Abstract: Dye removal is an environmental concern because the textile industries have been increasing by world population and industrialization. Adsorption is the technique to find adsorbents to remove dyes from wastewater. This method is low-cost and effective for dye removal. This work tries to develop effective adsorbents using the computational approach because it will be able to predict the possibility of the adsorbents for specific dyes in terms of binding free energies. The computational approach is faster and cheaper than the experimental approach in case of finding the best adsorbents. All starting structures of dyes and adsorbents are optimized by quantum calculation. The complexes between dyes and adsorbents are generated by the docking method. The obtained binding free energies from docking are compared to binding free energies from the experimental data. The calculated energies can be ranked as same as the experimental results. In addition, this work also shows the possible orientation of the complexes. This work used two experimental groups of the complexes of the dyes and adsorbents. In the first group, there are chitosan (adsorbent) and two dyes (reactive red (RR) and direct sun yellow (DY)). In the second group, there are poly(1,2-epoxy-3-phenoxy) propane (PEPP), which is the adsorbent, and 2 dyes of bromocresol green (BCG) and alizarin yellow (AY).
Abstract: The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom
for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized
charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J
model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped
antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described
by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models
to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling
between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed
comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that
the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in
the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different
trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative
equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective
Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons
with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious
that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent
in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping
concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to
pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism
outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like
models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional
momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.
Abstract: Quantum cryptography is described as a point-to-point secure key generation technology that has emerged in recent times in providing absolute security. Researchers have started studying new innovative approaches to exploit the security of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) for a large-scale communication system. A number of approaches and models for utilization of QKD for secure communication have been developed. The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics created a new paradigm for QKD. One of the approaches for use of QKD involved network fashioned security. The main goal was point-to-point Quantum network that exploited QKD technology for end-to-end network security via high speed QKD. Other approaches and models equipped with QKD in network fashion are introduced in the literature as. A different approach that this paper deals with is using QKD in existing protocols, which are widely used on the Internet to enhance security with main objective of unconditional security. Our work is towards the analysis of the QKD in Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET).
Abstract: Graphene material has found tremendous applications
in water desalination, DNA sequencing and energy storage. Multiple
nanopores are etched to create opening for water desalination and
energy storage applications. The nanopores created are of the order
of 3-5 nm allowing multiple ions to transport through the pore. In
this paper, we present for the first time, molecular dynamics study of
single ion transport, where only one ion passes through the graphene
nanopore. The diameter of the graphene nanopore is of the same
order as the hydration layers formed around each ion. Analogous to
single electron transport resulting from ionic transport is observed
for the first time. The current-voltage characteristics of such a device
are similar to single electron transport in quantum dots. The current
is blocked until a critical voltage, as the ions are trapped inside a
hydration shell. The trapped ions have a high energy barrier compared
to the applied input electrical voltage, preventing the ion to break free
from the hydration shell. This region is called “Coulomb blockade
region”. In this region, we observe zero transport of ions inside the
nanopore. However, when the electrical voltage is beyond the critical
voltage, the ion has sufficient energy to break free from the energy
barrier created by the hydration shell to enter into the pore. Thus, the
input voltage can control the transport of the ion inside the nanopore.
The device therefore acts as a binary storage unit, storing 0 when
no ion passes through the pore and storing 1 when a single ion
passes through the pore. We therefore postulate that the device can
be used for fluidic computing applications in chemistry and biology,
mimicking a computer. Furthermore, the trapped ion stores a finite
charge in the Coulomb blockade region; hence the device also acts
a super capacitor.
Abstract: The application of magnetocardiography signals to detect cardiac electrical function is a new technology developed in recent years. The magnetocardiography signal is detected with Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) and has considerable advantages over electrocardiography (ECG). It is difficult to extract Magnetocardiography (MCG) signal which is buried in the noise, which is a critical issue to be resolved in cardiac monitoring system and MCG applications. In order to remove the severe background noise, the Total Variation (TV) regularization method is proposed to denoise MCG signal. The approach transforms the denoising problem into a minimization optimization problem and the Majorization-minimization algorithm is applied to iteratively solve the minimization problem. However, traditional TV regularization method tends to cause step effect and lacks constraint adaptability. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for denoising MCG signal is proposed to improve the denoising precision. The improvement of this method is mainly divided into three parts. First, high-order TV is applied to reduce the step effect, and the corresponding second derivative matrix is used to substitute the first order. Then, the positions of the non-zero elements in the second order derivative matrix are determined based on the peak positions that are detected by the detection window. Finally, adaptive constraint parameters are defined to eliminate noises and preserve signal peak characteristics. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the output signal-to-noise ratio and has superior performance.
Abstract: Scientists are making attempts to solve proton radius puzzle. In this paper, the calculated value matches the experiment observation within 0.1%, compared to those obtained from CODATA, and muonic hydrogen scattering experiments of 4%. The calculation is made based on the assumption that the muonic hydrogen system has (Ep – Eµ) energy state (or frequency mix state of np –nµ), which interacts resonantly with the incoming photon of energy 206.2949(32) meV. A similar calculation is also made for muonic deuterium 2S-2P transition experiment with an accuracy of 1% from the experimental observation. The paper has also explored the theoretical as well as experimentation advancements that have led towards the development of results with lesser deviations.
Abstract: Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.
Abstract: The first and best known quantum protocol BB84, whose security is unconditional allows the transmission of a key with a length equal to that of the message. This key used with an encryption algorithm leads to an unbreakable cryptographic scheme. Despite advantages the protocol still can be improved in at least two aspects: its efficiency which is of about 50%, only half of the photons transmitted are used to create the encryption key and the second aspect refers to the communication that takes place on the classic channel, as it must be reduced or even eliminated. The paper presents a method that improves the two aspects of the BB84 protocol by using quantum memory and eight states of polarization. The implementation of both the proposed method and the BB84 protocol was done through a C# application.
Abstract: In the field of quantum secure communication, there
is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication
(QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper
addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation
for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which
is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC
protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency
evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which
incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits)
utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a
secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain
criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is
presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical
realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks
(Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and
entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for
a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over
the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of
clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality
Abstract: The quantum communication technology is an evolving
design which connects multiple quantum enabled devices to internet
for secret communication or sensitive information exchange. In
future, the number of these compact quantum enabled devices
will increase immensely making them an integral part of present
communication systems. Therefore, safety and security of such
devices is also a major concern for us. To ensure the customer
sensitive information will not be eavesdropped or deciphered, we
need a strong authentications and encryption mechanism. In this
paper, we propose a mutual authentication scheme between these
smart quantum devices and server based on the secure exchange of
information through quantum channel which gives better solutions
for symmetric key exchange issues. An important part of this
work is to propose a secure mutual authentication protocol over
the quantum channel. We show that our approach offers robust
authentication protocol and further our solution is lightweight,
scalable, cost-effective with optimized computational processing
Abstract: As the continuation to the previous studies of gravitational frequency shift, gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, and dark energy are explained in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The photon is treated as the particle with mass of hν/C2 under the gravitational field of much larger mass of M. Hence the quantum mechanics theory could be applied to gravitational field on cosmology scale. The obtained results are the same as those obtained by general relativity considering weak gravitational field approximation; however, the results are different when the gravitational field is substantially strong.
Abstract: The development of a quantum key distribution (QKD) system on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform is the subject of this paper. A quantum cryptographic protocol is designed based on the properties of quantum information and the characteristics of FPGAs. The proposed protocol performs key extraction, reconciliation, error correction, and privacy amplification tasks to generate a perfectly secret final key. We modeled the presence of the spy in our system with a strategy to reveal some of the exchanged information without being noticed. Using an FPGA card with a 100 MHz clock frequency, we have demonstrated the evolution of the error rate as well as the amounts of mutual information (between the two interlocutors and that of the spy) passing from one step to another in the key generation process.
Abstract: A Markov model defines a system of states, composed
by the feasible transition paths between those states, and the
parameters of those transitions. The paths and parameters may be
a representative way to address healthcare issues, such as to identify
the most likely sequence of patient health states given the sequence
of observations. Furthermore estimating the length of stay (LoS) of
patients in hospitalization is one of the challenges that Markov models
allow us to solve. However, finding the maximum probability of
any path that gets to state at time t, can have high computational
cost. A quantum approach allows us to take advantage of quantum
computation since the calculated probabilities can be in several states,
ending up to outperform classical computing due to the possible
superposition of states when handling large amounts of data. The
aid of quantum physics-based architectures and machine learning
techniques are therefore appropriated to address the complexity of
Abstract: In a major nuclear accident, the released fission products (FPs) and the structural materials are likely to influence the transport of iodine in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). So far, the thermodynamic data on cesium and silver species used to estimate the magnitude of FP release show some discrepancies, data are scarce and not reliable. For this reason, it is crucial to review the thermodynamic values related to cesium and silver materials. To this end, we have used state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods to compute the formation enthalpies and entropies of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄ in the gas phase. Different quantum chemical methods have been investigated (DFT and CCSD(T)) in order to predict the geometrical parameters and the energetics including the correlation energy. The geometries were optimized with TPSSh-5%HF method, followed by a single point calculation of the total electronic energies using the CCSD(T) wave function method. We thus propose with a final uncertainty of about 2 kJmol⁻¹ standard enthalpies of formation of AgHMoO₄, CsHMoO₄, and AgCsMoO₄.
Abstract: Applications of reversible logic gates in the design of complex integrated circuits provide power optimization. This technique finds a great use in low power CMOS design, optical computing, quantum computing and nanotechnology. This paper proposes a reversible signed division circuit that can divide an n-bit signed dividend with an n-bit signed divisor using non-restoration division logic. The proposed design adequately addresses the ‘delay’ there by improving the efficiency of the circuit. An attempt is made to design a reversible signed division circuit. This paper provides a threshold to build more complex arithmetic systems using reversible logic, thus increasing the performance of computing systems.
Abstract: This work compares the results of multidimensional
function approximation using two algorithms: the classical Particle
Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Quantum Particle Swarm
Optimization (QPSO). These algorithms were both tested on three
functions - The Rosenbrock, the Rastrigin, and the sphere functions
- with different characteristics by increasing their number of
dimensions. As a result, this study shows that the higher the function
space, i.e. the larger the function dimension, the more evident the
advantages of using the QPSO method compared to the PSO method
in terms of performance and number of necessary iterations to reach
the stop criterion.
Abstract: Application of reversible logic in integrated circuits results in the improved optimization of power consumption. This technology can be put into use in a variety of low power applications such as quantum computing, optical computing, nano-technology, and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) design etc. Logic gates are the basic building blocks in the design of any logic network and thus integrated circuits. In this paper, reversible Dual Key Gate (DKG) and Dual key Gate Pair (DKGP) gates that work singly as full adder/full subtractor are used to realize the basic building blocks of logic circuits. Reversible full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/ subtractor are designed using other reversible gates available in the literature and compared with that of DKG & DKGP gates. Efficient performance of reversible logic circuits relies on the optimization of the key parameters viz number of constant inputs, garbage outputs and number of reversible gates. The full adder/subtractor and parallel adder/subtractor design with reversible DKGP and DKG gates results in least number of constant inputs, garbage outputs, and number of reversible gates compared to the other designs. Thus, this paper provides a threshold to build more complex arithmetic systems using these reversible logic gates, leading to the enhanced performance of computing systems.
Abstract: Quantum gates are the basic building blocks in the
quantum circuits model. These gates can be implemented using
adiabatic or non adiabatic processes. Adiabatic models can be
controlled using auxiliary qubits, whereas non adiabatic models can
be simplified by using one single-shot implementation. In this paper,
the controlled adiabatic evolutions is combined with the single-shot
implementation to obtain quantum gates with controlled non adiabatic
evolutions. This is an important improvement which can speed the
implementation of quantum gates and reduce the errors due to the
long run in the adiabatic model. The robustness of our scheme to
different types of errors is also investigated.
Abstract: A mathematical model for an optical-fiber communication channel is developed which results in an expression that calculates the throughput and loss of the corresponding link. The data are assumed to be transmitted by using of separate photons with different polarizations. The derived model also shows the dependency of data throughput with length of the channel and depolarization factor. It is observed that absorption of photons affects the throughput in a more intensive way in comparison with that of depolarization. Apart from that, the probability of depolarization and the absorption of radiated photons are obtained.
Abstract: Zinc sulphide (ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized successfully via simple sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis revealed the average size of QDs of the order of 3.7 nm. The band gap of the QDs was tuned to 5.2 eV by optimizing the synthesis parameters. UV-Vis absorption spectra of ZnS QD confirm the quantum confinement effect. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the formation of single phase ZnS QDs. To fabricate the diode, blend of ZnS QDs and P3HT was prepared and the heterojunction of PEDOT:PSS and the blend was formed by spin coating on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. The diode behaviour of the heterojunction was analysed, wherein the ideality factor was found to be 2.53 with turn on voltage 0.75 V and the barrier height was found to be 1.429 eV. ZnS-Graphene QDs nanocomposite was characterised for the surface morphological study. It was found that the synthesized ZnS QDs appear as quasi spherical particles on the graphene sheets. The average particle size of ZnS-graphene nanocomposite QDs was found to be 8.4 nm. From voltage-current characteristics of ZnS-graphene nanocomposites, it is observed that the conductivity of the composite increases by 104 times the conductivity of ZnS QDs. Thus the addition of graphene QDs in ZnS QDs enhances the mobility of the charge carriers in the composite material. Thus, the graphene QDs, with high specific area for a large interface, high mobility and tunable band gap, show a great potential as an electron-acceptors in photovoltaic devices.