Abstract: We have incorporated the translational rotational (TR)
coupling effects in the framework of three body force shell model
(TSM) to develop an extended TSM (ETSM). The dynamical matrix
of ETSM has been applied to compute the phonon frequencies of
orientationally disordered mixed crystal (ND4Br)x(KBr)1-x in (q00),
(qq0) and (qqq) symmetry directions for compositions 0.10≤x≤0.50
at T=300K.These frequencies are plotted as a function of wave vector
k. An unusual acoustic mode softening is found along symmetry
directions (q00) and (qq0) as a result of translation-rotation coupling.
Abstract: Al2(HPO4)3 was easily prepared and used as a solid
acid in acetalization of carbonyl compounds at room temperature and
under solvent-free conditions. The protection was done in short
reaction times and in good to high isolated yields. The cheapness and
availability of this reagent with easy procedure and work-up make
this method attractive for the organic synthesis.
Abstract: Recovering resources from water purification sludge
(WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection
laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is
becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of
the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have
been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum
hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the
Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or
mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water
purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make
particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger.
According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved
aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.
Abstract: The dissimilar joint between aluminum/titanium
alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) were successfully achieved by CO2 laser
welding with a single pass and without filler material using the
overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations
were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the
objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile
and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of
dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was resulted in three distinct regions
fusion area in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its
microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly
affecting the welding quality.
The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime.
In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain
growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also
has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals
and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.
Abstract: Heavy rare earth (HRE) oxalate concentrates were
prepared from the Egyptian crude monazite sand (graded about 47%).
The concentrates were specified quantitatively for their constituents
of individual rare earth elements using ion chromatograph (IC) and
qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the other
major constituents. The 1st concentrate was composed of 10.5%
HREE where 7.25% of them represented yttrium. The 2nd concentrate
contained about 41.7% LREE, 17.5% HREE and 13.6% Th. The
LREE involved 18.3% Ce, 10.5% La and 8% Nd while the HREE
were 8.7% Y, 3.5% Gd and 2.9% Dy. The 3rd concentrate was
containing about 8.0% LREE (3.7% Ce, 2.0% La and 1.5% Nd),
10.2% HREE (6.4% yttrium and 2.0% Dy) and 2.1% uranium. The
final concentrate comprised 0.84% uranium beside iron, chromium
and traces of REE.
Abstract: In the present work, the effect of load and sliding
distance on the performance tribology of commercially used
aluminium-silicon engine block and piston was evaluated at ambient
conditions with humidity of 80% under dry sliding conditions using a
pin-on-disc with two different loads of 5N and 20N yielding applied
pressure of 0.30MPa and 1.4MPa, respectively, at sliding velocity of
0.29ms-1 and with varying sliding distance ranging from 260m-
4200m. Factors and conditions that had significant effect were
identified. The results showed that the load and the sliding distance
affect the wear rate of the alloys and the wear rate increased with
increasing load for both the alloys. Wear rate also increases almost
linearly at low loads and increase to a maximum then attain a plateau
with increasing sliding distance. For both applied loads the piston
alloy showed the better performance due to higher Ni and Mg
content. The worn surface and wear debris was characterized by
optical microscope, SEM and EDX analyzer. The worn surface was
characterized by surface with shallow grooves at loads while the
groove width and depth increased as the loads increases. Oxidative
wear was found to be the predominant mechanisms in the dry sliding
of Al-Si alloys at low loads.
Abstract: Copper being one of the major intrinsic residual
impurities in steel possesses the tendency to induce severe
microstructural distortions if not controlled within certain limits.
Hence, this paper investigates the effect of this element on the
mechanical properties of construction steel with a view to ascertain
its safe limits for effective control. The experiment entails collection
of statistically scheduled samples of hot rolled profiles with varied
copper concentrations in the range of 0.12-0.39 wt. %. From these
samples were prepared standard test specimens subjected to tensile,
impact, hardness and microstructural analyses. Results show a rather
huge compromise in mechanical properties as the specimens
demonstrated 54.3%, 74.2% and 64.9% reduction in tensile strength,
impact energy and hardness respectively as copper content increases
from 0.12 wt. % to 0.39 wt. %. The steel’s abysmal performance is
due to the severe distortion of the microstructure occasioned by the
development of incoherent complex compounds which weaken the
pearlite reinforcing phase. It is concluded that the presence of copper
above 0.22 wt. % is deleterious to construction steel performance.
Abstract: Mass flow measurement is the basis of most technoeconomic
formulations in the chemical industry. This calls for
reliable and accurate detection of mass flow. Flow measurement
laboratory experiments were conducted using various instruments.
These consisted of orifice plates, various sized rotameters, wet gas
meter and soap bubble meter. This work was aimed at evaluating
appropriate operating conditions and accuracy of the aforementioned
devices. The experimental data collected were compared to
theoretical predictions from Bernoulli’s equation and calibration
curves supplied by the instrument’s manufacturers. The results
obtained showed that rotameters were more reliable for measuring
high and low flow rates; while soap-bubble meters and wet-gas
meters were found to be suitable for measuring low flow rates. The
laboratory procedures and findings of the actual work can assist
engineering students and professionals in conducting their flow
measurement laboratory test work.
Abstract: The fight against climate change and the replacement
of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major
societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common
dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international
market a new generation of products with high added values such as
bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be
blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the
Abstract: The study investigated the implementation of the
Neural Network (NN) techniques for prediction of the loading of Cu
ions onto clinoptilolite. The experimental design using analysis of
variance (ANOVA) was chosen for testing the adequacy of the
Neural Network and for optimizing of the effective input parameters
(pH, temperature and initial concentration). Feed forward, multi-layer
perceptron (MLP) NN successfully tracked the non-linear behavior of
the adsorption process versus the input parameters with mean squared
error (MSE), correlation coefficient (R) and minimum squared error
(MSRE) of 0.102, 0.998 and 0.004 respectively. The results showed
that NN modeling techniques could effectively predict and simulate
the highly complex system and non-linear process such as ionexchange.
Abstract: Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.
Abstract: Biometallic materials are the most important materials for use in biomedical applications especially in manufacturing a variety of biological artificial replacements in a modern worlds, e.g. hip, knee or shoulder joints, due to their advanced characteristics. Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are used extensively in biomedical applications based on their high specific strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Beta-Ti alloys containing completely biocompatible elements are exceptionally prospective materials for manufacturing of bioimplants. They have superior mechanical, chemical and electrochemical properties for use as biomaterials. These biomaterials have the ability to introduce the most important property of biochemical compatibility which is low elastic modulus. This review examines current information on the recent developments in alloying elements leading to improvements of beta Ti alloys for use as biomaterials. Moreover, this paper focuses mainly on the evolution, evaluation and development of the modulus of elasticity as an effective factor on the performance of beta alloys.
Abstract: In this paper, sodium borosilicates glasses were prepared by melting in air. These heat-resistant transparent glasses have subjected subsequently isothermal treatments at different times, which have transformed them at opaque glass (milky white color). Such changes indicate that these glasses showed clearly phase separation (immiscibility). The immiscibility region in a sodium borosilicate ternary system was investigated in this work, i.e. to determine the regions from which some compositions can show phase separation. For this we went through the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium, which were translated later by mathematical equations to find an approximate solution. The latter has been translated in a simulation which was established thereafter to find the immiscibility regions in this type of special glasses.
Abstract: Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have gained a
considerable interest in the last three decades. Conventional powder
metallurgy production route often involves the addition of reinforcing
phases into the metal matrix directly, which leads to poor wetting
behavior between ceramic phase and metal matrix and the
segregation of reinforcements. The commonly used elements for
ceramic phase formation in iron based MMCs are Ti, Nb, Mo, W, V
and C, B. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the effect of
sintering temperature and V-B addition on densification, phase
development, microstructure, and hardness of Fe–V-B composites
(Fe-(5-10) wt. %B – 25 wt. %V alloys) prepared by powder
metallurgy process. Metal powder mixes were pressed uniaxial and
sintered at different temperatures (ranging from 1300 to 1400ºC) for
1h. The microstructure of the (V, B) Fe composites was studied with
the help of high magnification optical microscope and XRD.
Experimental results show that (V, B) Fe composites can be produced
by conventional powder metallurgy route.
Abstract: In this study, a liquid phase microextraction by hollow fiber (HF-LPME) combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detector was applied to preconcentrate and determine trace levels of Cyproheptadine in human urine and plasma samples. Cyproheptadine was extracted from 10 mL alkaline aqueous solution (pH: 9.81) into an organic solvent (n-octnol) which was immobilized in the wall pores of a hollow fiber. Then was back-extracted into an acidified aqueous solution (pH: 2.59) located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. This method is simple, efficient and cost-effective. It is based on pH gradient and differences between two aqueous phases. In order to optimize the HF-LPME some affecting parameters including the pH of donor and acceptor phases, the type of organic solvent, ionic strength, stirring rate, extraction time and temperature were studied and optimized. Under optimal conditions enrichment factor, limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD(%), n=3) were up to 112, 15 μg.L−1 and 2.7, respectively.
Abstract: This paper conducts a comparison study using KES-FB and PhabrOmeter to measure 58 selected warp knitted fabric hand properties. Fabric samples were selected and measured by both KES-FB and PhabrOmeter. Results show differences between these two measurement methods. Smoothness and stiffness values obtained by KES-FB were found significant correlated (p value = 0.003 and 0.022) to the PhabrOmeter results while softness values between two measurement methods did not show significant correlation (p value = 0.828). Disagreements among these two measurement methods imply limitations on different mechanism principles when facing warp knitted fabrics. Subjective measurement methods and further studies are suggested in order to ascertain deeper investigation on the mechanisms of fabric hand perceptions.
Abstract: Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of
(Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were
prepared and sintered at 1250–1400 ºC. The microstructure and
microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were
examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of
Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant,
temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering
temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are
greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study
showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at
1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23%
improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.
Abstract: The process of thermoforming a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRTP) has increased its presence in the automotive industry for its wide applicability to the mass production car. A non-isothermal forming for CFRTP can shorten its cycle time to less than 1 minute. In this paper, the textile reinforcement FE model which the authors proposed in a previous work is extended to the CFRTP model for non-isothermal forming simulation. The effect of thermoplastic is given by adding shell elements which consider thermal effect to the textile reinforcement model. By applying Reuss model to the stress calculation of thermoplastic, the proposed model can accurately predict in-plane shear behavior, which is the key deformation mode during forming, in the range of the process temperature. Using the proposed model, thermoforming simulation was conducted and the results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Abstract: The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.
Abstract: Ferulic acid has widespread industrial potential by virtue of its antioxidant properties. However, it is partially soluble in aqueous media, limiting their usefulness in oil-based processes in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and material industry. Therefore, modification of ferulic acid should be made by producing of more lipophilic derivatives. In this study, a preliminary investigation of lipase-catalyzed trans-esterification reaction of ethyl ferulate and olive oil was investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), to produce ferulate ester, a sunscreen agent. A statistical approach of Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the interactive effects of reaction temperature (40-80°C), reaction time (4-12 hours), and amount of enzyme (0.1-0.5 g). The optimum conditions derived via RSM were reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 2.34 hours, and amount of enzyme 0.3 g. The actual experimental yield was 59.6% ferulate ester under optimum condition, which compared well to the maximum predicted value of 58.0%.