Abstract: In Liberia, many of the agricultural households cultivate cassava for either sustenance purposes, or to generate farm income. Many of the concentrated cassava farmers reside in Nimba, a north-eastern County that borders two other economies: the Republics of Cote D’Ivoire and Guinea. With a high demand for cassava output and products in emerging Asian markets coupled with an objective of the Liberia agriculture policies to increase the competitiveness of valued agriculture crops; there is a need to examine the level of resource-use efficiency for many agriculture crops. However, there is a scarcity of information on the efficiency of many agriculture crops, including cassava. Hence the study applying an output-oriented method seeks to assess the economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Nimba County, Liberia. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to generate a sample for the study. From 216 cassava farmers, data related to on-farm attributes, socio-economic and institutional factors were collected. The stochastic frontier models, using the Translog functional forms, of production and revenue, were used to determine the level of revenue efficiency and its determinants. The result showed that most of the cassava farmers are male (60%). Many of the farmers are either married, engaged or living together with a spouse (83%), with a mean household size of nine persons. Farmland is prevalently obtained by inheritance (95%), average farm size is 1.34 hectares, and most cassava farmers did not access agriculture credits (76%) and extension services (91%). The mean cassava output per hectare is 1,506.02 kg, which estimates average revenue of L$23,551.16 (Liberian dollars). Empirical results showed that the revenue efficiency of cassava farmers varies from 0.1% to 73.5%; with the mean revenue efficiency of 12.9%. This indicates that on average, there is a vast potential of 87.1% to increase the economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Nimba by improving technical and allocative efficiencies. For the significant determinants of revenue efficiency, age and group membership had negative effects on revenue efficiency of cassava production; while farming experience, access to extension, formal education, and average wage rate have positive effects. The study recommends the setting-up and incentivizing of farmer field schools for cassava farmers to primarily share their farming experiences with others and to learn robust cultivation techniques of sustainable agriculture. Also, farm managers and farmers should consider a fix wage rate in labor contracts for all stages of cassava farming.
Abstract: Biscuit is one of the most consumed cereal foods in Nigeria and research has shown that locally available tropical crops like cassava, sweet potato can be made into flour and used in the production of biscuits and other pastries. This study investigates some quality parameters in biscuits made from blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour. The values of result of samples increased with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour in some quality parameter like fiber, ash, gluten content, and carbohydrate. The protein content reduced significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour which ranged from 14.80% to 11.80% compared with the control sample which had 15.60%. There was a recorded significant increase (P < 0.05) in some mineral composition such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, and vitamin A and C composition as the percentage substitution of cassava and carrot flour increased. During storage stability test, samples stored in the fridge and freezer were found to be the best storage location to preserve the sensory attributes and inhibit microbial growth when compared with storage under the sun and on the shelf. Biscuit made with blends of wheat, cassava and carrot flour can therefore serve as an alternative to biscuits made from 100% wheat flour, as they are richer in vitamin A, vitamin C, carbohydrate, dietary fiber and some essential minerals.
Abstract: Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome in order to identify their potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for biochar production. This was achieved by using the proximate and elemental analyses as well as calorific value and lignocellulosic determination. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar produced. A fixed bed slow pyrolysis reactor was used to pyrolyze the corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome. The pyrolysis temperatures were varied between 400 °C and 600 °C, while the heating rate and the holding time were fixed at 5 °C/min and 1 hour, respectively. Corn cob, cassava stem, and cassava rhizome were found to be suitable feedstocks for pyrolysis process because they contained a high percentage of volatile matter more than 80 mf wt.%. All the three feedstocks contained low nitrogen and sulphur content less than 1 mf wt.%. Therefore, during the pyrolysis process, the feedstocks give off very low rate of GHG such as nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. Independent of the types of biomass, the percentage of biochar yield is inversely proportional to the pyrolysis temperature. The highest biochar yield for each studied temperature is from slow pyrolysis of cassava rhizome as the feedstock contained the highest percentage of ash compared to the other two feedstocks. The percentage of fixed carbon in all the biochars increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased. The increment of pyrolysis temperature from 400 °C to 600 °C increased the fixed carbon of corn cob biochar, cassava stem biochar and cassava rhizome biochar by 26.35%, 10.98%, and 6.20% respectively. Irrespective of the pyrolysis temperature, all the biochars produced were found to contain more than 60 mf wt.% fixed carbon content, much higher than its feedstocks.
Abstract: Starches are widely used as depressant in froth flotation operations in Brazil due to their efficiency, increasing the selectivity in the inverse flotation of quartz depressing iron ore. Starches market have been growing and improving in recent years, leading to better products attending the requirements of the mineral industry. The major source of starch used for iron ore is corn starch, which needs to be gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) prior to use. This stage has a direct impact on industrials costs, once the lowest consumption of NaOH in gelatinization provides better control of the pH in the froth flotation and reduces the amount of electrolytes present in the pulp. In order to evaluate the gelatinization degree of different starches and flour were subjected to the addiction of NaOH and temperature variation experiments. Samples of starch (corn, cassava, HIPIX 100, HIPIX 101 and HIPIX 102 commercialized by Ingredion) and flour (cassava and potato) were tested. The starch samples were characterized through Scanning Electronic Microscopy and the amylose content were determined through spectrometry, swelling and solubility tests. The gelatinization was carried out through titration with NaOH, keeping the solution temperature constant at 40 oC. At the end of the tests, the optimal amount of NaOH consumed to gelatinize the starch or flour from different botanical sources was established and a correlation between the content of amylopectin in the starch and the starch/NaOH ratio needed for its gelatinization.
Abstract: Cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction are two sources of waste that could constitute serious menace where they exist in large quantities and inadequately handled. The study examined the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbon materials derived from cassava peels and bamboo waste materials discarded from construction site. Both materials were subjected to carbonization and chemical activation using zinc chloride. Results show that the chemical activation of the materials had a more effect on pore formation in cassava peels than in bamboo materials. Bamboo material exhibited a reverse trend for zinc and sulphate ion decontamination efficiencies as the value of zinc chloride impregnation varied unlike cassava peel carbon biomass which exhibited a more consistent result of decontamination efficiency for the seven contaminants tested. Although waste bamboo biomass exhibited higher adsorption intensity as indicated by values of decontamination for most of the contaminants tested, the cassava peel carbon biomass showed a more balanced adsorption level.
Abstract: The physical properties of nine Nigerian staple food flours related to bulk handling and processing were investigated following standard procedures. The results showed that the moisture content, bulk density, angle of repose, water absorption capacity, swelling index, dispersability, pH and wettability of the flours ranged from 9.95 to 11.98%, 0.44 to 0.66 g/cm3, 31.43 to 39.65o, 198.3 to 291.7 g of water/100 g of sample, 5.53 to 7.63, 60.3 to 73.8%, 4.43 to 6.70, and 11 to 150 s. The particle size analysis of the flour samples indicated significant differences (p
Abstract: The study investigated efficiency cassava peel carbon
and Zinc Chloride activated cassava peel carbon at 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1
activation levels in the removal of nitrates from oxidized cassava
processing wastewater. Results showed that the CPC and CPAC were
effective in adsorption of nitrates. A summary of results from the
study revealed that CPAC at 1:3 exhibited the highest initial
decontamination (69.5% after 2 hrs) while CPAC at 1:1 activation
ratio showed a slower initial decontamination rate. The CPC &
CPAC exhibited Langmuir Rα values of 0.15, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.07 for
the 0:1, 1:3, 2:3 and 1:1 confirming its suitability as adsorption
Abstract: A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava
processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among
these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein
concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular
identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia
kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA
region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2
strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The
tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and
incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) =
0.7194 could be explained by the model which is high to support the
significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein
content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2
strain contains 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These
results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast
in single-cell protein production.
Abstract: This paper proposes a linear mixed model (LMM) with spatial effects to forecast rice and cassava yields in Thailand at the same time. A multivariate conditional autoregressive (MCAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). The model is applied to the rice and cassava yields monthly data which have been extracted from the Office of Agricultural Economics, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Thailand. The results show that the proposed model has better performance in most provinces in both fitting part and validation part compared to the simple exponential smoothing and conditional auto regressive models (CAR) from our previous study.
Abstract: A process of conversion of flour from three varieties of cassava, namely Odongbo, ofege and TMS30752 to ethanol using α-amylase locally sourced from germinated unhusked paddy rice and yeast isolated from palm wine was developed. It involves the germination of paddy rice for a period of 15days to produce α-amylase for starch hydrolysis and isolation of yeast from palm wine for fermentation. The results showed that optimum amylase yield of “ofada” rice paddy was at 6th day germination which was 576.9ml/g. Ethanol yield for TMS30572 (440.3%) was significantly higher than “Odongbo” (160.2%) and “Ofege’’ (115.1%), Sugar conversion efficiency were 311.0%v/v, 268.2%v/v and 186.84%v/v for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. The ethanol boiling points were 78oC, 76oC and 80oC for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. This study showed that cassava varieties affects quality of ethanol produced and germination of “ofada” rice for 6 days ensures optimum production of crude amylase enzyme.
Abstract: This research was to study on background and social
and cultural context of Kamchanoad community for sustainable
tourism management. All data was collected through in-depth
interview with village headmen, community committees, teacher,
monks, Kamchanoad forest field officers and respected senior citizen
above 60 years old in the community who have lived there for more
than 40 years. Altogether there were 30 participants for this research.
After analyzing the data, content from interview and discussion,
Kamchanoad has both high land and low land in the region as well as
swamps that are very capable of freshwater animals’ conservation.
Kamchanoad is also good for agriculture and animal farming. 80% of
Kamchanoad’s land are forest, freshwater and rice farms.
Kamchanoad was officially set up as community in 1994 as “Baan
Nonmuang”. Inhabitants in Kamchanoad make a living by farming
based on sufficiency economy. They have rice farm, eucalyptus farm,
cassava farm and rubber tree farm. Local people in Kamchanoad still
believe in the myth of Srisutto Naga. They are still religious and love
to preserve their traditional way of life. In order to understand how to
create successful tourism business in Kamchanoad, we have to study
closely on local culture and traditions. Outstanding event in
Kamchanoad is the worship of Grand Srisutto, which is on the fullmoon
day of 6th month or Visakhabucha Day. Other big events are
also celebration at the end of Buddhist lent, Naga firework, New
Year celebration, Boon Mahachart, Songkran, Buddhist Lent, Boon
Katin and Loy Kratong. Buddhism is the main religion in
Kamchanoad. The promotion of tourism in Kamchanoad is expected
to help spreading more income for this region. More infrastructures
will be provided for local people as well as funding for youth support
and people activities.
Abstract: Ethanol has become more attractive in fuel industry
either as fuel itself or an additive that helps enhancing the octane
number and combustibility of gasoline. This research studied a
pressure swing adsorption using cassava-based adsorbent prepared
from mixture of cassava starch and cassava pulp for dehydration of
ethanol vapor. The apparatus used in the experiments consisted of
double adsorption columns, an evaporator, and a vacuum pump. The
feed solution contained 90-92 %wt of ethanol. Three process
variables: adsorption temperatures (110, 120 and 130°C), adsorption
pressures (1 and 2 bar gauge) and feed vapor flow rate (25, 50 and 75
% valve opening of the evaporator) were investigated. According to
the experimental results, the optimal operating condition for this
system was found to be at 2 bar gauge for adsorption pressure, 120°C
for adsorption temperature and 25% valve opening of the evaporator.
Production of 1.48 grams of ethanol with concentration higher than
99.5 wt% per gram of adsorbent was obtained. PSA with cassavabased
adsorbent reported in this study could be an alternative method
for production of nearly anhydrous ethanol. Dehydration of ethanol
vapor achieved in this study is due to an interaction between free
hydroxyl group on the glucose units of the starch and the water
Abstract: Chaiyaphum Starch Co. Ltd. is one of many starch
manufacturers that has introduced machinery to aid in manufacturing.
Even though machinery has replaced many elements and is now a
significant part in manufacturing processes, problems that must be
solved with respect to current process flow to increase efficiency still
exist. The paper-s aim is to increase productivity while maintaining
desired quality of starch, by redesigning the flipping machine-s
mechanical control system which has grossly low functional lifetime.
Such problems stem from the mechanical control system-s bearings,
as fluids and humidity can access into said bearing directly, in
tandem with vibrations from the machine-s function itself. The wheel
which is used to sense starch thickness occasionally falls from its
shaft, due to high speed rotation during operation, while the shaft
may bend from impact when processing dried bread. Redesigning its
mechanical control system has increased its efficiency, allowing
quality thickness measurement while increasing functional lifetime
an additional 62 days.
Abstract: In this study, we illustrated the performance and
microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically
co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that
the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase
CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase
CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion
in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and
25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic
analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes
were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase
CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system,
the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium,
Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic
groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive
predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of
Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between
the two systems.
Abstract: The composite materials were prepared by sawdust, cassava starch and natural rubber latex (NR). The mixtures of 15%w/v gelatinized cassava starch and 15%w/v PVOH were used as the binder of these composite materials. The concentrated rubber latex was added to the mixtures. They were mixed rigorously to the treated sawdust in the ratio of 70:30 until achive uniform dispersion. The batters were subjected to the hot compression moulding at the temperature of 160°C and 3,000 psi pressure for 5 min. The experimental results showed that the mechanical properties of composite materials, which contained the gelatinized cassava starch and PVOH in the ratio of 2:1, 20% NR latex by weight of the dry starch and treated sawdust with 5%NaOH or 1% BPO, were the best. It contributed the maximal compression strength (341.10 + 26.11 N), puncture resistance (8.79 + 0.98 N/mm2) and flexural strength (3.99 + 0.72N/mm2). It is also found that the physicochemical and mechanical properties of composites strongly depends on the interface quality of sawdust, cassava starch and NR latex.
Abstract: Cassava bagasse is one of major biomass wastes in Thailand from starch processing industry, which contains high starch content of about 60%. The object of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for hydrothermally pretreating cassava baggasses with or without acid addition. The pretreated samples were measured reducing sugar yield directly or after enzymatic hydrolysis (alpha-amylase). In enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest reducing sugar content was obtained under hydrothermal conditions for at 125oC for 30 min. The result shows that pretreating cassava baggasses increased the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. For acid hydrolysis, pretreating cassava baggasses with sulfuric acid at 120oC for 60 min gave a maximum reducing sugar yield. In this study, sulfuric acid had a greater capacity for hydrolyzing cassava baggasses than phosphoric acid. In comparison, dilute acid hydrolysis to provide a higher yield of reducing sugar than the enzymatic hydrolysis combined hydrothermal pretreatment. However, enzymatic hydrolysis in a combination with hydrothermal pretreatment was an alternative to enhance efficiency reducing sugar production from cassava bagasse.
Abstract: The experiment was then conducted to investigate the
effect of cassava peel addition in the concentrate on the performance
of lactating dairy cows. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred
(>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation;
averaging 12.2+2.1 kg of milk, 119+45 days in milk, 44.1+6.2
months old and 449+33 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield,
days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then
randomly allocated to three treatment groups. The first, second and
third groups were fed concentrates containing the respective cassava
peel, 0, 20 and 40%. All cows were fed ad libitum corn silage and
freely access to clean water. Dry matter intake, 4%FCM, milk
composition and body weight change were affected (P
Abstract: Solid state fermentation of cassava peel with emphasis on protein enrichment using Trichoderma viride was evaluated. The effect of five variables: moisture content, pH, particle size (p), nitrogen source and incubation temperature; on the true protein and total sugars of cassava peel was investigated. The optimum fermentation period was established to be 8 days. Total sugars were 5-fold higher at pH 6 relative to pH 4 and 7-fold higher when cassava peels were fermented at 30oC relative to 25oC as well as using ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source relative to urea or a combination of both. Total sugars ranged between 123.21mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 374mg/g at 60% and from 190.59mg/g with particle size range of 2.00>p>1.41mm to 310.10mg/g with 4.00>p>3.35mm.True protein ranged from 229.70 mg/g at pH 4 to 284.05 mg/g at pH 6; from 200.87 mg/g with urea as nitrogen source and to 254.50mg/g with ammonium sulfate; from 213.82mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 254.50mg/g at 60% moisture content, from 205.75mg/g in cassava peel with 5.6>p> 4.75mm to 268.30 in cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35mm, from 207.57mg/g at 25oC to 254.50mg/g at 30oC Cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35 mm and initial moisture content of 60% at pH 6.0, 30oC incubation temperature with ammonium sulfate (10g N / kg substrate) was most suitable for protein enrichment with Trichoderma viride. Crude protein increased from 4.21 % in unfermented cassava peel samples to 10.43 % in fermented samples.
Abstract: This work aims to investigate a potential of
microalgae for utilizing industrial wastewater as a cheap nutrient for
their growth and oil accumulation. Wastewater was collected from
the effluent ponds of agro-industrial factories (cassava and ethanol
production plants). Only 2 microalgal strains were isolated and
identified as Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlorella sp.. However,
only S. quadricauda was selected to cultivate in various wastewater
concentrations (10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%). The highest
biomass obtained at 6.6×106 and 6.27×106 cells/ml when 60%
wastewater was used in flask and photo-bioreactor. The cultures gave
the highest lipid content at 18.58 % and 42.86% in cases of S.
quadricauda and S. obliquus. In addition, under salt stress (1.0 M
NaCl), S. obliquus demonstrated the highest lipid content at 50%
which was much more than the case of no NaCl adding. However, the
concentration of NaCl does not affect on lipid accumulation in case
of S. quadricauda.
Abstract: Cassava is one of the top five crops in Cameroon. Its
evolution has remained constant since the independence period and
the production has more than tripled. It is a crop with multiple
industrial capacities but the sector-s business opportunities are
underexploited. Using Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and
Threats analysis method, this paper examines the cassava actual state.
It appraises the sector-s strengths (S), considers suitable measures to
strengthen weaknesses (W), evaluates strategies to fully benefit from
the sector numerous business opportunities (O) and explore means to
convert threats (T) into opportunities. Data were collected from the
ministry of agriculture and rural development and different actors.
The results show that cassava sector embodies many business
opportunities and stands as a raw material provider for many
industries but ultimately requires challenges to be tackled