Abstract: Electrospinning is the most widely utilized method to create nanofibers because of the direct setup, the capacity to mass-deliver consistent nanofibers from different polymers, and the ability to produce ultrathin fibers with controllable diameters. Smooth and much arranged ultrafine Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with diameters going from submicron to nanometer were delivered utilizing Electrospinning technique. PAN powder was used as a precursor to prepare the solution utilized as a part of this process. At the point when the electrostatic repulsion contradicted surface tension, a charged stream of polymer solution was shot out from the head of the spinneret and along these lines ultrathin nonwoven fibers were created. The effect of electrospinning parameter such as applied voltage, feed rate, concentration of polymer solution and tip to collector distance on the morphology of electrospun PAN nanofibers were investigated. The nanofibers were heat treated for carbonization to examine the changes in properties and composition to make for electrical application. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed before and after carbonization to study electrical conductivity and morphological characterization. The SEM images have shown the uniform fiber diameter and no beads formation. The average diameter of the PAN fiber observed 365nm and 280nm for flat plat and rotating drum collector respectively. The four probe strategy was utilized to inspect the electrical conductivity of the nanofibers and the electrical conductivity is significantly improved with increase in oxidation temperature exposed.
Abstract: Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.
Abstract: Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.
Abstract: Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.
Abstract: In this study, Bombyx mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) nanocomposite with different GT ratio (SF/GT 100/0, 90/10 and 70/30) were prepared by electrospinning process and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor. Properties of crosslinked SF/GT nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical test, water uptake capacity (WUC) and porosity. From SEM images, it was found that fiber diameter increased as GT content increased. The results of mechanical test indicated that the SF/GT 70/30 nanocomposites had both the highest Young’s modulus of 342 MPa and the highest tensile strength of about 14 MPa. However, porosity and WUC decreased from 62% and 405% for pristine SF to 47% and 232% for SF/GT 70/30, respectively. This behavior can be related to higher degree of crosslinking as GT ratio increased which altered the structure and physical properties of scaffolds. This study showed that incorporation of GT into SF nanofibers can enhance mechanical properties of resultant nanocomposite, but the GA treatment should be optimized to control and fine-tune other properties to warrant their biomedical application.
Abstract: Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.
Abstract: Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.
Abstract: For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.
Abstract: In this paper, MCM-41 mesoporous material nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a silica source and fiber forming source, respectively. TEM and SEM images showed synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers with a diameter of 200 nm. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers was 2.2 nm and 970 m2/g, respectively. The morphology of the MCM-41 nanofibers depended on spinning voltages.
Abstract: This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.
Abstract: The production of nanofibers and the machinery for their production is a current issue. The pioneer, in the industrial production of nanofibers, is the machinery with the sales descriptions NanospiderTM from the company Elmarco, which came into being in 2008. Most of the production facilities, like NanospiderTM, use electrospinning. There are also other methods of industrial production of nanofibers, such as the centrifugal spinning process, which is used by FibeRio Technology Corporation. However, each method and machine has its advantages, but also disadvantages and that is the reason why a new machine called as Nanomachine, which eliminates the disadvantages of other production facilities producing nanofibers, has been developed.
Abstract: Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less
than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon
nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon
nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in
proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated
experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL)
in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of
nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to
understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to
the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity
performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at
PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF,
ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with
PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF,
Abstract: Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina
izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel
processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature
calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of
NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm
could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by
XRD and SEM analyses.
Abstract: In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) was dissolved
in chloroform:ethanol solvent system at a concentration of 18 w/v %.
1, 2, 4, and 6 droplets of formic acid were added to the prepared 10ml
PCL-chloroform:ethanol solutions separately. Fibrous webs were
produced by electrospinning technique based on the horizontal
working principle. Morphology of the webs was investigated by
using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas fiber diameters
were measured by Image J Software System. The effect of formic
acid addition to the mostly used chloroform solvent on fiber
morphology was examined.
Results indicate that there is a distinct fall in fiber diameter with
the addition of formic acid drops. The average fiber diameter was
measured as 2.22μm in PCL /chloroform:ethanol solution system. On
the other hand, 328nm and 256 nm average fiber diameters were
measured for the samples of 4 drops and 6 drops formic acid added.
This study offers alternative solvent systems to produce nanoscaled,
nontoxic PCL fibrous webs by electrospinning technique.
Abstract: Poly vinyl acetate (PVA)-based titania (TiO2)–carbon
nanotube composite nanofibers (PVA-TCCNs) with various
PVA-to-solvent ratios and PVA-based TiO2 composite nanofibers
(PVA-TN) were synthesized using an electrospinning process,
followed by thermal treatment. The photocatalytic activities of these
nanofibers in the degradation of airborne monocyclic aromatics under
visible-light irradiation were examined. This study focuses on the
application of these photocatalysts to the degradation of the target
compounds at sub-part-per-million indoor air concentrations. The
characteristics of the photocatalysts were examined using scanning
electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible
spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. For all the
target compounds, the PVA-TCCNs showed photocatalytic
degradation efficiencies superior to those of the reference PVA-TN.
Specifically, the average photocatalytic degradation efficiencies for
benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) obtained using
the PVA-TCCNs with a PVA-to-solvent ratio of 0.3 (PVA-TCCN-0.3)
were 11%, 59%, 89%, and 92%, respectively, whereas those observed
using PVA-TNs were 5%, 9%, 28%, and 32%, respectively.
PVA-TCCN-0.3 displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation
efficiency for BTEX, suggesting the presence of an optimal
PVA-to-solvent ratio for the synthesis of PVA-TCCNs. The average
photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX decreased from 11% to 4%, 59%
to 18%, 89% to 37%, and 92% to 53%, respectively, when the flow
rate was increased from 1.0 to 4.0 L min1. In addition, the average
photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX increased 11% to ~0%, 59% to
3%, 89% to 7%, and 92% to 13%, respectively, when the input
concentration increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm. The prepared
PVA-TCCNs were effective for the purification of airborne aromatics
at indoor concentration levels, particularly when the operating
conditions were optimized.
Abstract: In this research, waterglass based aerogel powder was
prepared by sol–gel process and ambient pressure drying. Inspired by
limited dust releasing, aerogel powder was introduced to the PET
electrospinning solution in an attempt to create required bulk and
surface structure for the nanofibers to improve their hydrophobic and
insulation properties. The samples evaluation was carried out by
measuring density, porosity, contact angle, heat transfer, FTIR, BET,
and SEM. According to the results, porous silica aerogel powder was
fabricated with mean pore diameter of 24 nm and contact angle of
145.9º. The results indicated the usefulness of the aerogel powder
confined into nanofibers to control surface roughness for
manipulating superhydrophobic nanowebs with water contact angle
of 147º. It can be due to a multi-scale surface roughness which was
created by nanowebs structure itself and nanofibers surface
irregularity in presence of the aerogels while a layer of fluorocarbon
created low surface energy. The wettability of a solid substrate is an
important property that is controlled by both the chemical
composition and geometry of the surface. Also, a decreasing trend in
the heat transfer was observed from 22% for the nanofibers without
any aerogel powder to 8% for the nanofibers with 4% aerogel
powder. The development of thermal insulating materials has become
increasingly more important than ever in view of the fossil energy
depletion and global warming that call for more demanding energysaving
Abstract: PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized
carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the
effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical
and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were
examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best
mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation
of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of concentration of CNT
increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT
results to decrease of diameter of nanofiber.
Abstract: Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %)
silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method.
Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution have
been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate have been adjusted to
PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of
silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by
hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt
was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite
nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount
of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web
was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties,
thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370
(0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), Tensile tester, Differential scanning calorimeter
DSC (Q10) and SEM respectively. Also antimicrobial efficiency test
(ASTM E2149-10) was done against to Staphylococcus aureus
bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity,
antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of
silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.
Abstract: The main goal of this study was to find simple and industrially applicable production of ion exchangers based on nanofibrous polystyrene matrix and characterization of prepared material. Starting polystyrene nanofibers were sulfonated and crosslinked under appropriate conditions at the same time by sulfuric acid. Strongly acidic cation exchanger was obtained in such a way. The polymer matrix was made from polystyrene nanofibers prepared by NanospiderTM technology.
Various types postpolymerization reactions and other methods of crosslinking were studied. Greatly different behavior between nano- and microsize materials was observed. The final nanofibrous material was characterized and compared to common granular ion exchangers and available microfibrous ion exchangers. The sorption properties of nanofibrous ion exchangers were compared with the granular ion exchangers. For nanofibrous ion exchangers of comparable ion exchange capacity was observed considerably faster adsorption kinetics.
Abstract: A proton exchange membrane has been developed for
direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite
membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion
(perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an
uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The
spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt%
compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide),
as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion
nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm,
were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up
to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was
crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The
resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at
25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.