Performance Evaluation and Plugging Characteristics of Controllable Self-Aggregating Colloidal Particle Profile Control Agent

In low permeability reservoirs, the reservoir pore throat is small and the micro heterogeneity is prominent. Conventional microsphere profile control agents generally have good injectability but poor plugging effect; however, profile control agents with good plugging effect generally have poor injectability, which makes it difficult for agent to realize deep profile control of reservoir. To solve this problem, styrene and acrylamide were used as monomers in the laboratory. Emulsion polymerization was used to prepare the Controllable Self-Aggregating Colloidal Particle (CSA), which was rich in amide group. The CSA microsphere dispersion solution with a particle diameter smaller than the pore throat diameter was injected into the reservoir to ensure that the profile control agent had good inject ability. After dispersing the CSA microsphere to the deep part of the reservoir, the CSA microspheres dispersed in static for a certain period of time will self-aggregate into large-sized particle clusters to achieve plugging of hypertonic channels. The CSA microsphere has the characteristics of low expansion and avoids shear fracture in the process of migration. It can be observed by transmission electron microscope that CSA microspheres still maintain regular and uniform spherical and core-shell heterogeneous structure after aging at 100 ºC for 35 days, and CSA microspheres have good thermal stability. The results of bottle test showed that with the increase of cation concentration, the aggregation time of CSA microspheres gradually shortened, and the influence of divalent cations was greater than that of monovalent ions. Physical simulation experiments show that CSA microspheres have good injectability, and the aggregated CSA particle clusters can produce effective plugging and migrate to the deep part of the reservoir for profile control.

A Study on the Effect of Mg and Ag Additions and Age Hardening Treatment on the Properties of As-Cast Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloys

This study focuses on the effect of the addition of magnesium (Mg) and silver (Ag) on the mechanical properties of aluminum based alloys. The alloying elements will be added at different levels using the factorial design of experiments of 22; the two factors are Mg and Ag at two levels of concentration. The superior mechanical properties of the produced Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys after aging will be resulted from a unique type of precipitation named as Ω-phase. The formed precipitate enhanced the tensile strength and thermal stability. This paper further investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of as cast Al–Cu–Mg–Ag alloys after being complete homogenized treatment at 520 °C for 8 hours followed by isothermally age hardening process at 190 °C for different periods of time. The homogenization at 520 °C for 8 hours was selected based on homogenization study at various temperatures and times. The alloys’ microstructures were studied by using optical microscopy (OM). In addition to that, the fracture surface investigation was performed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Studying the microstructure of aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys reveal that the grains are equiaxed with an average grain size of about 50 µm. A detailed fractography study for fractured surface of the aged alloys exhibited a mixed fracture whereby the random fracture suggested crack propagation along the grain boundaries while the dimples indicated that the fracture was ductile. The present result has shown that alloy 5 has the highest hardness values and the best mechanical behaviors.

Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Effect of Acids with Different Chain Lengths Modified by Methane Sulfonic Acid and Temperature on the Properties of Thermoplastic Starch/Glycerin Blends

In this study, acids with various chain lengths (C6, C8, C10 and C12) modified by methane sulfonic acid (MSA) and temperature were used to modify tapioca starch (TPS), then the glycerol (GA) were added into modified starch, to prepare new blends. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and physical properties of blends were studied. This investigation was divided into two parts.  First, the biodegradable materials were used such as starch and glycerol with hexanedioic acid (HA), suberic acid (SBA), sebacic acid (SA), decanedicarboxylic acid (DA) manufacturing with different temperatures (90, 110 and 130 °C). And then, the solution was added into modified starch to prepare the blends by using single-screw extruder. The FT-IR patterns indicated that the characteristic peak of C=O in ester was observed at 1730 cm-1. It is proved that different chain length acids (C6, C8, C10 and C12) reacted with glycerol by esterification and these are used to plasticize blends during extrusion. In addition, the blends would improve the hydrolysis and thermal stability. The water contact angle increased from 43.0° to 64.0°.  Second, the HA (110 °C), SBA (110 °C), SA (110 °C), and DA blends (130 °C) were used in study, because they possessed good mechanical properties, water resistances and thermal stability. On the other hand, the various contents (0, 0.005, 0.010, 0.020 g) of MSA were also used to modify the mechanical properties of blends. We observed that the blends were added to MSA, and then the FT-IR patterns indicated that the C=O ester appeared at 1730 cm-1. For this reason, the hydrophobic blends were produced. The water contact angle of the MSA blends increased from 55.0° to 71.0°. Although break elongation of the MSA blends reduced from the original 220% to 128%, the stress increased from 2.5 MPa to 5.1 MPa. Therefore, the optimal composition of blends was the DA blend (130 °C) with adding of MSA (0.005 g).

Effect of Manganese Doping on Ferrroelectric Properties of (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 Lead-Free Piezoceramic

Alkaline niobate (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramic system has attracted major attention in view of its potential for replacing the highly toxic but superior lead zirconate titanate (PZT) system for piezoelectric applications. Recently, a more detailed study of this system reveals that the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties are optimized in the Li- and V-modified system having the composition (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3. In the present work, we further study the pyroelectric behaviour of this composition along with another doped with Mn4+. So, (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 + x MnO2 (x = 0, and 0.01 wt. %) ceramic compositions were synthesized by conventional ceramic processing route. X-ray diffraction study reveals that both the undoped and Mn4+-doped ceramic samples prepared crystallize into a perovskite structure having orthorhombic symmetry. Dielectric study indicates that Mn4+ doping has little effect on both the Curie temperature (Tc) and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transition temperature (Tot). The bulk density, room-temperature dielectric constant (εRT), and room-c The room-temperature coercive field (Ec) is observed to be lower in Mn4+ doped sample. The detailed analysis of the P-E hysteresis loops over the range of temperature from about room temperature to Tot points out that enhanced ferroelectric properties exist in this temperature range with better thermal stability for the Mn4+ doped ceramic. The study reveals that small traces of Mn4+ can modify (K0.485Na0.5Li0.015)(Nb0.98V0.02)O3 system so as to improve its ferroelectric properties with good thermal stability over a wide range of temperature.

A Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for High-Temperature DC-DC Power Conversion Application

This paper presents a digital non-linear pulse-width modulation (PWM) controller in a high-voltage (HV) buck-boost DC-DC converter for the piezoelectric transducer of the down-hole acoustic telemetry system. The proposed design controls the generation of output signal with voltage higher than the supply voltage and is targeted to work under high temperature. To minimize the power consumption and silicon area, a simple and efficient design scheme is employed to develop the PWM controller. The proposed PWM controller consists of serial to parallel (S2P) converter, data assign block, a mode and duty cycle controller (MDC), linearly PWM (LPWM) and noise shaper, pulse generator and clock generator. To improve the reliability of circuit operation at higher temperature, this design is fabricated with the 1.0-μm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. The implementation results validated that the proposed design has the advantages of smaller size, lower power consumption and robust thermal stability.

Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in – situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physicochemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray Analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC).

Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Aluminum Alloys Processed by Mechanical Alloying and High Frequency Induction Heat Sintering

The current study investigated the influence of milling time and ball-to-powder (BPR) weight ratio on the microstructural constituents and mechanical properties of bulk nanocrystalline Al; Al-10%Cu; and Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloys. Powder consolidation was carried out using a high frequency induction heat sintering where the processed metal powders were sintered into a dense and strong bulk material. The powders and the bulk samples were characterized using XRD and FEGSEM techniques. The mechanical properties were evaluated at various temperatures of 25°C, 100°C, 200°C, 300°C and 400°C to study the thermal stability of the processed alloys. The processed bulk nanocrystalline alloys displayed extremely high hardness values even at elevated temperatures. The Al-10%Cu-5%Ti alloy displayed the highest hardness values at room and elevated temperatures which are related to the presence of Ti-containing phases such as Al3Ti and AlCu2Ti. These phases are thermally stable and retain the high hardness values at elevated temperatures up to 400ºC.

Micro Particles Effect on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Ceramic Composites - A Review

Particles are the most common and cheapest reinforcement producing discontinuous reinforced composites with isotropic properties. Conventional fabrication methods can be used to produce a wide range of product forms, making them relatively inexpensive. Optimising composite development must include consideration of all the fundamental aspect of particles including their size, shape, volume fraction, distribution and mechanical properties. Research has shown that the challenges of low fracture toughness, poor crack growth resistance and low thermal stability can be overcome by reinforcement with particles. The unique properties exhibited by micro particles reinforced ceramic composites have made them to be highly attractive in a vast array of applications.

Thermal Stability of a Vertical SOI-Based Capacitorless One-Transistor DRAM with Trench-Body Structure

A vertical SOI-based MOSFET with trench body structure operated as 1T DRAM cell at various temperatures has been studied and investigated. Different operation temperatures are assigned for the device for its performance comparison, thus the thermal stability is carefully evaluated for the future memory device applications. Based on the simulation, the vertical SOI-based MOSFET with trench body structure demonstrates the electrical characteristics properly and possess conspicuous kink effect at various operation temperatures. Transient characteristics were also performed to prove that its programming window values and retention time behaviors are acceptable when the new 1T DRAM cell is operated at high operation temperature.