Abstract: Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.
Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer’s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer’s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.
Abstract: There are numerous nutritional supplements, such as multivitamins and nutrition drinks, in the market today. Many of these supplements are expensive and tend to be driven commercially by business decisions and big marketing budgets. Many of the costs are ultimately borne by the end user in the quest for keeping to a healthy lifestyle. This paper proposes a system with a list of ten determinants to gauge how to decide the value of various supplements. It suggests variables such as composition, safety, efficacy and bioavailability, as well as several other considerations. These guidelines can help to tackle many of the issues that people of all ages face in the way that they receive essential nutrients. The system also aims to promote and improve the safety and choice of foods and supplements. In so doing, the system aims to promote the individual’s or population’s control over their own health and reduce the growing health care burden on the society.
Abstract: Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.
Abstract: The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.
Abstract: Plants as therapeutic agents are used as drug in many parts of the world. Medicinal plants are mostly used in developing countries due to culture acceptability, belief or due to lack of easy access to primary health care services. Jatropha curcas is a plant from the Euphorbiaceae family which is widely used in Northern Nigeria as an anti-diarrheal agent. This study was conducted to determine the anti-diarrheal effect of the leaf extract on castor oil induced diarrhea in albino rats. The leaves of J. curcas were collected from Balanga Local government in Gombe State, north-eastern Nigeria; due to its bioavailability. The leaves were air-dried at room temperature and ground to powder. Phytochemical screening was done and different concentrations of the extract was prepared and administered to the different categories of experimental animals. From the results, aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha curcas at doses of 200mg/Kg and 400mg/Kg was found to reduce the mean stool score as compared to control rats, however, maximum reduction was achieved with the standard drug of Loperamide (5mg/Kg). Treatment of diarrhea with 200mg/Kg of the extract did not produce any significant decrease in stool fluid content but was found to be significant in those rats that were treated with 400mg/Kg of the extract at 2hours (0.05±0.02) and 4hours (0.01±0.01). A significant reduction of diarrhea in the experimental animals signifies it to possess some anti-diarrheal activity.
Abstract: The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and
health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table.
Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier
foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be
somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds
present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The
aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies
about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in
human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a
functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage
and consequently can be responsible for the development of some
cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful
antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The
respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the
prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the
other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made
by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the
tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.
Abstract: The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to
destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation
to heavy metal bioavailability.
The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the
dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at
high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage
sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total
extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of
these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in
agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to
the food chain.
Abstract: Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and
dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water
soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration.
With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry,
the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as
a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers
(CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has
been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the
mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF
concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation,
slurry and cooling crystallization which representing the solution
based method co-crystal screening were used. Based on the
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the melting point of
CBZ-SA in different ratio was in the range between 188oC-189oC.
For CBZ-FA form A and CBZ-FA form B the melting point in
different ratio were in the range of 174oC-175oC and 185oC-186oC
respectively. The product crystal from the screening was also
characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD
pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA
and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings
revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different
polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were
formed from evaporation and slurry crystallization methods
respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallization method,
CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and
vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios
during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal
produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus,
it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening
since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising
approach to be considered in research and development for
pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.
Abstract: Iron is an essential nutrient with limited
bioavailability. Nutritional anemia caused mainly by iron deficiency
is the most recognized nutritional problem in both countries as well
as affluent societies. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) has become the most
important cereal crop for the improvement of human health due to the
starch, protein, oil, and the majority of micronutrients, particularly in
Asian countries. In this study, the iron availability and profile lipid
were evaluated for the extracts from Cibeusi varieties (black rices) of
ancient rice brans.
Results: The quality of K, B, R, E diets groups shows the same
effect on the growth of rats. Hematocrit and MCHC levels of rats fed
K, B, R and E diets were not significantly (P
Abstract: Risperidone (RISP) is an antipsychotic agent and has
low water solubility and nontargeted delivery results in numerous
side effects. Hence, an attempt was made to develop SLNs hydrogel
for intranasal delivery of RISP to achieve maximum bioavailability
and reduction of side effects. RISP loaded SLNs composed of 1.65%
(w/v) lipid mass were produced by high shear homogenization (HSH)
coupled ultrasound (US) method using glycerylmonostearate (GMS)
or Imwitor 900K (solid lipid). The particles were loaded with 0.2%
(w/v) of the RISP & surface-tailored with a 2.02% (w/v) non-ionic
surfactant Tween® 80. Optimization was done using 32 factorial
design using Design Expert® software. The prepared SLNs
dispersion incorporated into Polycarbophil AA1 hydrogel (0.5%
w/v). The final gel formulation was evaluated for entrapment
efficiency, particle size, rheological properties, X ray diffraction, in
vitro diffusion, ex vivo permeation using sheep nasal mucosa and
histopathological studies for nasocilliary toxicity. The entrapment
efficiency of optimized SLNs was found to be 76 ± 2%,
Abstract: Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the
natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting
product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for
agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most
important tools for waste management, by the European Community
legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as
a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants
from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in
phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of
resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil
fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of
Abstract: The main perspective of the present study aims at overcoming solubility problems by using the technique of solid dispersion. Repaglinide is a BCS Class II drug, having low aqueous solubility and therefore, low bioavailability. Solid dispersions of repaglinide with different carriers Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) in different ratios were prepared by suspending method and Dissolving methods. In vitro release studies revealed that the F7 formulation showed extended drug release. So, the dissolution profile of solid dispersion containing EC and PVP K30 (1: 3) was selected as the best formulation because of its extended drug release among all formulations. In conclusion, solid dispersions of Repaglinide in PVP have shown to be a promising approach to improve the bioavailability of Repaglinide.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to prepare time and pH dependent release tablets of Ayurvedic Churna formulation and evaluate their advantages as colon targeted drug delivery system. The Vidangadi Churna was selected for this study which contains Embelin and Gallic acid. Embelin is used in Helminthiasis as therapeutic agent. Embelin is insoluble in water and unstable in gastric environment so it was formulated in time and pH dependent tablets coated with combination of two polymers Eudragit L100 and ethyl cellulose. The 150mg of core tablet of dried extract and lactose were prepared by wet granulation method. The compression coating was used in the polymer concentration of 150mg for both the layer as upper and lower coating tablet was investigated. The results showed that no release was found in 0.1 N HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffers for initial 5 hours and about 98.97% of the drug was released in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer in total 17 Hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed first order kinetics as highest linearity (r2= 0.9943). The results of the present study have demonstrated that the time and pH dependent tablets system is a promising vehicle for preventing rapid hydrolysis in gastric environment and improving oral bioavailability of Embelin and Gallic acid for treatment of Helminthiasis.
Abstract: Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, Sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing Piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.
Abstract: Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.
Abstract: Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes
are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered
drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to
increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as
nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their
solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of
solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate
lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface
active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative
method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest.
One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of
surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or
SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a
drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base
was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed.
Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of
the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were
determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed.
The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with
pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.
Abstract: Trace element speciation of an integrated soil
amendment matrix was studied with a modified BCR sequential
extraction procedure. The analysis included pseudo-total
concentration determinations according to USEPA 3051A and
relevant physicochemical properties by standardized methods. Based
on the results, the soil amendment matrix possessed neutralization
capacity comparable to commercial fertilizers. Additionally, the
pseudo-total concentrations of all trace elements included in the
Finnish regulation for agricultural fertilizers were lower than the
respective statutory limit values. According to chemical speciation,
the lability of trace elements increased in the following order: Hg <
Cr < Co < Cu < As < Zn < Ni < Pb < Cd < V < Mo < Ba. The
validity of the BCR approach as a tool for chemical speciation was
confirmed by the additional acid digestion phase. Recovery of trace
elements during the procedure assured the validity of the approach
and indicated good quality of the analytical work.
Abstract: Losses of surfactant due to sorption need to be
considered when selecting surfactant doses for soil bioremediation.
The degree of surfactant sorption onto soil depends primarily on the
organic carbon fraction of soil and the chemical nature of the
surfactant. The use of biosurfactants in the control of the
bioavailability of toxicants in soils is an attractive option because of
their biodegradability. In this work biosurfactants were produced
from a cheap raw material, trimming vine shoots, employing
Lactobacillus pentosus. When biosurfactants from L. pentosus was
added to sediments the surface tensión of the water containing the
sediments rapidly increase, the same behaviour was observed with
the chemical surfactant Tween 20; whereas sodyum dodecyl sulphate
(SDS) kept the surface tension of the water around 36 mN/m. It
means, that the behaviour of biosurfactants from L. pentosus is more
similar to non-ionic surfactatns than to anionic surfactants.