Abstract: Visible light communication (VLC) is a new approach of optical wireless communication proposed to support the congested radio frequency (RF) spectrum. VLC systems are combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to achieve high rate transmission and high spectral efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the Pilot-Assisted Channel Estimation for DC biased Optical OFDM (PACE-DCO-OFDM) systems to reduce the effects of the distortion on the transmitted signal. Least-square (LS) and linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) estimators are implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to enhance the bit-error-rate (BER) of PACE-DCO-OFDM. Results show that DCO-OFDM system based on PACE scheme has achieved better BER performance compared to conventional system without pilot assisted channel estimation. Simulation results show that the proposed PACE-DCO-OFDM based on LMMSE algorithm can more accurately estimate the channel and achieves better BER performance when compared to the LS based PACE-DCO-OFDM and the traditional system without PACE. For the same signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB, the achieved BER is about 5×10-4 for LMMSE-PACE and 4.2×10-3 with LS-PACE while it is about 2×10-1 for system without PACE scheme.
Abstract: The capacity of conventional cellular networks has
reached its upper bound and it can be well handled by introducing
femtocells with low-cost and easy-to-deploy. Spectrum interference
issue becomes more critical in peace with the value-added multimedia
services growing up increasingly in two-tier cellular networks.
Spectrum allocation is one of effective methods in interference
mitigation technology. This paper proposes a game-theory-based on
OFDMA downlink spectrum allocation aiming at reducing co-channel
interference in two-tier femtocell networks. The framework is
formulated as a non-cooperative game, wherein the femto base
stations are players and frequency channels available are strategies.
The scheme takes full account of competitive behavior and
fairness among stations. In addition, the utility function reflects
the interference from the standpoint of channels essentially. This
work focuses on co-channel interference and puts forward a negative
logarithm interference function on distance weight ratio aiming
at suppressing co-channel interference in the same layer network.
This scenario is more suitable for actual network deployment and
the system possesses high robustness. According to the proposed
mechanism, interference exists only when players employ the same
channel for data communication. This paper focuses on implementing
spectrum allocation in a distributed fashion. Numerical results show
that signal to interference and noise ratio can be obviously improved
through the spectrum allocation scheme and the users quality of
service in downlink can be satisfied. Besides, the average spectrum
efficiency in cellular network can be significantly promoted as
simulations results shown.
Abstract: Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.
Abstract: One of the main challenges in MIMO-OFDM system
to achieve the expected performances in terms of data rate
and robustness against multi-path fading channels is the channel
estimation. Several methods were proposed in the literature based on
either least square (LS) or minimum mean squared error (MMSE)
estimators. These methods present high implementation complexity
as they require the inversion of large matrices. In order to overcome
this problem and to reduce the complexity, this paper presents
a solution that benefits from the use of the STBC encoder and
transforms the channel estimation process into a set of simple
linear operations. The proposed method is evaluated via simulation
in AWGN-Rayleigh fading channel. Simulation results show a
maximum reduction of 6.85% of the bit error rate (BER) compared to
the one obtained with the ideal case where the receiver has a perfect
knowledge of the channel.
Abstract: Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.
Abstract: With the exponential growth of cellular users, a new generation of cellular networks is needed to enhance the required peak data rates. The co-channel interference between neighboring base stations inhibits peak data rate increase. To overcome this interference, multi-cell cooperation known as coordinated multipoint transmission is proposed. Such a solution makes use of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems under two different structures: Micro- and macro-diversity. In this paper, we study the capacity and bit error rate in cellular networks using MIMO technology. We analyse both micro- and macro-diversity schemes and develop a hybrid model that switches between macro- and micro-diversity in the case of hard handoff based on a cut-off range of signal-to-noise ratio values. We conclude that our hybrid switched micro-macro MIMO system outperforms classical MIMO systems at the cost of increased hardware and software complexity.
Abstract: Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.
Abstract: We address the problem of interference over all the channels in multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems. This paper contributes three beamforming strategies designed for multiuser multiple-input and multiple-output by way of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, in which the transmit and receive beamformers are acquired repetitious by secure-form stages. In the principal case, the transmit (TX) beamformers remain fixed then the receive (RX) beamformers are computed. This eradicates one interference span for every user by means of extruding the transmit beamformers into a null space of relevant channels. Formerly, by gratifying the orthogonality condition to exclude the residual interferences in RX beamformer for every user is done by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The second case comprises mutually optimizing the TX and RX beamformers from controlled SNR maximization. The outcomes of first case is used here. The third case also includes combined optimization of TX-RX beamformers; however, uses the both controlled SNR and signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio maximization (SINR). By the standardized channel model for IEEE 802.11n, the proposed simulation experiments offer rapid beamforming and enhanced error performance.
Abstract: In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.
Abstract: In recent years, a multi-antenna system is actively used
to improve the performance of the communication. A MIMO-OFDM
system can provide multiplexing gain or diversity gain. These gains
are obtained in proportion to the increase of the number of antennas.
In order to provide the optimal gain of the MIMO-OFDM system,
various transmission and reception schemes are presented. This paper
aims to propose a hybrid scheme that base station provides both
diversity gain and multiplexing gain at the same time.
Abstract: In a wireless communication system, the failure of base
station can result in a communication disruption in the cell. This paper
proposes a way to deal with the failure of base station in a wireless
communication system based on OFDM. Cooperative communication
of the adjacent base stations can be a solution of the problem. High
performance is obtained by the configuration of transmission signals
which is applied CDD scheme in the cooperative communication.
The Cooperative scheme can be a e ective solution in case of the
Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication
systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to
frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern
with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)
of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for
PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit
sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel
combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and
CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently
applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as
computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades
bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can
be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio
(CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm
achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced
Abstract: In order to achieve high data rate and increase the
spectral efficiency, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system has
been proposed. However, multiple antennas are limited by size and
cost. Therefore, recently developed cooperative diversity scheme,
which profits the transmit diversity only with the existing hardware by
constituting a virtual antenna array, can be a solution. However, most
of the introduced cooperative techniques have a common fault of
decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the
decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In
this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD)
scheme that use hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the
rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.
Abstract: Because current wireless communication requires high
reliability in a limited bandwidth environment, this paper proposes
the variable modulation scheme based on the codebook. The variable
modulation scheme adjusts transmission power using the codebook in
accordance with channel state. Also, if the codebook is composed of
many bits, the reliability is more improved by the proposed scheme.
The simulation results show that the performance of proposed scheme
has better reliability than the the performance of conventional scheme.
Abstract: In the cooperative transmission scheme, both the
cellular system and broadcasting system are composed. Two cellular
base stations (CBSs) communicating with a user in the cell edge use
cooperative transmission scheme in the conventional scheme. In the
case that the distance between two CBSs and the user is distant, the
conventional scheme does not guarantee the quality of the
communication because the channel condition is bad. Therefore, if the
distance between CBSs and a user is distant, the performance of the
conventional scheme is decreased. Also, the bad channel condition has
bad effects on the performance. The proposed scheme uses two relays
to communicate well with CBSs when the channel condition between
CBSs and the user is poor. Using the relay in the high attenuation
environment can obtain both advantages of the high bit error rate
(BER) and throughput performance.
Abstract: The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
(OFDM) with high data rate, high spectral efficiency and its ability to
mitigate the effects of multipath makes them most suitable in wireless
application. Impulsive noise distorts the OFDM transmission and
therefore methods must be investigated to suppress this noise. In this
paper, a State Space Recursive Least Square (SSRLS) algorithm
based adaptive impulsive noise suppressor for OFDM
communication system is proposed. And a comparison with another
adaptive algorithm is conducted. The state space model-dependent
recursive parameters of proposed scheme enables to achieve steady
state mean squared error (MSE), low bit error rate (BER), and faster
convergence than that of some of existing algorithm.
Abstract: We address a new integer frequency offset (IFO)
estimation scheme with an aid of a pilot for orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing systems. After correlating each continual pilot
with a predetermined scattered pilot, the correlation value is again
correlated to alleviate the influence of the timing offset. From
numerical results, it is demonstrated that the influence of the timing
offset on the IFO estimation is significantly decreased.
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of friendly
jamming power allocation strategies on the achievable average
secrecy rate over a bank of parallel fading wiretap channels.
We investigate the achievable average secrecy rate in parallel
fading wiretap channels subject to Rayleigh and Rician fading.
The achievable average secrecy rate, due to the presence of a
line-of-sight component in the jammer channel is also evaluated.
Moreover, we study the detrimental effect of correlation across the
parallel sub-channels, and evaluate the corresponding decrease in the
achievable average secrecy rate for the various fading configurations.
We also investigate the tradeoff between the transmission power
and the jamming power for a fixed total power budget. Our
results, which are applicable to current orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) communications systems, shed further light on
the achievable average secrecy rates over a bank of parallel fading
channels in the presence of friendly jammers.
Abstract: We address the integer frequency offset (IFO)
estimation under the influence of the timing offset (TO) in orthogonal
frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. Incorporating the
IFO and TO into the symbol set used to represent the received
OFDM symbol, we investigate the influence of the TO on the IFO,
and then, propose a combining method between two consecutive
OFDM correlations, reducing the influence. The proposed scheme
has almost the same complexity as that of the conventional
schemes, whereas it does not need the TO knowledge contrary to
the conventional schemes. From numerical results it is confirmed
that the proposed scheme is insensitive to the TO, consequently,
yielding an improvement of the IFO estimation performance over
the conventional schemes when the TO exists.