Abstract: The patenting of inventions is the result of an organized effort to achieve technological improvement and its consequent positive impact on the population's standard of living. Technology exports, either of high-tech goods or of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services, represent the level of acceptance that world markets have of that technology acquired or developed by a country, either in public or private settings. A quantitative measure of the above variables is expected to have a positive and relevant impact on the level of economic development of the countries, measured on this first occasion through their level of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). And in that sense, it not only explains the performance of an economy but the difference between nations. We present an econometric model where we seek to explain the difference between the GDP levels of 178 countries through their different performance in the outputs of the technological production process. We take the variables of Patenting, ICT Exports and High Technology Exports as results of the innovation process. This model achieves an explanatory power for four annual cuts (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015) equivalent to an adjusted r2 of 0.91, 0.87, 0.91 and 0.96, respectively.
Abstract: In order to survive on the market, companies must
constantly develop improved and new products. These products are
designed to serve the needs of their customers in the best possible
way. The creation of new products is also called innovation and is
primarily driven by a company’s internal research and development
department. However, a new approach has been taking place for some
years now, involving external knowledge in the innovation process.
This approach is called open innovation and identifies customer
knowledge as the most important source in the innovation process. This paper presents a concept of using social media posts as an external source to support the open innovation approach in its
initial phase, the Ideation phase. For this purpose, the social media
posts are semantically structured with the help of an ontology and
the authors are evaluated using graph-theoretical metrics such as
density. For the structuring and evaluation of relevant social media
posts, we also use the findings of Natural Language Processing, e.
g. Named Entity Recognition, specific dictionaries, Triple Tagger
and Part-of-Speech-Tagger. The selection and evaluation of the tools
used are discussed in this paper. Using our ontology and metrics
to structure social media posts enables users to semantically search
these posts for new product ideas and thus gain an improved insight
into the external sources such as customer needs.
Abstract: In the knowledge-based economy, innovation is considered essential in order to achieve survival and growth in organizations. On the other hand, knowledge management is currently understood as one of the keys to innovation process. Both factors are generally admitted as generators of competitive advantage in organizations. Specifically, activities on R&D&I and those that generate internal knowledge have a positive influence in innovation results. This paper examines this effect and if it is similar or not is what we aimed to quantify in this paper. We focus on the impact that proportion of knowledge workers, the R&D&I investment, the amounts destined for ICTs and training for innovation have on the variation of tangible and intangibles returns for the sector of high and medium technology in Spain. To do this, we have performed an empirical analysis on the results of questionnaires about innovation in enterprises in Spain, collected by the National Statistics Institute. First, using clusters methodology, the behavior of these enterprises regarding knowledge management is identified. Then, using SEM methodology, we performed, for each cluster, the study about cause-effect relationships among constructs defined through variables, setting its type and quantification. The cluster analysis results in four groups in which cluster number 1 and 3 presents the best performance in innovation with differentiating nuances among them, while clusters 2 and 4 obtained divergent results to a similar innovative effort. However, the results of SEM analysis for each cluster show that, in all cases, knowledge workers are those that affect innovation performance most, regardless of the level of investment, and that there is a strong correlation between knowledge workers and investment in knowledge generation. The main findings reached is that Spanish high and medium technology companies improve their innovation performance investing in internal knowledge generation measures, specially, in terms of R&D activities, and underinvest in external ones. This, and the strong correlation between knowledge workers and the set of activities that promote the knowledge generation, should be taken into account by managers of companies, when making decisions about their investments for innovation, since they are key for improving their opportunities in the global market.
Abstract: Radical technological innovations enable companies
to reach strong market positions and are thus desirable. On the other
hand, the innovation process is related to significant costs and risks.
Hence, the knowledge of the factors that influence success is crucial
for technology driven companies. Taking a previously developed
framework of Critical Success Factors for radical technological
innovations as a reference model, we conducted a structured and
focused literature review of eleven standard books within the field of
technology and innovation management. With this approach we aim
to evaluate, expand, and clarify the set of Critical Success Factors
detailed in this framework. Overall, the set of factors and their
allocation to the main categories of the framework could be
confirmed. However, the factor organizational home is not
emphasized and discussed in most of the reviewed literature. On the
other hand, an additional factor that has not been part of the
framework is described to be important – strategy fit. Furthermore,
the factors strategic alliances and platform strategy appear in the
literature but in a different context compared to the reference model.
Abstract: This article discusses issues related to the System of
Innovation: Comparing economies of Brazil and South Africa.
Having as this study aimed at comparing the Innovation System of
the countries mentioned. Then briefly describe the process of Venture
Capital and present the industry innovation in Brazil and South
Africa. The methodological approach described in this article is
descriptive and the approach is qualitative, taking as a basis
secondary data relating to research articles. The main results are
related to the different forms of financing of Venture Capital used by
countries compared, in addition to the training and economic policy.
And finally, it was highlighted the importance of implementation of
policy reforms for the Brazil and Africa in the innovation process.
Abstract: In highly competitive environments, a growing
number of companies must regularly launch new products speedily
and successfully. A company-s success is based on the systematic,
conscious product designing method which meets the market
requirements and takes risks as well as resources into consideration.
Research has found that developing and launching new products are
inherently risky endeavors. Hence in this research, we aim at
introducing a risk evaluation framework for the new product
innovation process. Our framework is based on the fuzzy analytical
hierarchy process (FAHP) methodology. We have applied all the
stages of the framework on the risk evaluation process of a
Abstract: As the trend of manufacturing is being dominated depending on services, products and processes are more and more related with sophisticated services. Thus, this research starts with the discussion about integration of the product, process, and service in the innovation process. In particular, this paper sets out some foundations for a theory of service innovation in the field of manufacturing, and proposes the dynamic model of service innovation related to product and process. Two dynamic models of service innovation are suggested to investigate major tendencies and dynamic variations during the innovation cycle: co-innovation and sequential innovation. To structure dynamic models of product, process, and service innovation, the innovation stages in which two models are mainly achieved are identified. The research would encourage manufacturers to formulate strategy and planning for service development with product and process.