Abstract: The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.
Abstract: It is the patient compliance and stability in
combination with controlled drug delivery and biocompatibility that
forms the core feature in present research and development of
sustained biodegradable patch formulation intended for wound
healing. The aim was to impart sustained degradation, sterile
formulation, significant folding endurance, elasticity,
biodegradability, bio-acceptability and strength. The optimized
formulation comprised of polymers including Hydroxypropyl methyl
cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin, and Citric Acid PEG Citric
acid (CPEGC) triblock dendrimers and active Curcumin. Polymeric
mixture dissolved in geometric order in suitable medium through
continuous stirring under ambient conditions. With continued stirring
Curcumin was added with aid of DCM and Methanol in optimized
ratio to get homogenous dispersion. The dispersion was sonicated
with optimum frequency and for given time and later casted to form a
patch form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions.
The formulations obtained in the acceptable working range were
decided based on thickness, uniformity of drug content, smooth
texture and flexibility and brittleness. The patch kept on stability
using butter paper in sterile pack displayed folding endurance in
range of 20 to 23 times without any evidence of crack in an
optimized formulation at room temperature (RT) (24 ± 2°C). The
patch displayed acceptable parameters after stability study conducted
in refrigerated conditions (8±0.2°C) and at RT (24 ± 2°C) up to 90
days. Further, no significant changes were observed in critical
parameters such as elasticity, biodegradability, drug release and drug
content during stability study conducted at RT 24±2°C for 45 and 90
days. The drug content was in range 95 to 102%, moisture content
didn’t exceeded 19.2% and patch passed the content uniformity test.
Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and
matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation
factor R2>0.9. The biodegradable patch based formulation developed
shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.
Abstract: In this work we describe the preparation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles (NPs) for topical bactericidal applications. Highly concentrated dispersion of silver NPs as high as of 5g/L of silver with diameter of 10nm was prepared by reduction of AgNO3 via strong reducing agent NaBH4. Silver NPs were stabilized by addition of sodium polyacrylate in order to prevent their aggregation at such high concentration. This way synthesized silver NPs were subsequently incorporated into methylcellulose suspension at elevated temperature resulting in formation of NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel when temperature cooled down to laboratory conditions. In vitro antibacterial activity assay proved high bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency of silver NPs alone in the form of dispersion as well as in the form of hydrogel against broad spectrum of bacteria and yeasts including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A very low concentrations of silver as low as 0.84mg/L Ag in as-prepared dispersion gave antibacterial performance. NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel showed antibacterial action at the lowest used silver concentration equal to 25mg/L. Such prepared NanoSilver/methylcellulose hydrogel represent promising topical antimicrobial formulation for treatment of burns and wounds.
Abstract: Stirred tanks are widely used in all industrial sectors. The need for further studies of the mixing operation and its different aspects comes from the diversity of agitation tools and implemented geometries in addition to the specific characteristics of each application. Viscous fluids are often encountered in industry and they represent the majority of treated cases, as in the polymer sector, food processing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. That's why in this paper, we will present a three-dimensional numerical study using the software Fluent, to study the effect of varying the fluid viscosity in a stirred tank with a Rushton turbine. This viscosity variation was performed by adding carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to the fluid (water) in the vessel. In this work, we studied first the flow generated in the tank with a Rushton turbine. Second, we studied the effect of the fluid viscosity variation on the thermodynamic quantities defining the flow. For this, three viscosities (0.9% CMC, 1.1% CMC and 1.7% CMC) were considered.
Abstract: This presentation narrates the comparative analysis of
the dissolution data nimesulide microparticles prepared with
ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and
Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymers. The analysis of release
profiles showed that the variations noted in the release behavior of
nimesulide from various microparticulate formulations are due to the
nature of used polymer. In addition, maximum retardation in the
nimesulide release was observed with HPMC (floating particles).
Thus HPMC miacroparticles may be preferably employed for
sustained release dosage form development.
Abstract: This article demonstrated development of
controlled release system of an NSAID drug, Diclofenac
sodium employing different ratios of Ethyl cellulose.
Diclofenac sodium and ethyl cellulose in different proportions
were processed by microencapsulation based on phase
separation technique to formulate microcapsules. The
prepared microcapsules were then compressed into tablets to
obtain controlled release oral formulations. In-vitro evaluation
was performed by dissolution test of each preparation was
conducted in 900 ml of phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.2
maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C and stirred at 50 rpm. At predetermined
time intervals (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
16, 20 and 24 hrs). The drug concentration in the collected
samples was determined by UV spectrophotometer at 276 nm.
The physical characteristics of diclofenac sodium
microcapsules were according to accepted range. These were
off-white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The release
profile of diclofenac sodium from microcapsules was found to
be directly proportional to the proportion of ethylcellulose and
coat thickness. The in-vitro release pattern showed that with
ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 (drug: polymer), the percentage release of
drug at first hour was 16.91 and 11.52 %, respectively as
compared to 1:3 which is only 6.87 % with in this time. The
release mechanism followed higuchi model for its release
pattern. Tablet Formulation (F2) of present study was found
comparable in release profile the marketed brand Phlogin-SR,
microcapsules showed an extended release beyond 24 h.
Further, a good correlation was found between drug release
and proportion of ethylcellulose in the microcapsules.
Microencapsulation based on coacervation found as good
technique to control release of diclofenac sodium for making
the controlled release formulations.
Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite capable
of infecting all nucleated cells in a diverse array of species.
Toxoplasma plaque assay have been described using Bacto Agar.
Because of its experimental advantages carboxymethyl cellulose
overlay, medium viscosity was choosing and the aim of this work
was to develop alternative method for formation of T. gondii plaques.
Tachyzoites were inoculated onto monolayers of Vero cells and
cultured at 37° C under 5 % CO2. The cultures were followed up by
microscopy inspection. Small plaques were visible by naphtol blue
stain 4 days after infection. Larger plaques could be observed by day
10 of culture. The carboxymethyl cellulose is a cheap reagent and the
methodology is easier, faster than assays under agar overlay. This is
the first description of the carboxymethyl cellulose overlay use for
obtaining the formation of T. gondii plaques and may be useful in
consequent obtaining tachyzoites for detailed studies.
Abstract: This research aimed to modify pineapple leaf paper
(PALP) for using as wet media in the evaporation cooling system by
improving wet mechanical property (tensile strength) without
compromising water absorption property. Polyamideamineepichorohydrin
resin (PAE) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
were used to strengthen the paper, and the PAE and CMC ratio of
80:20 showed the optimum wet and dry tensile index values, which
were higher than those of the commercial cooling pad (CCP).
Compared with CCP, PALP itself and all the PAE/CMC modified
PALP possessed better water absorption. The PAE/CMC modified
PALP had potential to become a new type of wet media.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
mucoadhesion and the release of nicotinamide gel formulations using
in vitro methods. An agar plate technique was used to investigate the
adhesiveness of the gels whereas a diffusion apparatus was employed
to determine the release of nicotinamide from the gels. In this
respect, 10% w/w nicotinamide gels containing bioadhesive
polymers: Carbopol 934P (0.5-2% w/w), hydroxypropylmethyl
cellulose (HPMC) (4-10% w/w), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
(SCMC) (4-6% w/w) and methylcellulose 4000 (MC) (3-5% w/w)
were prepared. The gel formulations had pH values in the range of
7.14 - 8.17, which were considered appropriate to oral mucosa
application. In general, the rank order of pH values appeared to be
SCMC > MC4000 > HPMC > Carbopol 934P. Types and
concentrations of polymers used somewhat affected the
adhesiveness. It was found that anionic polymers (Carbopol 934 and
SCMC) adhered more firmly to the agar plate than the neutral
polymers (HPMC and MC 4000). The formulation containing 0.5%
Carbopol 934P (F1) showed the highest release rate. With the
exception of the formulation F1, the neutral polymers tended to give
higher relate rates than the anionic polymers. For oral tissue
treatment, the optimum has to be balanced between the residence
time (adhesiveness) of the formulations and the release rate of the
drug. The formulations containing the anionic polymers: Carbopol
934P or SCMC possessed suitable physical properties (appearance,
pH and viscosity). In addition, for anionic polymer formulations,
justifiable mucoadhesive properties and reasonable release rates of
nicotinamide were achieved. Accordingly, these gel formulations
may be applied for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions.
Abstract: This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p
Abstract: In this paper, we have focused on study of swelling kinetics and salt-sensitivity behavior of a superabsorbing hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid and 2- Buthyl methacrylate. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogels with various particle sizes was preliminary investigated as well. The swelling of the hydrogel showed a second order kinetics of swelling in water. In addition, swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels in various chloride salt solutions was measured. Results indicated that a swelling-loss with an increase in the ionic strength of the salt solutions.
Abstract: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of
texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and
desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties -
‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in
Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a
blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass
was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed
apple mass samples with added gelatin, xantan gum, and sodium
carboxymethylcellulose were whisked obtaining dessert. Pectin, pH
and soluble dry matter of the product were determined. Apparent
viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra.
Pectin content in frozen apple mass decreased significantly (p
Abstract: We aimed to investigate how can target and optimize
pulmonary delivery distribution by changing physicochemical
characteristics of instilled liquid.Therefore, we created a new liquids
a. eligible for desired distribution within lung because of
assorted physicochemical characteristics
b. capable of being augmented with a broad range of
c. no interference on respiratory function
d. compatible with airway surface liquid
We developed forty types of new liquid,were composed of
Carboxymethylcellulose sodium,Glycerin and different types of
Polysorbates.Viscosity was measured using a Programmable
Rheometer and surface tension by KRUSS Tensiometer.We
subsequently examined the liquids and delivery protocols by simple
and branched glass capillary tube models of airways.Eventually,we
explored pulmonary distribution of liquids being augmented with
technetium-99m in mechanically ventilated rabbits.We used a single
head large field of view gamma camera.Kinematic viscosity between
0.265Stokes and 0.289Stokes,density between 1g/cm3 and 1.5g/cm3
and surface tension between 25dyn/cm and 35dyn/cm were the most
Abstract: The aim of this article is to narrate the utility of novel simulation approach i.e. convolution method to predict blood concentration of drug utilizing dissolution data of salbutamol sulphate microparticulate formulations with different release patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, drug:polymer). Dissolution apparatus II USP 2007 and 900 ml double distilled water stirrd at 50 rpm was employed for dissolution analysis. From dissolution data, blood drug concentration was determined, and in return predicted blood drug concentration data was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, Tmax, and AUC. Convolution is a good biwaiver technique; however its better utility needs it application in the conditions where biorelevant dissolution media are used.