Abstract: The present study has been carried out with a view to calculate the coastal vulnerability index (CVI) to know the high and low sensitive areas and area of inundation due to future SLR. Both conventional and remotely sensed data were used and analyzed through the modelling technique. Out of the total study area, 8.26% is very high risk, 14.21% high, 9.36% medium, 22.46% low and 7.35% in the very low vulnerable category, due to costal components. Results of the inundation analysis indicate that 225.2 km² and 397 km² of the land area will be submerged by flooding at 1m and 10m inundation levels. The most severely affected sectors are expected to be the residential, industrial and recreational areas. As this coast is planned for future coastal developmental activities, measures such as industrializations, building regulation, urban growth planning and agriculture, development of an integrated coastal zone management, strict enforcement of the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Act, monitoring of impacts and further research in this regard are recommended for the study area.
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate Thai Muslims’ way of life through the way their clothes. The data of this qualitative research were collected from related documents and research reports, ancient cloths and clothing, and in-depth interviews with clothes owners and weavers.
The research found that in the 18th century Thai Muslims in the three southern border provinces used many types of clothing in their life. At home women wore plain clothes. They used checked cloths to cover the upper part of their body from the breasts down to the waist. When going out, they used Lima cloth and So Kae with a piece of Pla-nging cloth as a head scarf. For men, they wore a checked sarong as a lower garment, and wore no upper garment. However, when going out, they wore Puyo Potong. In addition, Thai Muslims used cloths in various religious rites, namely, the rite of placing a baby in a cradle, the Masoyawi rite, the Nikah rite, and the burial rite. These types of cloths were related to the way of life of Thai Muslims from birth to death. They reflected the race, gender, age, social status, values, and beliefs in traditions that have been inherited.
Practical Implication: Woven in these cloths are the lost local wisdom, and therefore, aesthetics on the cloths are like mirrors reflecting the background of people in this region that is fading away. These cloths are pages of a local history book that is of importance and value worth for preservation and publicity so that they are treasured. Government organizations can expand and materialize the knowledge received from the study in accordance with government policy in supporting the One Tambon, One Product project.
Abstract: This study presents the performance of membrane
bioreactor in treating high phosphate wastewater. The laboratory
scale MBR was operated at permeate flux of 25 L/m2.h with a hollow
fiber membrane (polypropylene, approx. pore size 0.01 - 0.2 μm) at
hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 hrs. Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer were
used to characterize the membrane foulants. Results showed that the
removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO4
3- were 93, 98, 80
and 30% respectively. On average 91% of influent soluble microbial
products (SMP) were eliminated, with the eliminations of
polysaccharides mostly above 80%. The main fouling resistance was
cake resistance. It should be noted that SMP were found in major
portions of mixed liquor that played a relatively significant role in
membrane fouling. SEM and EDX analyses indicated that the
foulants covering the membrane surfaces comprises not only organic
substances but also inorganic elements including Mg, Ca, Al, K and
Abstract: Asiatic Houbara ( Chlamydotis macqueenii ) is a
flagship and vulnerable species. In-situ conservation of this
threatened species demands for knowledge of its habitat selection.
The aim of this study was to determine habitat variables influencing
birds wintering and breeding selection in semi- arid central Iran.
Habitat features of the detected nest and pellet sites were compared
with paired and random plots by quantifying a number of habitat
variables. In wintering habitat use at micro scale houbara selected
sites where vegetation cover was significantly lower compard to
control sites( p< 0.001). Areas with low number of larger plant
species (p=0.03) that were not too close to a vegetation
Abstract: The assessment of surface waters in Enugu metropolis
for fecal coliform bacteria was undertaken. Enugu urban was divided
into three areas (A1, A2 and A3), and fecal coliform bacteria
analysed in the surface waters found in these areas for four years
(2005-2008). The plate count method was used for the analyses. Data
generated were subjected to statistical tests involving; Normality test,
Homogeneity of variance test, correlation test, and tolerance limit
test. The influence of seasonality and pollution trends were
investigated using time series plots. Results from the tolerance limit
test at 95% coverage with 95% confidence, and with respect to EU
maximum permissible concentration show that the three areas suffer
from fecal coliform pollution. To this end, remediation procedure
involving the use of saw-dust extracts from three woods namely;
and Erythrophylum-Ivorensis (E-Ivorensis) in
controlling the coliforms was studied. Results show that mixture of
the acetone extracts of the woods show the most effective
antibacterial inhibitory activities (26.00mm zone of inhibition)
against E-coli. Methanol extract mixture of the three woods gave best
inhibitory activity (26.00mm zone of inhibition) against S-areus, and
25.00mm zones of inhibition against E-Aerogenes. The aqueous
extracts mixture gave acceptable zones of inhibitions against the
three bacteria organisms.
Abstract: Contour filter strips planted with perennial vegetation
can be used to improve surface and ground water quality by reducing
pollutant, such as NO3-N, and sediment outflow from cropland to a
river or lake. Meanwhile, the filter strips of perennial grass with biofuel
potentials also have economic benefits of producing ethanol. In
this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was
applied to the Walnut Creek Watershed to examine the effectiveness
of contour strips in reducing NO3-N outflows from crop fields to the
river or lake. Required input data include watershed topography,
slope, soil type, land-use, management practices in the watershed and
climate parameters (precipitation, maximum/minimum air
temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity).
Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential
subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and
to examine the effects of strip size and location on NO3-N reduction
in the subbasins under various meteorological conditions (dry,
average and wet). Variable sizes of contour strips (10%, 20%, 30%
and 50%, respectively, of a subbasin area) planted with perennial
switchgrass were selected for simulating the effects of strip size and
location on stream water quality. Simulation results showed that a
filter strip having 10%-50% of the subbasin area could lead to 55%-
90% NO3-N reduction in the subbasin during an average rainfall
year. Strips occupying 10-20% of the subbasin area were found to be
more efficient in reducing NO3-N when placed along the contour
than that when placed along the river. The results of this study can
assist in cost-benefit analysis and decision-making in best water
resources management practices for environmental protection.
Abstract: Decentralized eco-sanitation system is a promising and sustainable mode comparing to the century-old centralized conventional sanitation system. The decentralized concept relies on an environmentally and economically sound management of water, nutrient and energy fluxes. Source-separation systems for urban waste management collect different solid waste and wastewater streams separately to facilitate the recovery of valuable resources from wastewater (energy, nutrients). A resource recovery centre constituted for 20,000 people will act as the functional unit for the treatment of urban waste of a high-density population community, like Singapore. The decentralized system includes urine treatment, faeces and food waste co-digestion, and horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste treatment in composting plants. A design model is developed to estimate the input and output in terms of materials and energy. The inputs of urine (yellow water, YW) and faeces (brown water, BW) are calculated by considering the daily mean production of urine and faeces by humans and the water consumption of no-mix vacuum toilet (0.2 and 1 L flushing water for urine and faeces, respectively). The food waste (FW) production is estimated to be 150 g wet weight/person/day. The YW is collected and discharged by gravity into tank. It was found that two days are required for urine hydrolysis and struvite precipitation. The maximum nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) recovery are 150-266 kg/day and 20-70 kg/day, respectively. In contrast, BW and FW are mixed for co-digestion in a thermophilic acidification tank and later a decentralized/centralized methanogenic reactor is used for biogas production. It is determined that 6.16-15.67 m3/h methane is produced which is equivalent to 0.07-0.19 kWh/ca/day. The digestion residues are treated with horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal waste in co-composting plants.
Abstract: The coalescer process is one of the methods for oily water treatment by increasing the oil droplet size in order to enhance the separating velocity and thus effective separation. However, the presence of surfactants in an oily emulsion can limit the obtained mechanisms due to the small oil size related with stabilized emulsion. In this regard, the purpose of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coalescer process for treating the stabilized emulsion. The effects of bed types, bed height, liquid flow rate and stage coalescer (step-bed) on the treatment efficiencies in term of COD values were studied. Note that the treatment efficiency obtained experimentally was estimated by using the COD values and oil droplet size distribution. The study has shown that the plastic media has more effective to attach with oil particles than the stainless one due to their hydrophobic properties. Furthermore, the suitable bed height (3.5 cm) and step bed (3.5 cm with 2 steps) were necessary in order to well obtain the coalescer performance. The application of step bed coalescer process in reactor has provided the higher treatment efficiencies in term of COD removal than those obtained with classical process. The proposed model for predicting the area under curve and thus treatment efficiency, based on the single collector efficiency (ηT) and the attachment efficiency (α), provides relatively a good coincidence between the experimental and predicted values of treatment efficiencies in this study.
Abstract: In this research, an aerobic composting method is
studied to reuse organic waste from rubber factory waste as soil fertilizer and to study the effect of cellulolytic microbial activator
(CMA) as the activator in the rubber factory waste composting. The
performance of the composting process was monitored as a function
of carbon and organic matter decomposition rate, temperature and
moisture content. The results indicate that the rubber factory waste is best composted with water hyacinth and sludge than composted
alone. In addition, the CMA is more affective when mixed with the rubber factory waste, water hyacinth and sludge since a good fertilizer is achieved. When adding CMA into the rubber factory
waste composted alone, the finished product does not achieve a
standard of fertilizer, especially the C/N ratio.
Finally, the finished products of composting rubber factory waste and water hyacinth and sludge (both CMA and without CMA), can be an environmental friendly alternative to solve the disposal problems of rubber factory waste. Since the C/N ratio, pH, moisture
content, temperature, and nutrients of the finished products are acceptable for agriculture use.
Abstract: In July 2012, an indoor/outdoor monitoring
programme was undertaken in two university sports facilities: a
fronton and a gymnasium. Comfort parameters (temperature, relative
humidity, CO and CO2) and total volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) were continuously monitored. Concentrations of NO2,
carbonyl compounds and individual VOCs were obtained. Low
volume samplers were used to collect particulate matter (PM10). The
minimum ventilation rates stipulated for acceptable indoor air quality
were observed in both sports facilities. It was found that cleaning
activities may have a large influence on the VOC levels. Acrolein
was one of the most abundant carbonyl compounds, showing
concentrations above the recommended limit. Formaldehyde was
detected at levels lower than those commonly reported for other
indoor environments. The PM10 concentrations obtained during the
occupancy periods ranged between 38 and 43μgm-3 in the fronton and
from 154 to 198μgm-3 in the gymnasium.
Abstract: In India, the quarrel between the budding human
populace and the planet-s unchanging supply of freshwater and
falling water tables has strained attention the reuse of gray water as
an alternative water resource in rural development. This paper
present the finest design of laboratory scale gray water treatment
plant, which is a combination of natural and physical operations such
as primary settling with cascaded water flow, aeration, agitation and
filtration, hence called as hybrid treatment process. The economical
performance of the plant for treatment of bathrooms, basins and
laundries gray water showed in terms of deduction competency of
water pollutants such as COD (83%), TDS (70%), TSS (83%), total
hardness (50%), oil and grease (97%), anions (46%) and cations
(49%). Hence, this technology could be a good alternative to treat
gray water in residential rural area.
Abstract: The Niger Delta Region of Nigeria is home to about
20 million people and 40 different ethnic groups. The region has an
area of seventy thousand square kilometers (70,000 KM2) of
wetlands, formed primarily by sediments deposition and makes up
7.5 percent of Nigeria's total landmass. The notable ecological zones
in this region includes: coastal barrier islands; mangrove swamp
forests; fresh water swamps; and lowland rainforests. This incredibly
naturally-endowed ecosystem region, which contains one of the
highest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet, in addition to
supporting abundant flora and fauna, is threatened by the inhuman act
known as gas flaring. Gas flaring is the combustion of natural gas
that is associated with crude oil when it is pumped up from the
ground. In petroleum-producing areas such as the Niger Delta region
of Nigeria where insufficient investment was made in infrastructure
to utilize natural gas, flaring is employed to dispose of this associated
gas. This practice has impoverished the communities where it is
practiced, with attendant environmental, economic and health
challenges. This paper discusses the adverse environmental and
health implication associated with the practice, the role of
Government, Policy makers, Oil companies and the Local
communities aimed at bring this inhuman practice to a prompt end.
Abstract: Petroleum refineries discharged large amount of
wastewater -during the refining process- that contains hazardous
constituents that is hard to degrade. Anaerobic treatment process is
well known as an efficient method to degrade high strength
wastewaters. Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanker (UASB) is a
common process used for various wastewater treatments. Two UASB
reactors were set up and operated in parallel to evaluate the treatment
efficiency of petroleum refinery wastewater. In this study four
organic volumetric loading rates were applied (i.e. 0.58, 0.89, 1.21
and 2.34 kg/m3·d), two loads to each reactor. Each load was applied
for a period of 60 days for the reactor to acclimatize and reach steady
state, and then the second load applied. The chemical oxygen demand
(COD) removals were satisfactory with the removal efficiencies at the
loadings applied were 78, 82, 83 and 81 % respectively.
Abstract: This paper reviews the objectives, methods and results of previous studies on biodrying of solid waste in several countries. Biodrying of solid waste is a novel technology in developing countries such as in Malaysia where high moisture content in organic waste makes the segregation process for recycling purposes complicated and diminishes the calorific value for the use of fuel source. In addition, the high moisture content also encourages the breeding of vectors and disease-bearing animals. From the laboratory results, the average moisture content of organic waste, paper, plastics and metals are 58.17%, 37.93%, 29.79% and 1.03% respectively for UKM campus. Biodrying of solid waste is a simple method of waste treatment as well as a cost-efficient technology to dry the solid waste. The process depends on temperature monitoring and air flow control along with the natural biodegradable process of organic waste. This review shows that the biodrying of solid waste method has high potential in treatment and recycling of solid waste, be useful for biodrying study and implementation in Malaysia.
Abstract: Rapid urbanization, industrialization and population
growth have led to an increase in number of automobiles that cause
air pollution. It is estimated that road traffic contributes 60% of air
pollution in urban areas. A case by case assessment is required to
predict the air quality in urban situations, so as to evolve certain
traffic management measures to maintain the air quality levels with
in the tolerable limits. Calicut city in the state of Kerala, India has
been chosen as the study area. Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentration
was monitored at 15 links in Calicut city and air quality performance
was evaluated over each link. The CO pollutant concentration values
were compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards
(NAAQS), and the CO values were predicted by using CALINE4 and
IITLS and Linear regression models. The study has revealed that
linear regression model performs better than the CALINE4 and
IITLS models. The possible association between CO pollutant
concentration and traffic parameters like traffic flow, type of vehicle,
and traffic stream speed was also evaluated.
Abstract: In this paper, we seek to determine one reasonable
local hub port and optimal routes for a containership fleet,
performing pick-ups and deliveries, between the hub and spoke ports
in a same region. The relationship between a hub port, and traffic in
feeder lines is analyzed. A new network planning method is proposed,
an integrated hub port location and route design, a capacitated vehicle
routing problem with pick-ups, deliveries and time deadlines are
formulated and solved using an improved genetic algorithm for
positioning the hub port and establishing routes for a containership
fleet. Results on the performance of the algorithm and the feasibility
of the approach show that a relatively small fleet of containerships
could provide efficient services within deadlines.
Abstract: Biological Ammonia removal (nitrification), the
oxidation of ammonia to nitrate catalyzed by bacteria, is a key part of
global nitrogen cycling. In the first step of nitrification,
chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer transform ammonia to
nitrite, this subsequently oxidized to nitrate by nitrite oxidizing
bacteria. This process can be affected by several factors. In this study
the effect of influent COD on biological ammonia removal in a
bench-scale biological reactor was investigated. Experiments were
carried out using synthetic wastewater. The initial ammonium
concentration was 25mgNH4
+-N L-1. The effect of COD between
247.55±1.8 and 601.08±3.24mgL-1 on biological ammonia removal
was investigated by varying the COD loading supplied to reactor.
From the results obtained in this study it could be concluded in the
range of 247.55±1.8 to 351.35±2.05mgL-1, there is a direct
relationship between amount of COD and ammonia removal.
However more than 351.35±2.05 up to 601.08±3.24mgL-1 were
found an indirect relationship between them.
Abstract: Hexavalent chromium is highly toxic to most living organisms and a known human carcinogen by the inhalation route of exposure. Therefore, treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater is essential before their discharge to the natural water bodies. Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) can be beneficial because a more mobile and more toxic chromium species is converted to a less mobile and less toxic form. Zero-valence-state metals, such as scrap iron, can serve as electron donors for reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The influence of pH on scrap iron capacity to reduce Cr(VI) was investigated in this study. Maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was observed at the beginning of the column experiments; the lower the pH, the greater the experiment duration with maximum scrap iron reduction capacity. The experimental results showed that highest maximum reduction capacity of scrap iron was 12.5 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.0, and decreased with increasing pH up to 1.9 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron at pH = 7.3.
Abstract: Topics Disaster and Emergency Management are highly debated among experts. Fast communication will help to deal with emergencies. Problem is with the network connection and data exchange. The paper suggests a solution, which allows possibilities and perspectives of new flexible communication platform to the protection of communication systems for crisis management. This platform is used for everyday communication and communication in crisis situations too.
Abstract: The use of bioindicators plants (lichens, bryophytes
and Sphagnum....) in monitoring pollution by heavy metals has been
the subject of several works. However, few studies have addressed
the impact of specific type-s pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides.) on
We propose in this work to make the highlighting effect of NPKs
(NPK: nitrogen-phosphate-potassium-sulfate (NP2O5K2O) (15,15,15),
at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 , 40 and 50mM/L) on the activity of
detoxification enzymes (GSH/GST, CAT, APX and MDA) of plant
bioindicators (mosses and lichens) after treatment for 3 and 7 days.
This study shows the important role of the defense system in the
accumulation and tolerance to chemical pollutants through the
activation of enzymatic (GST (glutathione-S-transferase, APX
(ascorbat peroxidase), CAT (catalase)) and nonenzymatic biomarkers
(GSH (glutathione), MDA (malondialdehyde)) against oxidative
stress generated by the NPKs.