Abstract: Autofluorescence Imaging (AFI) is a technology for detecting early carcinogenesis of the gastrointestinal tract in recent years. Compared with traditional white light endoscopy (WLE), this technology greatly improves the detection accuracy of early carcinogenesis, because the colors of normal tissues are different from cancerous tissues. Thus, edge detection can distinguish them in grayscale images. In this paper, based on the traditional Sobel edge detection method, optimization has been performed on this method which considers the environment of the gastrointestinal, including adaptive threshold and morphological processing. All of the processes are implemented on our self-designed system based on the image sensor OV6930 and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), The system can capture the gastrointestinal image taken by the lens in real time and detect edges. The final experiments verified the feasibility of our system and the effectiveness and accuracy of the edge detection algorithm.
Abstract: The reliability of the power grid depends on the successful operation of thousands of protective relays. The failure of one relay to operate as intended may lead the entire power grid to blackout. In fact, major power system failures during transient disturbances may be caused by unnecessary protective relay tripping rather than by the failure of a relay to operate. Adequate relay testing provides a first defense against false trips of the relay and hence improves power grid stability and prevents catastrophic bulk power system failures. The goal of this research project is to design and enhance the relay tester using a technology such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card NI 7851. A PC based tester framework has been developed using Simulink power system model for generating signals under different conditions (faults or transient disturbances) and LabVIEW for developing the graphical user interface and configuring the FPGA. Besides, the interface system has been developed for outputting and amplifying the signals without distortion. These signals should be like the generated ones by the real power system and large enough for testing the relay’s functionality. The signals generated that have been displayed on the scope are satisfactory. Furthermore, the proposed testing system can be used for improving the performance of protective relay.
Abstract: The use of customised soft-core processors in which instructions can be integrated into a system in application hardware is increasing in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) field. Specifically, the partial run-time reconfiguration of FPGAs in specialised processors for a particular domain can be very beneficial. In this report, the design and implementation for the customisation of a soft-core MIPS processor using an FPGA and partial reconfiguration (PR) of FPGA technology will be addressed to achieve efficient resource use. This can be achieved using a PR design flow that helps the design fit into a smaller device. Moreover, the impact of static power consumption could be reduced due to runtime reconfiguration. This will be done by configurable custom instructions implemented in the hardware as an extension on the MIPS CPU. The aim of this project is to investigate the PR of FPGAs for run-time adaptations of the instruction set of a soft-core CPU, including the integration of custom instructions and the exploration of the potential to use the MultiBoot feature available in Xilinx FPGAs to carry out the PR process. The system will be evaluated and tested on a Nexus 3 development board featuring a Xilinx Spartran-6 FPGA. The system will be able to load reconfigurable custom instructions dynamically into user programs with the help of the trap handler when the custom instruction is called by the MIPS CPU. The results of this experiment demonstrate that custom instructions in hardware can speed up a certain function and many instructions can be saved when compared to a software implementation of the same function. Implementing custom instructions in hardware is perfectly possible and worth exploring.
Abstract: In this paper, an encryption algorithm is proposed for real-time image encryption. The scheme employs a dual chaotic generator based on a three dimensional (3D) discrete Lorenz attractor. Encryption is achieved using non-autonomous modulation where the data is injected into the dynamics of the master chaotic generator. The second generator is used to permute the dynamics of the master generator using the same approach. Since the data stream can be regarded as a random source, the resulting permutations of the generator dynamics greatly increase the security of the transmitted signal. In addition, a technique is proposed to mitigate the error propagation due to the finite precision arithmetic of digital hardware. In particular, truncation and rounding errors are eliminated by employing an integer representation of the data which can easily be implemented. The simple hardware architecture of the algorithm makes it suitable for secure real-time applications.
Abstract: In the presented technique, a simple method is given for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation. The sinusoidal signal for which the frequency deviation measurement is required is transformed to a low voltage level and passed through a zero crossing detector to convert it into a pulse train. Another stable square wave signal of 10 KHz is obtained using a crystal oscillator and decade dividing assemblies (DDA). These signals are combined digitally and then passed through decade counters to give a unique combination of pulses or levels, which are further encoded to make them equally suitable for both control applications and display units. The developed circuit using discrete components has a resolution of 0.5 Hz and completes measurement within 20 ms. The realized circuit is simulated and synthesized using Verilog HDL and subsequently implemented on FPGA. The results of measurement on FPGA are observed on a very high resolution logic analyzer. These results accurately match the simulation results as well as the results of same circuit implemented with discrete components. The proposed system is suitable for accurate measurement and control of power frequency deviation.
Abstract: In this paper, an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter
has been designed and simulated on an Field Programmable Gate
Arrays (FPGA). The implementation is based on Multiply Add and
Accumulate (MAC) algorithm which uses multiply operations for
design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to
implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the
look up table of target device. The designed filter has been
synthesized on Digital Signal Processor (DSP) slice based FPGA to
perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful
to enhance the speed performance. The proposed design is simulated
with Matlab, synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool, and
implemented on FPGA devices. The Virtex 5 FPGA based design can
operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5
MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP based design. The Virtex 5 based
implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target
FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to
provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.
Abstract: In previous study, technique to estimate a self-location by using a lunar image is proposed.We consider the improvement of the conventional method in consideration of FPGA implementationin this paper. Specifically, we introduce Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for reduction of search time.In addition, we use fixed point arithmetic to enable high-speed operation on FPGA.
Abstract: Securing the data stored on E-passport is a very important issue. RSA encryption algorithm is suitable for such application with low data size. In this paper the design and implementation of 1024 bit-key RSA encryption and decryption module on an FPGA is presented. The module is verified through comparing the result with that obtained from MATLAB tools. The design runs at a frequency of 36.3 MHz on Virtex-5 Xilinx FPGA. The key size is designed to be 1024-bit to achieve high security for the passport information. The whole design is achieved through VHDL design entry which makes it a portable design and can be directed to any hardware platform.
Abstract: Paper presents an comparative evaluation of features extraction algorithm for a real-time isolated word recognition system
based on FPGA. The Mel-frequency cepstral, linear frequency cepstral, linear predictive and their cepstral coefficients were
implemented in hardware/software design. The proposed system was investigated in speaker dependent mode for 100 different
Lithuanian words. The robustness of features extraction algorithms was tested recognizing the speech records at different signal to noise rates. The experiments on clean records show highest accuracy for Mel-frequency cepstral and linear frequency cepstral coefficients. For records with 15 dB signal to noise rate the linear predictive cepstral coefficients gives best result. The hard and soft part of the system is clocked on 50 MHz and 100 MHz accordingly. For the classification purpose the pipelined dynamic time warping core was implemented. The proposed word recognition system satisfy the real-time requirements and is suitable for applications in embedded systems.
Abstract: There are many classical algorithms for finding
routing in FPGA. But Using DNA computing we can solve the routes
efficiently and fast. The run time complexity of DNA algorithms is
much less than other classical algorithms which are used for solving
routing in FPGA. The research in DNA computing is in a primary
level. High information density of DNA molecules and massive
parallelism involved in the DNA reactions make DNA computing a
powerful tool. It has been proved by many research accomplishments
that any procedure that can be programmed in a silicon computer can
be realized as a DNA computing procedure. In this paper we have
proposed two tier approaches for the FPGA routing solution. First,
geometric FPGA detailed routing task is solved by transforming it
into a Boolean satisfiability equation with the property that any
assignment of input variables that satisfies the equation specifies a
valid routing. Satisfying assignment for particular route will result in
a valid routing and absence of a satisfying assignment implies that
the layout is un-routable. In second step, DNA search algorithm is
applied on this Boolean equation for solving routing alternatives
utilizing the properties of DNA computation. The simulated results
are satisfactory and give the indication of applicability of DNA
computing for solving the FPGA Routing problem.
Abstract: Recently, the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology offers the potential of designing high performance systems at low cost. The discrete wavelet transform has gained the reputation of being a very effective signal analysis tool for many practical applications. However, due to its computation-intensive nature, current implementation of the transform falls short of meeting real-time processing requirements of most application. The objectives of this paper are implement the Haar and Daubechies wavelets using FPGA technology. In addition, the Bit Error Rate (BER) between the input audio signal and the reconstructed output signal for each wavelet is calculated. From the BER, it is seen that the implementations execute the operation of the wavelet transform correctly and satisfying the perfect reconstruction conditions. The design procedure has been explained and designed using the stat-ofart Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools for system design on FPGA. Simulation, synthesis and implementation on the FPGA target technology has been carried out.
Abstract: .Hardware realization of a Neural Network (NN), to a large extent depends on the efficient implementation of a single neuron. FPGA-based reconfigurable computing architectures are suitable for hardware implementation of neural networks. FPGA realization of ANNs with a large number of neurons is still a challenging task. This paper discusses the issues involved in implementation of a multi-input neuron with linear/nonlinear excitation functions using FPGA. Implementation method with resource/speed tradeoff is proposed to handle signed decimal numbers. The VHDL coding developed is tested using Xilinx XC V50hq240 Chip. To improve the speed of operation a lookup table method is used. The problems involved in using a lookup table (LUT) for a nonlinear function is discussed. The percentage saving in resource and the improvement in speed with an LUT for a neuron is reported. An attempt is also made to derive a generalized formula for a multi-input neuron that facilitates to estimate approximately the total resource requirement and speed achievable for a given multilayer neural network. This facilitates the designer to choose the FPGA capacity for a given application. Using the proposed method of implementation a neural network based application, namely, a Space vector modulator for a vector-controlled drive is presented
Abstract: This paper presents the hardware design of a unified
architecture to compute the 4x4, 8x8 and 16x16 efficient twodimensional
(2-D) transform for the HEVC standard. This
architecture is based on fast integer transform algorithms. It is
designed only with adders and shifts in order to reduce the hardware
cost significantly. The goal is to ensure the maximum circuit reuse
during the computing while saving 40% for the number of operations.
The architecture is developed using FIFOs to compute the second
dimension. The proposed hardware was implemented in VHDL. The
VHDL RTL code works at 240 MHZ in an Altera Stratix III FPGA.
The number of cycles in this architecture varies from 33 in 4-point-
2D-DCT to 172 when the 16-point-2D-DCT is computed. Results
show frequency improvements reaching 96% when compared to an
architecture described as the direct transcription of the algorithm.
Abstract: An approach to develop the FPGA of a flexible key
RSA encryption engine that can be used as a standard device in the
secured communication system is presented. The VHDL modeling of
this RSA encryption engine has the unique characteristics of
supporting multiple key sizes, thus can easily be fit into the systems
that require different levels of security. A simple nested loop addition
and subtraction have been used in order to implement the RSA
operation. This has made the processing time faster and used
comparatively smaller amount of space in the FPGA. The hardware
design is targeted on Altera STRATIX II device and determined that
the flexible key RSA encryption engine can be best suited in the
device named EP2S30F484C3. The RSA encryption implementation
has made use of 13,779 units of logic elements and achieved a clock
frequency of 17.77MHz. It has been verified that this RSA
encryption engine can perform 32-bit, 256-bit and 1024-bit
encryption operation in less than 41.585us, 531.515us and 790.61us
Abstract: Optical flow is a research topic of interest for many
years. It has, until recently, been largely inapplicable to real-time
applications due to its computationally expensive nature. This paper
presents a new reliable flow technique which is combined with a
motion detection algorithm, from stationary camera image streams,
to allow flow-based analyses of moving entities, such as rigidity, in
real-time. The combination of the optical flow analysis with motion
detection technique greatly reduces the expensive computation of
flow vectors as compared with standard approaches, rendering the
method to be applicable in real-time implementation. This paper
describes also the hardware implementation of a proposed pipelined
system to estimate the flow vectors from image sequences in real
time. This design can process 768 x 576 images at a very high frame
rate that reaches to 156 fps in a single low cost FPGA chip, which is
adequate for most real-time vision applications.
Abstract: Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as
cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts,
known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing
tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms
used for the computation of cross moments are computationally
intensive and require high computational speed for real-time
applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous
to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising
solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a
traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In
this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the
computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is
coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware
Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by
implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA.
Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed
design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.
Abstract: In this paper, the hardware implementation of the
RSA public-key cryptographic algorithm is presented. The RSA
cryptographic algorithm is depends on the computation of repeated
The Montgomery algorithm is used and modified to reduce
hardware resources and to achieve reasonable operating speed for
FPGA. An efficient architecture for modular multiplications based on
the array multiplier is proposed. We have implemented a RSA
cryptosystem based on Montgomery algorithm. As a result, it is
shown that proposed architecture contributes to small area and
Abstract: Using vision based solution in intelligent vehicle application often needs large memory to handle video stream and image process which increase complexity of hardware and software. In this paper, we present a FPGA implement of a vision based lane departure warning system. By taking frame of videos, the line gradient of line is estimated and the lane marks are found. By analysis the position of lane mark, departure of vehicle will be detected in time. This idea has been implemented in Xilinx Spartan6 FPGA. The lane departure warning system used 39% logic resources and no memory of the device. The average availability is 92.5%. The frame rate is more than 30 frames per second (fps).
Abstract: In MPEG and H.26x standards, to eliminate the
temporal redundancy we use motion estimation. Given that the
motion estimation stage is very complex in terms of computational
effort, a hardware implementation on a re-configurable circuit is
crucial for the requirements of different real time multimedia
applications. In this paper, we present hardware architecture for
motion estimation based on "Full Search Block Matching" (FSBM)
algorithm. This architecture presents minimum latency, maximum
throughput, full utilization of hardware resources such as embedded
memory blocks, and combining both pipelining and parallel
processing techniques. Our design is described in VHDL language,
verified by simulation and implemented in a Stratix II
EP2S130F1020C4 FPGA circuit. The experiment result show that the
optimum operating clock frequency of the proposed design is 89MHz
which achieves 160M pixels/sec.
Abstract: We present in this paper an acquisition and treatment system designed for semi-analog Gamma-camera. It consists of a nuclear medical Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display chain(IATD) ensuring the acquisition, the treatment of the signals(resulting from the Gamma-camera detection head) and the scintigraphic image construction in real time. This chain is composed by an analog treatment board and a digital treatment board. We describe the designed systems and the digital treatment algorithms in which we have improved the performance and the flexibility. The digital treatment algorithms are implemented in a specific reprogrammable circuit FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).interface for semi-analog cameras of Sopha Medical Vision(SMVi) by taking as example SOPHY DS7. The developed system consists of an Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display (IATD) ensuring the acquisition and the treatment of the signals resulting from the DH. The developed chain is formed by a treatment analog board and a digital treatment board designed around a DSP . In this paper we have presented the architecture of a new version of our chain IATD in which the integration of the treatment algorithms is executed on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)