Abstract: Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from P. falciparum malaria in that a person suffering from P. vivax infection can suffer relapses of the disease. This is due the parasite being able to remain dormant in the liver of the patients where it is able to re-infect the patient after a passage of time. During this stage, the patient is classified as being in the dormant class. The model to describe the transmission of P. vivax malaria consists of a human population divided into four classes, the susceptible, the infected, the dormant and the recovered. The effect of a time delay on the transmission of this disease is studied. The time delay is the period in which the P. vivax parasite develops inside the mosquito (vector) before the vector becomes infectious (i.e., pass on the infection). We analyze our model by using standard dynamic modeling method. Two stable equilibrium states, a disease free state E0 and an endemic state E1, are found to be possible. It is found that the E0 state is stable when a newly defined basic reproduction number G is less than one. If G is greater than one the endemic state E1 is stable. The conditions for the endemic equilibrium state E1 to be a stable spiral node are established. For realistic values of the parameters in the model, it is found that solutions in phase space are trajectories spiraling into the endemic state. It is shown that the limit cycle and chaotic behaviors can only be achieved with unrealistic parameter values.
Abstract: Fourty one strains of ESBL producing P.aeruginosa
which were previously isolated from burn patients in Kerman
University general hospital, Iran were subjected to PCR, RFLP and
sequencing in order to determine the type of extended spectrum β-
lactamases (ESBL), the restriction digestion pattern and possibility of
mutation among detected genes. DNA extraction was carried out by
phenol chloroform method. PCR for detection of bla genes was
performed using specific primer for each gene. Restriction Fragment
Length Polymorphism (RFLP) for ESBL genes was carried out using
EcoRI, NheI, PVUII, EcoRV, DdeI, and PstI restriction enzymes. The
PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing of both the strands
for identification of the ESBL genes.The blaCTX-M, blaVEB-1, blaPER-1,
blaGES-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-4 and blaOXA-10 genes were detected in the
(n=1) 2.43%, (n=41)100%, (n=28) 68.3%, (n=10) 24.4%, (n=29)
70.7%, (n=7)17.1% and (n=38) 92.7% of the ESBL producing isolates
respectively. The RFLP analysis showed that each ESBL gene has
identical pattern of digestion among the isolated strains. Sequencing
of the ESBL genes confirmed the genuinety of PCR products and
revealed no mutation in the restriction sites of the above genes. From
results of the present investigation it can be concluded that blaVEB-1
and blaCTX-M were the most and the least frequently isolated ESBL
genes among the P.aeruginosa strains isolated from burn patients. The
RFLP and sequencing analysis revealed that same clone of the bla
genes were indeed existed among the antibiotic resistant strains.
Abstract: Uterine and oviducal fluids are necessary for
capacitation of the spermatozoa and early embryonic development.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of estrous
cycle phases (follicular and luteal) on some biological parameters
(enzymes, electrolytes and total proteins) in uterine and oviducal
secretions of ewes. Oviducal and uterine fluids were collected,
diluted and centrifuged. According to our results, concentrations of
GPT, G6PDH, total proteins, K and Na were significantly (P
Abstract: This study investigated the number of Aedes larvae,
the key breeding sites of Aedes sp., and the relationship between
climatic factors and the incidence of DHF in Samui Islands. We
conducted our questionnaire and larval surveys from randomly
selected 105 households in Samui Islands in July-September 2006.
Pearson-s correlation coefficient was used to explore the primary
association between the DHF incidence and all climatic factors.
Multiple stepwise regression technique was then used to fit the
statistical model. The results showed that the positive indoor
containers were small jars, cement tanks, and plastic tanks. The
positive outdoor containers were small jars, cement tanks, plastic
tanks, used cans, tires, plastic bottles, discarded objects, pot saucers,
plant pots, and areca husks. All Ae. albopictus larval indices (i.e., CI,
HI, and BI) were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in this area.
These larval indices were higher than WHO standard. This indicated
a high risk of DHF transmission at Samui Islands. The multiple
stepwise regression model was y = –288.80 + 11.024xmean temp. The
mean temperature was positively associated with the DHF incidence
in this area.
Abstract: Chemically defined Schlegel-s medium was modified
to improve production of cell growth and other metabolites that are
produced by fluorescent pseudomonad R62 strain. The modified
medium does not require pH control as pH changes are kept within ±
0.2 units of the initial pH 7.1 during fermentation. The siderophore
production was optimized for the fluorescent pseudomonad strain in
the modified medium containing 1% glycerol as a major carbon
source supplemented with 0.05% succinic acid and 0.5% Ltryptophan.
Indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) production was higher when
L-tryptophan was used at 0.5%. The 2,4- diacetylphloroglucinol
(DAPG) was higher with amended three trace elements in medium.
The optimized medium produced 2.28 g/l of dry cell mass and 900
mg/l of siderophore at the end of 36 h cultivation, while the
production levels of IAA and DAPG were 65 mg/l and 81 mg/l
respectively at the end of 48 h cultivation.
Abstract: This study investigated the seasonal prevalence of
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae in three topographical areas
(i.e. mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas). Samples were
collected from 300 households in both wet and dry seasons in nine
districts in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. Ae. aegypti and Ae.
albopictus were found in 21 out of 29 types of water containers in
mangrove, rice paddy and mountainous areas. Ae. aegypti and Ae.
albopictus laid eggs in different container types depending on season
and topographical areas. Ae. aegypti larvae were found most in metal
box in mangrove and mountainous areas in wet season. Ae.
albopictus larvae were also found most in metal box in mangrove and
mountainous areas in both wet and dry seasons. All Ae. albopictus
larval indices were higher than Ae. aegypti larval indices in all three
topographical areas and both seasons. HI and BI did not differ in
three topographical areas but differed between Aedes sp. HI for both
Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in all three topographical areas in both
seasons were greater than 10 %, except Aedes aegypti in rice paddy
area in wet season. This indicated high risks of DHF transmission in
Abstract: The study was conducted to investigate the profile of
hepatitis in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to determine which age
group hepatitis viruses most commonly infect. The epidemiology of
viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has undergone major changes,
concurrent with major socioeconomic developments over the last two
to three decades. This disease represents a major public health
problem in Saudi Arabia resulting in the need for considerable
healthcare resources. A retrospective cross sectional analysis of the
reported cases of viral hepatitis was conducted based on the reports
of The Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia about Hepatitis A, B and C
infections in all regions from the period of January 2006 to December
2010. The study demonstrated that incidence of viral Hepatitis is
decreasing, except for Hepatitis B that showed minimal increase. Of
hepatitis A, B, and C, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the most
predominant type, accounting for (53%) of the cases, followed by
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) (30%) and HAV (17%). HAV infection
predominates in children (5–14 years) with 60% of viral hepatitis
cases, HBV in young adults (15–44 years) with 69% of viral hepatitis
cases, and HCV in older adults (>45 years) with 59% of viral
hepatitis cases. Despite significant changes in the prevalence of viral
hepatitis A, B and C, it remains a major public health problem in
Saudi Arabia; however, it showed a significant decline in the last two
decades that could be attributed to the vaccination programs and the
improved health facilities. Further researches are needed to identify
the risk factors making a specific age group or a specific region in
Saudi Arabia targeted for a specific type of hepatitis viruses.
Abstract: Larval survey was carried out in 6 localities in the
urban areas (Putrajaya) and suburban areas (Kuala Selangor) from
January until December 2010. A total of 520 representative
households in 6 localities were selected. Breeding habitats were
sampled outdoors in the surroundings of housing areas. The study
indicated that the most predominant species found in both areas was
Aedes albopictus with the gardening utensil as a preferred breeding
microhabitat for Putrajaya, in contrast to the artificial containers for
Kuala Selangor. From a total of 1083 mosquito larvae species, 984
were Aedes albopictus larvae, 67 positive larvae of Aedes aegypti
and 32 of Culex larvae. Aedes Index and Container Index were
elevated in Putrajaya with 13% and 11% respectively which is higher
than the standard given by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. This
results implicating dengue-sensitive skewed to the urban areas.
Breteau Index result also above the standard in both study locations.
Abstract: Diffuse viral encephalitis may lack fever and other cardinal signs of infection and hence its distinction from other acute encephalopathic illnesses is challenging. Often, the EEG changes seen routinely are nonspecific and reflect diffuse encephalopathic changes only. The aim of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic mathematical techniques for analyzing the EEG data in order to look for any characteristic diagnostic patterns in diffuse forms of encephalitis.It was diagnosed on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid criteria in three young male patients. Metabolic and toxic encephalopathies were ruled out through appropriate investigations. Digital EEGs were done on the 3rd to 5th day of onset. The digital EEGs of 5 male and 5 female age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as controls.Two sample t-test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the average values in amplitude between the two groups. However, the standard deviation (or variance) of the EEG signals at FP1-F7 and FP2-F8 are significantly higher for the patients than the normal subjects. The regularisation dimension is significantly less for the patients (average between 1.24-1.43) when compared to the normal persons (average between 1.41-1.63) for the EEG signals from all locations except for the Fz-Cz signal. Similarly the wavelet dimension is significantly less (P = 0.05*) for the patients (1.122) when compared to the normal person (1.458). EEGs are subdued in the case of the patients with presence of uniform patterns, manifested in the values of regularisation and wavelet dimensions, when compared to the normal person, indicating a decrease in chaotic nature.
Abstract: The ability to distinguish missense nucleotide
substitutions that contribute to harmful effect from those that do not
is a difficult problem usually accomplished through functional in
vivo analyses. In this study, instead current biochemical methods, the
effects of missense mutations upon protein structure and function
were assayed by means of computational methods and information
from the databases. For this order, the effects of new missense
mutations in exon 5 of PTEN gene upon protein structure and
function were examined. The gene coding for PTEN was identified
and localized on chromosome region 10q23.3 as the tumor
suppressor gene. The utilization of these methods were shown that
c.319G>A and c.341T>G missense mutations that were recognized in
patients with breast cancer and Cowden disease, could be pathogenic.
This method could be use for analysis of missense mutation in others
Abstract: The role of the pollen grain, with to the reproductive
process of higher plants, is to deliver the spermatic cells to the
embryo sac for egg fertilization. The aim of this project was study
the effect of electromagnetic fields on structure and pollen grains
development in Chenopodium album. Anthers of Chenopodium
album L. were collected at different stages of development from
control (without electromagnetic field) and plants grown at 10m from
the field sources. Structure and development of pollen grains were
studied and compared. The studying pollen structure by Light and
Scanning electron microscopy showed that electromagnetic fields
reduction of pollen grains number and male sterility, thus , in some
anthers, pollen grains were attached together and deformed compared
to control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures
of plants to magnetic field may cause different biological effects at
the cellular tissue and organ levels.
Abstract: Larval rearing and seed production of most of tetra fishes (Family: Characidae) is critical due to their small size larvae and limited numbers of spawning attempts. During the present study the effect of different live foods on growth and survival of neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi larvae (length 3.1 ± 0.012mm, weight 0.048 ± 0.00015mg) and early fry (length = 6.44 ± 0.025mm, weight = 0.64 ± 0.003mg and 13 days old) was determined in two experiments. Experiment I was conducted for rearing the larvae by using mixed green water and Infusoria whereas, in Experiment II, early fry were fed with mixed zooplankton, decapsulated Artemia cyst and Artemia nauplii. The larvae fed on mixed green water showed significant (p
Abstract: One of the major problems in genomic field is to perform sequence comparison on DNA and protein sequences. Executing sequence comparison on the DNA and protein data is a computationally intensive task. Sequence comparison is the basic step for all algorithms in protein sequences similarity. Parallel computing is an attractive solution to provide the computational power needed to speedup the lengthy process of the sequence comparison. Our main research is to enhance the protein sequence algorithm using dynamic programming method. In our approach, we parallelize the dynamic programming algorithm using multithreaded program to perform the sequence comparison and also developed a distributed protein database among many PCs using Remote Method Interface (RMI). As a result, we showed how different sizes of protein sequences data and computation of scoring matrix of these protein sequence on different number of processors affected the processing time and speed, as oppose to sequential processing.
Abstract: 115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm
length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean
22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were
analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in
relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length
(FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin
length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL),
pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be
highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r
> 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length
has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K).
The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.
Abstract: Calcium is a vital second messenger used in signal transduction. Calcium controls secretion, cell movement, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, ciliary beating and so on. Two theories have been used to simplify the system of reaction-diffusion equations of calcium into a single equation. One is excess buffer approximation (EBA) which assumes that mobile buffer is present in excess and cannot be saturated. The other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA), which assumes that calcium binding to buffer is rapid compared to calcium diffusion rate. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop a model for calcium diffusion under excess buffer approximation in neuron cells. This model incorporates the effect of [Na+] influx on [Ca2+] diffusion,variable calcium and sodium sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, sodium and calcium channels. The proposed mathematical model leads to a system of partial differential equations which have been solved numerically using Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) approach. The numerical results have been used to study the relationships among different types of parameters such as buffer concentration, association rate, calcium permeability.
Abstract: Bioinformatics and computational biology involve
the use of techniques including applied mathematics,
informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence,
chemistry, and biochemistry to solve biological problems
usually on the molecular level. Research in computational
biology often overlaps with systems biology. Major research
efforts in the field include sequence alignment, gene finding,
genome assembly, protein structure alignment, protein structure
prediction, prediction of gene expression and proteinprotein
interactions, and the modeling of evolution. Various
global rearrangements of permutations, such as reversals and
transpositions,have recently become of interest because of their
applications in computational molecular biology. A reversal is
an operation that reverses the order of a substring of a permutation.
A transposition is an operation that swaps two adjacent
substrings of a permutation. The problem of determining the
smallest number of reversals required to transform a given
permutation into the identity permutation is called sorting by
reversals. Similar problems can be defined for transpositions
and other global rearrangements. In this work we perform a
study about some genome rearrangement primitives. We show
how a genome is modelled by a permutation, introduce some
of the existing primitives and the lower and upper bounds
on them. We then provide a comparison of the introduced
Abstract: The present study has been taken to explore the
screening of in vitro antimicrobial activities of D-galactose-binding
sponge lectin (HOL-30). HOL-30 was purified from the marine
demosponge Halichondria okadai by affinity chromatography. The
molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 30 kDa with a
single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing
conditions. HOL-30 agglutinated trypsinized and glutaraldehydefixed
rabbit and human erythrocytes with preference for type O
erythrocytes. The lectin was subjected to evaluation for inhibition of
microbial growth by the disc diffusion method against eleven human
pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The lectin
exhibited strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria,
such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. However, it did
not affect against gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi
and Escherichia coli. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded of
Bacillus megaterium (12 in diameter) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm in
diameter) at a concentration of the lectin (250 μg/disc). On the other
hand, the antifungal activity of the lectin was investigated against six
phytopathogenic fungi based on food poisoning technique. The lectin
has shown maximum inhibition (22.83%) of mycelial growth of
Botrydiplodia theobromae at a concentration of 100 μg/mL media.
These findings indicate that the lectin may be of importance to
clinical microbiology and have therapeutic applications.
Abstract: Using DNA microarrays the comparative analysis of a
gene expression profiles is carried out in a liver and kidneys of pigs.
The hypothesis of a cross hybridization of one probe with different
cDNA sites of the same gene or different genes is checked up, and it
is shown, that cross hybridization can be a source of essential errors
at revealing of a key genes in organ-specific transcriptome. It is
reveald that distinctions in profiles of a gene expression are well coordinated
with function, morphology, biochemistry and histology of
Abstract: The amount of the information being churned out by the field of biology has jumped manifold and now requires the extensive use of computer techniques for the management of this information. The predominance of biological information such as protein sequence similarity in the biological information sea is key information for detecting protein evolutionary relationship. Protein sequence similarity typically implies homology, which in turn may imply structural and functional similarities. In this work, we propose, a learning method for detecting remote protein homology. The proposed method uses a transformation that converts protein sequence into fixed-dimensional representative feature vectors. Each feature vector records the sensitivity of a protein sequence to a set of amino acids substrings generated from the protein sequences of interest. These features are then used in conjunction with support vector machines for the detection of the protein remote homology. The proposed method is tested and evaluated on two different benchmark protein datasets and it-s able to deliver improvements over most of the existing homology detection methods.