Abstract: The objective of this manuscript is to find area under the plasma concentration- time curve (AUC) for multiple doses of salbutamol sulphate sustained release tablets (Ventolin® oral tablets SR 8 mg, GSK, Pakistan) in the group of 18 healthy adults by using computational mathematics techniques. Following the administration of 4 doses of Ventolin® tablets 12 hourly to 24 healthy human subjects and bioanalysis of obtained plasma samples, plasma drug concentration-time profile was constructed. AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter, was measured using integrated equation of multiple oral dose regimens. The approximated AUC was also calculated by using computational mathematics techniques such as repeated rectangular, repeated trapezium and repeated Simpson's rule and compared with exact value of AUC calculated by using integrated equation of multiple oral dose regimens to find best computational mathematics method that gives AUC values closest to exact. The exact values of AUC for four consecutive doses of Ventolin® oral tablets were 150.5819473, 157.8131756, 164.4178231 and 162.78 ng.h/ml while the closest values approximated AUC values were 149.245962, 157.336171, 164.2585768 and 162.289224 ng.h/ml, respectively as found by repeated rectangular rule. The errors in the approximated values of AUC were negligible. It is concluded that all computational tools approximated values of AUC accurately but the repeated rectangular rule gives slightly better approximated values of AUC as compared to repeated trapezium and repeated Simpson's rules.
Abstract: In the present study, development of salbutamol
sulphate nanoparticles that adhere to gastric mucus was investigated.
Salbutamol sulphate has low bioavailability due to short transit time in
gastric. It also has a positive surface charge that provides hurdles to be
encapsulated by the positively strong mucoadhesive polymer of
chitosan. To overcome the difficulties, the surface charge of active
ingredient was modified using several nonionic and anionic
stomach-specific polymers. The nanoparticles were prepared using
ionotropic gelation technique. The evaluation involved determination
of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug
release and in vitro mucoadhesion test. Results exhibited that the use
of anionic alginate polymer was more satisfactory than that of
nonionic polymer. Characteristics of the particles was nano-size, high
encapsulation efficiency, fulfilled the drug release requirements and
adhesive towards stomach for around 11 hours. This result shows that
the salbutamol sulphate nanoparticles can be utilized for improvement
Abstract: The aim of this article is to narrate the utility of novel simulation approach i.e. convolution method to predict blood concentration of drug utilizing dissolution data of salbutamol sulphate microparticulate formulations with different release patterns (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, drug:polymer). Dissolution apparatus II USP 2007 and 900 ml double distilled water stirrd at 50 rpm was employed for dissolution analysis. From dissolution data, blood drug concentration was determined, and in return predicted blood drug concentration data was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters i.e. Cmax, Tmax, and AUC. Convolution is a good biwaiver technique; however its better utility needs it application in the conditions where biorelevant dissolution media are used.