of ellipsoidal heights can be obtained from GPS observations to compute the orthomteric heights. This research presents a suitable alternative, from an economical point of view, to substitute the expensive traditional leveling technique, particularly, for topographic mapping.
Abstract: With the prevalence of computer and development of information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have long used for a variety of applications in electrical engineering. GIS are designed to support the analysis, management, manipulation and mapping of spatial data. This paper presents several usages of GIS in power utilities such as automated route selection for the construction of new power lines which uses a dynamic programming model for route optimization, load forecasting and optimizing planning of substation-s location and capacity with comprehensive algorithm which involves an accurate small-area electric load forecasting procedure and simulates the different cost functions of substations.
Abstract: Currently in many major cities, public transit schedules
are disseminated through lists of routes, grids of stop times and
static maps. This paper describes a web based geographic information
system which disseminates the same schedule information through
intuitive GIS techniques. Using data from Calgary, Canada, an map
based interface has been created to allow users to see routes, stops and
moving buses all at once. Zoom and pan controls as well as satellite
imagery allows users to apply their personal knowledge about the
local geography to achieve faster, and more pertinent transit results.
Using asynchronous requests to web services, users are immersed
in an application where buses and stops can be added and removed
interactively, without the need to wait for responses to HTTP requests.
Abstract: Cloud Computing is an approach that provides computation and storage services on-demand to clients over the network, independent of device and location. In the last few years, cloud computing became a trend in information technology with many companies that transfer their business processes and applications in the cloud. Cloud computing with service oriented architecture has contributed to rapid development of Geographic Information Systems. Open Geospatial Consortium with its standards provides the interfaces for hosted spatial data and GIS functionality to integrated GIS applications. Furthermore, with the enormous processing power, clouds provide efficient environment for data intensive applications that can be performed efficiently, with higher precision, and greater reliability. This paper presents our work on the geospatial data services within the cloud computing environment and its technology. A cloud computing environment with the strengths and weaknesses of the geographic information system will be introduced. The OGC standards that solve our application interoperability are highlighted. Finally, we outline our system architecture with utilities for requesting and invoking our developed data intensive applications as a web service.
Abstract: This study focuses on an evaluation of Hokkaido which
is the northernmost and largest prefecture by surface area in Japan and
particularly on two points: the rivalry between all kinds of land use
such as urban land and agricultural and forestry land in various cities
and their surrounding areas and the possibilities for forestry biomass in
areas other than those mentioned above and grasps which areas require
examination of the nature of land use control and guidance through
conducting land use analysis at the district level using GIS
(Geographic Information Systems). The results of analysis in this
study demonstrated that it is essential to divide the whole of Hokkaido
into two areas: those within delineated city planning areas and those
outside of delineated city planning areas and to conduct an evaluation
of each land use control.
In delineated urban areas, particularly urban areas, it is essential to
re-examine land use from the point of view of compact cities or smart
cities along with conducting an evaluation of land use control that
focuses on issues of rivalry between all kinds of land use such as urban
land and agricultural and forestry land. In areas outside of delineated
urban areas, it is desirable to aim to build a specific community
recycling range based on forest biomass utilization by conducting an
evaluation of land use control concerning the possibilities for forest
biomass focusing particularly on forests within and outside of city
Abstract: This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary
information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in
the field of the history of cartography by examples, including
assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places
and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps
in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and
economic information related to production of early maps. GIS
provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four
basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition,
several historical geographical information systems are introduced.
These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems
(CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic
Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical
Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to
display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to
layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data
structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic
information related to production of early maps is also discussed in
this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals
value of GIS applications in this field.
Abstract: Information is power. Geographical information is an
emerging science that is advancing the development of knowledge to
further help in the understanding of the relationship of “place" with
other disciplines such as crime. The researchers used crime data for
the years 2004 to 2007 from the Baguio City Police Office to
determine the incidence and actual locations of crime hotspots.
Combined qualitative and quantitative research methodology was
employed through extensive fieldwork and observation, geographic
visualization with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global
Positioning Systems (GPS), and data mining. The paper discusses
emerging geographic visualization and data mining tools and
methodologies that can be used to generate baseline data for
environmental initiatives such as urban renewal and rejuvenation.
The study was able to demonstrate that crime hotspots can be
computed and were seen to be occurring to some select places in the
Central Business District (CBD) of Baguio City. It was observed that
some characteristics of the hotspot places- physical design and milieu
may play an important role in creating opportunities for crime. A list
of these environmental attributes was generated. This derived
information may be used to guide the design or redesign of the urban
environment of the City to be able to reduce crime and at the same
time improve it physically.
Abstract: Flood zoning studies have become more efficient in
recent years because of the availability of advanced computational
facilities and use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In the
present study, flood inundated areas were mapped using GIS for the
Dikrong river basin of Arunachal Pradesh, India, corresponding to
different return periods (2, 5, 25, 50, and 100 years). Further, the developed inundation maps corresponding to 25, 50, and 100 year return period floods were compared to corresponding maps
developed by conventional methods as reported in the Brahmaputra Board Master Plan for Dikrong basin. It was found that, the average
deviation of modelled flood inundation areas from reported map
inundation areas is below 5% (4.52%). Therefore, it can be said that
the modelled flood inundation areas matched satisfactorily with
reported map inundation areas. Hence, GIS techniques were proved to be successful in extracting the flood inundation extent in a time and cost effective manner for the remotely located hilly basin of Dikrong, where conducting conventional surveys is very difficult.