Application of Stabilized Polyaniline Microparticles for Better Protective Ability of Zinc Coatings

Coatings based on polyaniline (PANI) can improve the resistance of steel against corrosion. In this work, the preparation of stable suspensions of colloidal PANI-SiO2 particles, suitable for obtaining of composite anticorrosive coating on steel, is described. Electrokinetic data as a function of pH are presented, showing that the zeta potentials of the PANI-SiO2 particles are governed primarily by the charged groups at the silica oxide surface. Electrosteric stabilization of the PANI-SiO2 particles’ suspension against aggregation is realized at pH>5.5 (EB form of PANI) by adsorption of positively charged polyelectrolyte molecules onto negatively charged PANI-SiO2 particles. The PANI-SiO2 particles are incorporated by electrodeposition into the metal matrix of zinc in order to obtain composite (hybrid) coatings. The latter are aimed to ensure sacrificial protection of steel mainly in aggressive media leading to local corrosion damages. The surface morphology of the composite zinc coatings is investigated with SEM. The influence of PANI-SiO2 particles on the cathodic and anodic processes occurring in the starting electrolyte for obtaining of the coatings is followed with cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical and corrosion behavior is evaluated with potentiodynamic polarization curves and polarization resistance measurements. The beneficial effect of the stabilized PANI-SiO2 particles for the increased protective ability of the composites is commented and discussed.

Drop Impact Study on Flexible Superhydrophobic Surface Containing Micro-Nano Hierarchical Structures

Superhydrophobic surfaces are abundant in nature. Several surfaces such as wings of butterfly, legs of water strider, feet of gecko and the lotus leaf show extreme water repellence behaviour. Self-cleaning, stain-free fabrics, spill-resistant protective wears, drag reduction in micro-fluidic devices etc. are few applications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In order to design robust superhydrophobic surface, it is important to understand the interaction of water with superhydrophobic surface textures. In this work, we report a simple coating method for creating large-scale flexible superhydrophobic paper surface. The surface consists of multiple layers of silanized zirconia microparticles decorated with zirconia nanoparticles. Water contact angle as high as 159±10 and contact angle hysteresis less than 80 was observed. Drop impact studies on superhydrophobic paper surface were carried out by impinging water droplet and capturing its dynamics through high speed imaging. During the drop impact, the Weber number was varied from 20 to 80 by altering the impact velocity of the drop and the parameters such as contact time, normalized spread diameter were obtained. In contrast to earlier literature reports, we observed contact time to be dependent on impact velocity on superhydrophobic surface. Total contact time was split into two components as spread time and recoil time. The recoil time was found to be dependent on the impact velocity while the spread time on the surface did not show much variation with the impact velocity. Further, normalized spreading parameter was found to increase with increase in impact velocity.

Evaluation of PTFE Composites with Mineral Tailing Considering Friction, Wear and Cost

The tribological test with Pin-On-Disc configuration measures friction and wear properties in dry or lubricated sliding surfaces of a variety of materials and coatings. Polymeric matrix composites loaded with mineral filler were used, 1%, 3%, 10%, 30%, and 50% mass percentage of filler, to reduce the material cost by using mineral tailings. Using a pin-on-disc tribometer to quantify coefficient of friction and wear resistance of the specimens. The parameters known to performing the test were 300 rpm rotation, normal load of 16N and duration of 33.5 minutes. The composite with 10% mineral filler performed better, considering that the wear resistance was good when compared to the other compositions and an average low coefficient of friction, in the order of μ ≤ 0.15.

Laser-Ultrasonic Method for Measuring the Local Elastic Moduli of Porous Isotropic Composite Materials

The laser-ultrasonic method is realized for quantifying the influence of porosity on the local Young’s modulus of isotropic composite materials. The method is based on a laser thermooptical method of ultrasound generation combined with measurement of the phase velocity of longitudinal and shear acoustic waves in samples. The main advantage of this method compared with traditional ultrasonic research methods is the efficient generation of short and powerful probing acoustic pulses required for reliable testing of ultrasound absorbing and scattering heterogeneous materials. Using as an example samples of a metal matrix composite with reinforcing microparticles of silicon carbide in various concentrations, it is shown that to provide an effective increase in Young’s modulus with increasing concentration of microparticles, the porosity of the final sample should not exceed 2%.

The Catalytic Activity of Cu2O Microparticles

Copper (I) oxide microparticles with the morphology of cubic and hollow sphere were synthesized with the assistance of surfactant as the shape controller. Both particles were then subjected to study the catalytic activity and observed the results of shape effects of catalysts on rate of catalytic reaction. The decolorizing reaction of crystal violet and sodium hydroxide was chosen and measured the decreasing of reactant with respect to times using spectrophotometer. The result revealed that morphology of crystal had no effect on the catalytic activity for crystal violet reaction but contributed to total surface area predominantly.

Micro Particles Effect on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ceramic Composites - A Review

Particles are the most common and cheapest reinforcement producing discontinuous reinforced composites with isotropic properties. Conventional fabrication methods can be used to produce a wide range of product forms, making them relatively inexpensive. Optimising composite development must include consideration of all the fundamental aspect of particles including their size, shape, volume fraction, distribution and mechanical properties. Research has shown that the challenges of low fracture toughness, poor crack growth resistance and low thermal stability can be overcome by reinforcement with particles. The unique properties exhibited by micro particles reinforced ceramic composites have made them to be highly attractive in a vast array of applications.

Release Behavior of Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Polymeric Microparticles Loaded with Nimesulide

This presentation narrates the comparative analysis of the dissolution data nimesulide microparticles prepared with ethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, chitosan and Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as polymers. The analysis of release profiles showed that the variations noted in the release behavior of nimesulide from various microparticulate formulations are due to the nature of used polymer. In addition, maximum retardation in the nimesulide release was observed with HPMC (floating particles). Thus HPMC miacroparticles may be preferably employed for sustained release dosage form development.

Metoprolol Tartrate-Ethylcellulose Tabletted Microparticles: Development of a Validated Invitro In-vivo Correlation

This study describes the methodology for the development of a validated in-vitro in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metoprolol tartrate modified release dosage forms with distinctive release rate characteristics. Modified release dosage forms were formulated by microencapsulation of metoprolol tartrate into different amounts of ethylcellulose by non-solvent addition technique. Then in-vitro and in-vivo studies were conducted to develop and validate level A IVIVC for metoprolol tartrate. The values of regression co-efficient (R2-values) for IVIVC of T2 and T3 formulations were not significantly (p

Chitosan/Casein Microparticles: Preparation, Characterization and Drug Release Studies

Microparticles carrier systems made from naturally occurring polymers based on chitosan/casein system appears to be a promising carrier for the sustained release of orally and parenteral administered drugs. In the current study we followed a microencapsulation technique based aqueous coacervation method to prepare chitosan/casein microparticles of compositions 1:1, 1:2 and 1:5 incorporated with chloramphenicol. Glutaraldehyde was used as a chemical cross-linking agent. The microparticles were prepared by aerosol method and studied by optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, swelling studies and drug release studies at various pH. The percentage swelling of the polymers are found to be in the order pH 4 > pH 10 > pH 7 and the increase in casein composition decrease the swelling percentage. The drug release studies also follow the above order.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dispersion of Microparticles Emitted by Machining Operation

As a part of the development of a numerical method of close capture exhausts systems for machining devices, a test rig recreating a situation similar to a grinding operation, but in a perfectly controlled environment, is used. The properties of the obtained spray of solid particles are initially characterized using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), in order to obtain input and validation parameters for numerical simulations. The dispersion of a tracer gas (SF6) emitted simultaneously with the particle jet is then studied experimentally, as the dispersion of such a gas is representative of that of finer particles, whose aerodynamic response time is negligible. Finally, complete modeling of the test rig is achieved to allow comparison with experimental results and thus to progress towards validation of the models used to describe a twophase flow generated by machining operation.