Abstract: The first and best known quantum protocol BB84, whose security is unconditional allows the transmission of a key with a length equal to that of the message. This key used with an encryption algorithm leads to an unbreakable cryptographic scheme. Despite advantages the protocol still can be improved in at least two aspects: its efficiency which is of about 50%, only half of the photons transmitted are used to create the encryption key and the second aspect refers to the communication that takes place on the classic channel, as it must be reduced or even eliminated. The paper presents a method that improves the two aspects of the BB84 protocol by using quantum memory and eight states of polarization. The implementation of both the proposed method and the BB84 protocol was done through a C# application.
Abstract: A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.
Abstract: The commercial production of biodiesel using microalgae demands a high-energy input for harvesting biomass, making production economically unfeasible. Methods currently used involve mechanical, chemical, and biological procedures. In this work, a flocculation system is presented as a cost and energy effective process to increase biomass production of Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This diatom is the only species of the genus that present fast growth and lipid accumulation ability that are of great interest for biofuel production. The algae, selected from the Bank of Microalgae, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Bahia (Brazil), have been bred in tubular reactor with photoperiod of 12 h (clear/dark), providing luminance of about 35 μmol photons m-2s-1, and temperature of 22 °C. The medium used for growing cells was the Conway medium, with addition of silica. The seaweed growth curve was accompanied by cell count in Neubauer camera and by optical density in spectrophotometer, at 680 nm. The precipitation occurred at the end of the stationary phase of growth, 21 days after inoculation, using two methods: centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 5 min, and electro-flocculation at 19 EPD and 95 W. After precipitation, cells were frozen at -20 °C and, subsequently, lyophilized. Biomass obtained by electro-flocculation was approximately four times greater than the one achieved by centrifugation. The benefits of this method are that no addition of chemical flocculants is necessary and similar cultivation conditions can be used for the biodiesel production and pharmacological purposes. The results may contribute to improve biodiesel production costs using marine microalgae.
Abstract: The research, in this case, considers the integration of the Quantum Field Theory and the General Relativity Theory. As two successful models in explaining behaviors of particles, they are incompatible since they work at different masses and scales of energy, with the evidence that regards the description of black holes and universe formation. It is so considering previous efforts in merging the two theories, including the likes of the String Theory, Quantum Gravity models, and others. In a bid to prove an actionable experiment, the paper’s approach starts with the derivations of the existing theories at present. It goes on to test the derivations by applying the same initial assumptions, coupled with several deviations. The resulting equations get similar results to those of classical Newton model, quantum mechanics, and general relativity as long as conditions are normal. However, outcomes are different when conditions are extreme, specifically with no breakdowns even for less than Schwarzschild radius, or at Planck length cases. Even so, it proves the possibilities of integrating the two theories.
Abstract: GaInAsSb cells probably show better performance than GaSb cells in low-temperature thermophotovoltaic systems due to lower bandgap; however, few experiments proved this phenomenon so far. In this paper, numerical simulation is used to evaluate GaInAsSb and GaSb cells with similar structures under different radiation temperatures. We found that GaInAsSb cells with n-type emitters show slightly higher output power densities compared with that of GaSb cells with n-type emitters below 1,550 K-blackbody radiation, and the power density of the later cells will suppress the formers above this temperature point. During the temperature range of 1,000~2,000 K, the efficiencies of GaSb cells are about twice of GaInAsSb cells if perfect filters are used to prevent the emission of the non-absorbed long wavelength photons. Several parameters that affect the GaInAsSb cell were analyzed, such as doping profiles, thicknesses of GaInAsSb epitaxial layer and surface recombination velocity. The non-p junctions, i.e., n-type emitters are better for GaInAsSb cell fabrication, which is similar to that of GaSb cells.
Abstract: The total mass attenuation coefficients m/r, of some halides such as, NaCl, KCl, CuCl, NaBr, KBr, RbCl, AgCl, NaI, KI, AgBr, CsI, HgCl2, CdI2 and HgI2 were determined at photon energies 279.2, 320.07, 514.0, 661.6, 1115.5, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV in a well-collimated narrow beam good geometry set-up using a high resolution, hyper pure germanium detector. The mass attenuation coefficients and the effective atomic cross sections are found to be in good agreement with the XCOM values. From these mass attenuation coefficients, the effective atomic cross sections sa, of the compounds were determined. These effective atomic cross section sa data so obtained are then used to compute the effective atomic numbers Zeff. For this, the interpolation of total attenuation cross-sections of photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed by using the logarithmic regression analysis of the data measured by the authors and reported earlier for the above said energies along with XCOM data for standard energies. The best-fit coefficients in the photon energy range of 250 to 350 keV, 350 to 500 keV, 500 to 700 keV, 700 to 1000 keV and 1000 to 1500 keV by a piecewise interpolation method were then used to find the Zeff of the compounds with respect to the effective atomic cross section sa from the relation obtained by piece wise interpolation method. Using these Zeff values, the electron densities Nel of halides were also determined. The present Zeff and Nel values of halides are found to be in good agreement with the values calculated from XCOM data and other available published values.
Abstract: Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of
a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around
the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics,
radiation, photons respectively, should be absorbed by the electron.
Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of
rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of
photons absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new
energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton,
is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that
radiation, photons respectively, have mass and negative electrostatic
charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments
which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion,
photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.
Abstract: Recently, there is a lot of interest in the field of under
water optical wireless communication for short range because of
its high bandwidth. But in most of the previous works line of
sight propagation or single scattering of photons only considered.
In practical case this is not applicable because of beam blockage in
underwater and multiple scattering also occurred during the photons
propagation through water. In this paper we consider a non-line
of sight underwater wireless optical communication system with
multiple scattering and examine the performance of the system using
monte carlo simulation. The distribution scattering angle of photons
are modeled by Henyey-Greenstein method. The average bit error
rate is calculated using on-off keying modulation for different water
Abstract: In this paper, extract of papaya leaves are used as a
natural dye and combined by variations of solvent concentration
applied on DSSC (Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell). Indonesian geographic
located on the equator line occasions the magnitude of the potential
to develop organic solar cells made from extracts of chlorophyll as a
substitute for inorganic materials or synthetic dye on DSSC material.
Dye serves as absorbing photons which are then converted into
electrical energy. A conductive coated glass layer called TCO
(Transparent Conductive Oxide) is used as a substrate of electrode.
TiO2 nanoparticles as binding dye molecules, redox couple iodide/
tri-iodide as the electrolyte and carbon as the counter electrode in the
DSSC are used. TiO2 nanoparticles, organic dyes, electrolytes, and
counter electrode are arranged and combined with the layered
structure of the photo-catalyst absorption layer. Dye absorption
measurements using a spectrophotometer at 400-800 nm light
spectrum produces a total amount of chlorophyll 80.076 mg/l. The
test cell at 7 watt LED light with 5000 lux luminescence was
obtained Voc and Isc of 235.5 mV and 14 μA, respectively.
Abstract: Theiterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique.A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out.
The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shieldconfiguration.The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1MeV photons.
It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.
Abstract: In this paper, a one - dimensional microstructure tungsten grating (pyramids) is optimized for potential application as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) emitter. The influence of gratings geometric parameters on the spectral emittance are studied by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA).The results show that the spectral emittance is affected by the gratings geometrical parameters. The optimum parameters are grating period of 0.5µm, a filling ratio of 0.8 and grating height of h=0.2µm. A broad peak of high emittance is obtained at wavelengths between 0.5 and 1.8µm. The emittance drops below 0.2 at wavelengths above 1.8µm. This can be explained by the surface plasmon polaritons excitation coupled with the grating microstructures. At longer wavelengths, the emittance remains low and this is highly desired for thermophotovoltaic applications to reduce the thermal leakage due to low-energy photons that do not produce any photocurrent. The proposed structure can be used as a selective emitter for a narrow band gap cell such as GaSb. The performance of this simple 1-D emitter proved to be superior to that from more complicated structures. Almost all the radiation from the emitter incident, at angles up to 40°, on the cell, could be utilized to produce a photocurrent. There is no need for a filter.
Abstract: The angular distribution of Compton scattering of two
quanta originating in the annihilation of a positron with an electron
is investigated as a quantum key distribution (QKD) mechanism in
the gamma spectral range. The geometry of coincident Compton
scattering is observed on the two sides as a way to obtain partially
correlated readings on the quantum channel. We derive the noise
probability density function of a conceptually equivalent prepare
and measure quantum channel in order to evaluate the limits of the
concept in terms of the device secrecy capacity and estimate it at
roughly 1.9 bits per 1 000 annihilation events. The high error rate
is well above the tolerable error rates of the common reconciliation
protocols; therefore, the proposed key agreement protocol by public
discussion requires key reconciliation using classical error-correcting
codes. We constructed a prototype device based on the readily
available monolithic detectors in the least complex setup.
Abstract: The possibility of intrinsic electromagnetic fields
within living cells and their resonant self-interaction and interaction
with ambient electromagnetic fields is suggested on the basis of a
theoretical and experimental study. It is reported that intrinsic
electromagnetic fields are produced in the form of radio-frequency
and infra-red photons within atoms (which may be coupled or
uncoupled) in cellular structures, such as the cell cytoskeleton and
plasma membrane. A model is presented for the interaction of these
photons among themselves or with atoms under a dipole-dipole
coupling, induced by single-photon or two-photon processes. This
resonance is manifested by conspicuous field amplification and it is
argued that it is possible for these resonant photons to undergo
tunnelling in the form of evanescent waves to a short range (of a few
nanometers to micrometres). This effect, suggested as a resonant
photon tunnelling mechanism in this report, may enable these fields
to act as intracellular signal communication devices and as bridges
between macromolecules or cellular structures in the cell
cytoskeleton, organelles or membrane. A brief overview of an
experimental technique and a review of some preliminary results are
presented, in the detection of these fields produced in living cell
membranes under physiological conditions.
Abstract: This paper considers various channels of gammaquantum
generation via an ultra-short high-power laser pulse
interaction with different targets.We analyse the possibilities to create
a pulsed gamma-radiation source using laser triggering of some
nuclear reactions and isomer targets. It is shown that sub-MeV
monochromatic short pulse of gamma-radiation can be obtained with
pulse energy of sub-mJ level from isomer target irradiated by intense
laser pulse. For nuclear reaction channel in light- atom materials, it is
shown that sub-PW laser pulse gives rise to formation about million
gamma-photons of multi-MeV energy.
Abstract: We propose the use of magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) to realize single-qubit quantum gates. We consider longitudinal and polar MOKE in reflection geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to both the plane of incidence and surface of the film. MOKE couples incident TE and TM polarized photons and the Hamiltonian that represents this interaction is isomorphic to that of a canonical two-level quantum system. By varying the phase and amplitude of the magnetic field, we can realize Hadamard, NOT, and arbitrary phase-shift single-qubit quantum gates. The principal advantage is operation with magnetically non-transparent materials.
Abstract: Ovshinsky initiated scientific research in the field of
amorphous and disordered materials that continues to this day. The
Ovshinsky Effect where the resistance of thin GST films is
significantly reduced upon the application of low voltage is of
fundamental importance in phase-change - random access memory
(PC-RAM) devices.GST stands for GdSbTe chalcogenide type
glasses.However, the Ovshinsky Effect is not without controversy.
Ovshinsky thought the resistance of GST films is reduced by the
redistribution of charge carriers; whereas, others at that time including
many PC-RAM researchers today argue that the GST resistance
changes because the GST amorphous state is transformed to the
crystalline state by melting, the heat supplied by external heaters. In
this controversy, quantum mechanics (QM) asserts the heat capacity of
GST films vanishes, and therefore melting cannot occur as the heat
supplied cannot be conserved by an increase in GST film
temperature.By precluding melting, QM re-opens the controversy
between the melting and charge carrier mechanisms. Supporting
analysis is presented to show that instead of increasing GST film
temperature, conservation proceeds by the QED induced creation of
photons within the GST film, the QED photons confined by TIR. QED
stands for quantum electrodynamics and TIR for total internal
reflection. The TIR confinement of QED photons is enhanced by the
fact the absorbedheat energy absorbed in the GST film is concentrated
in the TIR mode because of their high surface to volume ratio. The
QED photons having Planck energy beyond the ultraviolet produce
excitons by the photoelectric effect, the electrons and holes of which
reduce the GST film resistance.
Abstract: For gamma radiation detection, assemblies having
scintillation crystals and a photomultiplier tube, also there is a
preamplifier connected to the detector because the signals from
photomultiplier tube are of small amplitude. After pre-amplification
the signals are sent to the amplifier and then to the multichannel
analyser. The multichannel analyser sorts all incoming electrical
signals according to their amplitudes and sorts the detected photons
in channels covering small energy intervals. The energy range of
each channel depends on the gain settings of the multichannel
analyser and the high voltage across the photomultiplier tube. The
exit spectrum data of the two main isotopes studied ,putting data in
biomass program ,process it by Matlab program to get the solid
holdup image (solid spherical nuclear fuel)
Abstract: The overall penumbra is usually defined as the
distance, p20–80, separating the 20% and 80% of the dose on the beam axis at the depth of interest. This overall penumbra accounts
also for the fact that some photons emitted by the distal parts of the source are only partially attenuated by the collimator. Medulloblastoma is the most common type of childhood brain tumor
and often spreads to the spine. Current guidelines call for surgery to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation of the brain and spinal cord, and finally treatment with chemotherapy.
The purpose of this paper was to present results on an Uniformity of dose distribution in radiation fields surrounding the spine using film
dosimetry and comparison with 3D treatment planning software.
Abstract: A Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a radioisotope imaging technique that illustrates the organs and the metabolisms of the human body. This technique is based on the simultaneous detection of 511 keV annihilation photons, annihilated as a result of electrons annihilating positrons that radiate from positron-emitting radioisotopes that enter biological active molecules in the body. This study was conducted on ten patients in an effort to conduct patient-related experimental studies. Dosage monitoring for the bladder, which was the organ that received the highest dose during PET applications, was conducted for 24 hours. Assessment based on measuring urination activities after injecting patients was also a part of this study. The MIRD method was used to conduct dosage calculations for results obtained from experimental studies. Results obtained experimentally and theoretically were assessed comparatively.
Abstract: Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) is a
technique in which a single radioactive tracer particle can be
accurately tracked as it moves. A limitation of PET is that in order to
reconstruct a tomographic image it is necessary to acquire a large
volume of data (millions of events), so it is difficult to study rapidly
changing systems. By considering this fact, PEPT is a very fast
process compared with PET.
In PEPT detecting both photons defines a line and the annihilation
is assumed to have occurred somewhere along this line. The location
of the tracer can be determined to within a few mm from coincident
detection of a small number of pairs of back-to-back gamma rays and
using triangulation. This can be achieved many times per second and
the track of a moving particle can be reliably followed. This
technique was invented at the University of Birmingham .
The attempt in PEPT is not to form an image of the tracer particle
but simply to determine its location with time. If this tracer is
followed for a long enough period within a closed, circulating system
it explores all possible types of motion.
The application of PEPT to industrial process systems carried out
at the University of Birmingham is categorized in two subjects: the
behaviour of granular materials and viscous fluids. Granular
materials are processed in industry for example in the manufacture of
pharmaceuticals, ceramics, food, polymers and PEPT has been used
in a number of ways to study the behaviour of these systems .
PEPT allows the possibility of tracking a single particle within the
bed . Also PEPT has been used for studying systems such as: fluid
flow, viscous fluids in mixers , using a neutrally-buoyant tracer