Human Fall Detection by FMCW Radar Based on Time-Varying Range-Doppler Features

The existing two-dimensional micro-Doppler features extraction ignores the correlation information between the spatial and temporal dimension features. For the range-Doppler map, the time dimension is introduced, and a frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW) radar human fall detection algorithm based on time-varying range-Doppler features is proposed. Firstly, the range-Doppler sequence maps are generated from the echo signals of the continuous motion of the human body collected by the radar. Then the three-dimensional data cube composed of multiple frames of range-Doppler maps is input into the three-dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (3D CNN). The spatial and temporal features of time-varying range-Doppler are extracted by the convolution layer and pool layer at the same time. Finally, the extracted spatial and temporal features are input into the fully connected layer for classification. The experimental results show that the proposed fall detection algorithm has a detection accuracy of 95.66%.

3D Printing Technology in Housing Projects Construction

Realistically, 3-D printing as a technology has not yet reached the required maturity level to handle construction housing projects for citizens on a country scale. However, potentially, it has all of the required elements for addressing this issue. There are two main high-level elements of this technology that need to be capitalized on in order for the technology to reach its full potential: technical and logistical. This paper aims to cover how 3-D printing can be a viable technical solution for housing projects and describes the impact of 3-D printing technical features on the logistical aspects of completing a housing project. Additionally, a perspective about 3-D printing in Saudi Arabia will be presented in order to give the reader an idea of where the Kingdom stands in the deployment of this technology. Finally, a glimpse will be given regarding the potential utilization of this technology for space applications.

Numerical Evaluation of Turbulent Friction on Walls in the Penstock of the Trois-Gorges Dam by the Swamee-Jain Method

Since the expression of the coefficient of friction by Colebrook-White which turns out to be an implicit equation, equations have been developed to facilitate their applicability. In this work, this equation was applied to the penstock of the Three Gorges dam in order to observe the evolution of the turbulent boundary layer and the friction along the walls. Thus, the study is being carried out using a 3D digital approach in FLUENT in order to take into account the wall effects. It appears that according to the position of the portions, we have a variation in the evolutions of the turbulent friction and of the values of the boundary layer. We also observe that the inclination of the pipe has a significant influence on this turbulent friction; similarly, one could not make a fair evaluation of the latter without specifying the choice and location of the wall.

Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the serviceability constraints.

Block-Based 2D to 3D Image Conversion Method

With the advent of three-dimension (3D) technology, there are lots of research in converting 2D images to 3D images. The main difference between 2D and 3D is the visual illusion of depth in 3D images. In the recent era, there are more depth estimation techniques. The objective of this paper is to convert 2D images to 3D images with less computation time. For this, the input image is divided into blocks from which the depth information is obtained. Having the depth information, a depth map is generated. Then the 3D image is warped using the original image and the depth map. The proposed method is tested on Make3D dataset and NYU-V2 dataset. The experimental results are compared with other recent methods. The proposed method proved to work with less computation time and good accuracy.

Simulation on Influence of Environmental Conditions on Part Distortion in Fused Deposition Modelling

Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) is one of the additive manufacturing techniques that has become highly attractive in the industrial and academic sectors. However, parts fabricated through FDM are highly susceptible to geometrical defects such as warpage, shrinkage, and delamination that can severely affect their function. Among the thermoplastic polymer feedstock for FDM, semi-crystalline polymers are highly prone to part distortion due to polymer crystallization. In this study, the influence of FDM processing conditions such as chamber temperature and print bed temperature on the induced thermal residual stress and resulting warpage are investigated using 3D transient thermal model for a semi-crystalline polymer. The thermo-mechanical properties and the viscoelasticity of the polymer, as well as the crystallization physics which considers the crystallinity of the polymer, are coupled with the evolving temperature gradient of the print model. From the results it was observed that increasing the chamber temperature from 25 °C to 75 °C leads to a decrease of 3.3% residual stress and increase of 0.4% warpage, while decreasing bed temperature from 100 °C to 60 °C resulted in 27% increase in residual stress and a significant rise of 137% in warpage. The simulated warpage data are validated by comparing it with the measured warpage values of the samples using 3D scanning.

A Simulation Study into the Use of Polymer Based Materials for Core Exoskeleton Applications

A core/trunk exoskeleton design has been produced that is aimed to assist the raise to stand motion. A 3D model was produced to examine the use of additive manufacturing as a core method for producing structural components for the exoskeleton presented. The two materials that were modelled for this simulation work were Polylatic acid (PLA) and polyethylene terephthalate with carbon (PET-C), and the central spinal cord of the design being Nitrile rubber. The aim of this study was to examine the use of 3D printed materials as the main skeletal structure to support the core of a human when moving raising from a resting position. The objective in this work was to identify if the 3D printable materials could be offered as an equivalent alternative to conventional more expensive materials, thus allow for greater access for production for home maintenance. A maximum load of lift force was calculated, and this was incrementally reduced to study the effects on the material. The results showed a total number of 8 simulations were run to study the core in conditions with no muscular support through to 90% of operational support. The study presents work in the form of a core/trunk exoskeleton that presents 3D printing as a possible alternative to conventional manufacturing.

3D Modeling Approach for Cultural Heritage Structures: The Case of Virgin of Loreto Chapel in Cusco, Peru

Nowadays, Heritage Building Information Modeling (HBIM) is considered an efficient tool to represent and manage information of Cultural Heritage (CH). The basis of this tool relies on a 3D model generally obtained from a Cloud-to-BIM procedure. There are different methods to create an HBIM model that goes from manual modeling based on the point cloud to the automatic detection of shapes and the creation of objects. The selection of these methods depends on the desired Level of Development (LOD), Level of Information (LOI), Grade of Generation (GOG) as well as on the availability of commercial software. This paper presents the 3D modeling of a stone masonry chapel using Recap Pro, Revit and Dynamo interface following a three-step methodology. The first step consists of the manual modeling of simple structural (e.g., regular walls, columns, floors, wall openings, etc.) and architectural (e.g., cornices, moldings and other minor details) elements using the point cloud as reference. Then, Dynamo is used for generative modeling of complex structural elements such as vaults, infills and domes. Finally, semantic information (e.g., materials, typology, state of conservation, etc.) and pathologies are added within the HBIM model as text parameters and generic models’ families respectively. The application of this methodology allows the documentation of CH following a relatively simple to apply process that ensures adequate LOD, LOI and GOG levels. In addition, the easy implementation of the method as well as the fact of using only one BIM software with its respective plugin for the scan-to-BIM modeling process means that this methodology can be adopted by a larger number of users with intermediate knowledge and limited resources, since the BIM software used has a free student license.

Early Age Behavior of Wind Turbine Gravity Foundations

Wind turbine gravity foundations are designed to resist overturning failure through gravitational forces resulting from their masses. Owing to the relatively high volume of the cementitious material present, the foundations tend to suffer thermal strains and internal cracking due to high temperatures and temperature gradients depending on factors such as geometry, mix design and level of restraint. This is a result of a fully coupled mechanism commonly known as THMC (Thermo- Hygro - Mechanical - Chemical) coupling whose kinetics peak during the early age of concrete. The focus of this paper is therefore to present and offer a discussion on the temperature and humidity evolutions occurring in mass pours such as wind turbine gravity foundations based on sensor results obtained from the monitoring of an actual wind turbine foundation. To offer prediction of the evolutions, the formulation of a 3D Thermal-Hydro-Chemical (THC) model that is mainly derived from classical fundamental physical laws is also presented and discussed. The THC model can be mathematically fully coupled in Finite Element analyses. In the current study, COMSOL Multi-physics software was used to simulate the 3D THC coupling that occurred in the monitored wind turbine foundation to predict the temperature evolution at five different points within the foundation from time of casting.

Study of the Sloshing Phenomenon in a Tank Filled Partially with Liquid Using CFD Simulation

Reducing sloshing is one of the major challenges in industries where transporting of liquid is involved. The present study investigates the sloshing effect for different liquid levels of 50% of the tank capacity. CFD simulation for two different baffle configurations has been carried out using a time-based multiphase Volume of fluid (VOF) scheme. Baffles were introduced to examine the sloshing effect inside the tank. Results were compared against the baseline case to assess the effectiveness of baffles; maximum liquid height over the period of the simulation was considered as the parameter for measuring the sloshing effect inside the tank. It was found that the addition of baffles reduced the sloshing effect inside the tank as compared to the baseline model.

On Deterministic Chaos: Disclosing the Missing Mathematics from the Lorenz-Haken Equations

The original 3D Lorenz-Haken equations -which describe laser dynamics- are converted into 2-second-order differential equations out of which the so far missing mathematics is extracted. Leaning on high-order trigonometry, important outcomes are pulled out: A fundamental result attributes chaos to forbidden periodic solutions, inside some precisely delimited region of the control parameter space that governs self-pulsing.

Generation of 3D Models Obtained with Low-Cost RGB and Thermal Sensors Mounted on Drones

Nowadays it is common to resort to aerial photography to carry out the prospection and/or exploration of archaeological sites. In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been applied as the vehicles that carry the sensor. This implies certain advantages, such as the possibility of including low-cost sensors, given that these vehicles can carry the sensor at relatively low altitudes. Due to this, low-cost dual sensors have recently begun to be used. This new equipment can collaborate with classic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in the exploration of archaeological sites, but this entails the need for a methodological setting to optimize the acquisition, processing and exploitation of the information provided by low-cost dual sensors. This research focuses on the design of an appropriate workflow to obtain 3D models with low-cost sensors carried on UAVs, both in the RGB and thermal domains. All the foregoing has been applied to the archaeological site of Juliobriga, located in Cantabria (Spain). To this end, a flight with this type of sensors has been planned, developed and analyzed. It has been applied to the archaeological site of Juliobriga (Cantabria, Spain). A strong dependence of the thermal sensor on the GSD, and the capability of this technique to interpret underground materials. This research allows to state that the thermal nature of the site does not provide main information about the site itself, but with combination with other types of information, such as the DEM, the typology of materials, etc., can produce very positive results with respect to the exploration and knowledge of the site. 

A Numerical Study of the Interaction between Residual Stress Profiles Induced by Quasi-Static Plastification

One of the most relevant phenomena in manufacturing is the residual stress state development through the manufacturing chain. In most cases, the residual stresses have their origin in the heterogenous plastification produced by the processes. Although a few manufacturing processes have been successfully approached by numerical modeling, there is still lack of understanding on how these processes' interactions will affect the final stress state. The objective of this work is to analyze the effect of the grinding procedure on the residual stress state generated by a quasi-static indentation. The model consists in a simplified approach of shot peening, modeling four cases with variations in indenter size and force. This model was validated through topography, measured by optical 3D focus-variation. The indentation model configured with two loads was then exposed to two grinding procedures and the result was analyzed. It was observed that the grinding procedure will have a significant effect on the stress state.

A 3D Numerical Environmental Modeling Approach for Assessing Transport of Spilled Oil in Porous Beach Conditions under a Meso-Scale Tank Design

Shorelines are vulnerable to significant environmental impacts from oil spills. Stranded oil can cause potential short- to long-term detrimental effects along beaches that include injuries to ecosystem, socio-economic and cultural resources. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical modeling approach is developed to evaluate the fate and transport of spilled oil for hypothetical oiled shoreline cases under various combinations of beach geomorphology and environmental conditions. The developed model estimates the spatial and temporal distribution of spilled oil for the various test conditions, using the finite volume method and considering the physical transport (dispersion and advection), sinks, and sorption processes. The model includes a user-friendly interface for data input on variables such as beach properties, environmental conditions, and physical-chemical properties of spilled oil. An experimental meso-scale tank design was used to test the developed model for dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon within shorelines. The simulated results for effects of different sediment substrates, oil types, and shoreline features for the transport of spilled oil are comparable to that obtained with a commercially available model. Results show that the properties of substrates and the oil removal by shoreline effects have significant impacts on oil transport in the beach area. Sensitivity analysis, through the application of the one-step-at-a-time method (OAT), for the 3D model identified hydraulic conductivity as the most sensitive parameter. The 3D numerical model allows users to examine the behavior of oil on and within beaches, assess potential environmental impacts, and provide technical support for decisions related to shoreline clean-up operations.

A Simulation Tool for Projection Mapping Based on Mapbox and Unity

A simulation tool is proposed for big-scale projection mapping events. The tool has four main functions based on Mapbox and Unity utilities. The first function is building three-dimensional models of real cities using Mapbox. The second function is movie projections to some buildings in real cities using Unity. The third is a movie sending function from a PC to a virtual projector. The fourth function is mapping movies with fitting buildings. The simulation tool was adapted to a real projection mapping event held in 2019. The event completed, but it faced a severe problem in the movie projection to the target building. Extra tents were set in front of the target building, and the tents became obstacles to the movie projection. The simulation tool developed herein could reconstruct the problems of the event. Therefore, if the simulation tool was developed before the 2019 projection mapping event, the problem of the tents being obstacles could have been avoided using the tool. Moreover, we confirmed that the simulation tool is useful for planning future projection mapping events to avoid various extra equipment obstacles, such as utility poles, planting trees, and monument towers.

Automated 3D Segmentation System for Detecting Tumor and Its Heterogeneity in Patients with High Grade Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

High grade ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) is the most fatal gynecological cancer and poor prognosis of this entity is closely related to considerable intratumoral genetic heterogeneity. By examining imaging data, it is possible to assess the heterogeneity of tumorous tissue. This study presents a methodology for aligning, segmenting and finally visualizing information from various magnetic resonance imaging series, in order to construct 3D models of heterogeneity maps from the same tumor in OEC patients. The proposed system may be used as an adjunct digital tool by health professionals for personalized medicine, as it allows for an easy visual assessment of the heterogeneity of the examined tumor.

Parametric Study of 3D Micro-Fin Tubes on Heat Transfer and Friction Factor

One area of special importance for the surface-level study of heat exchangers is tubes with internal micro-fins (< 0.5 mm tall). Micro-finned surfaces are a kind of extended solid surface in which energy is exchanged with water that acts as the source or sink of energy. Significant performance gains are possible for either shell, tube, or double pipe heat exchangers if the best surfaces are identified. The parametric studies of micro-finned tubes that have appeared in the literature left some key parameters unexplored. Specifically, they ignored three-dimensional (3D) micro-fin configurations, conduction heat transfer in the fins, and conduction in the solid surface below the micro-fins. Thus, this study aimed at implementing a parametric study of 3D micro-finned tubes that considered micro-fine height and discontinuity features. A 3D conductive and convective heat-transfer simulation through coupled solid and periodic fluid domains is applied in a commercial package, ANSYS Fluent 19.1. The simulation is steady-state with turbulent water flow cooling the inner wall of a tube with micro-fins. The simulation utilizes a constant and uniform temperature on the tube outer wall. Performance is mapped for 18 different simulation cases, including a smooth tube using a realizable k-ε turbulence model at a Reynolds number of 48,928. Results compared the performance of 3D tubes with results for the similar two-dimensional (2D) one. Results showed that the micro-fine height has a greater impact on performance factors than discontinuity features in 3D micro-fin tubes. A transformed 3D micro-fin tube can enhance heat transfer, and pressure drops up to 21% and 56% compared to a 2D one, respectfully.

6D Posture Estimation of Road Vehicles from Color Images

Currently, in the field of object posture estimation, there is research on estimating the position and angle of an object by storing a 3D model of the object to be estimated in advance in a computer and matching it with the model. However, in this research, we have succeeded in creating a module that is much simpler, smaller in scale, and faster in operation. Our 6D pose estimation model consists of two different networks – a classification network and a regression network. From a single RGB image, the trained model estimates the class of the object in the image, the coordinates of the object, and its rotation angle in 3D space. In addition, we compared the estimation accuracy of each camera position, i.e., the angle from which the object was captured. The highest accuracy was recorded when the camera position was 75°, the accuracy of the classification was about 87.3%, and that of regression was about 98.9%.

Image Processing Approach for Detection of Three-Dimensional Tree-Rings from X-Ray Computed Tomography

Tree-ring analysis is an important part of the quality assessment and the dating of (archaeological) wood samples. It provides quantitative data about the whole anatomical ring structure, which can be used, for example, to measure the impact of the fluctuating environment on the tree growth, for the dendrochronological analysis of archaeological wooden artefacts and to estimate the wood mechanical properties. Despite advances in computer vision and edge recognition algorithms, detection and counting of annual rings are still limited to 2D datasets and performed in most cases manually, which is a time consuming, tedious task and depends strongly on the operator’s experience. This work presents an image processing approach to detect the whole 3D tree-ring structure directly from X-ray computed tomography imaging data. The approach relies on a modified Canny edge detection algorithm, which captures fully connected tree-ring edges throughout the measured image stack and is validated on X-ray computed tomography data taken from six wood species.

Numerical Modelling of Dust Propagation in the Atmosphere of Tbilisi City in Case of Western Background Light Air

Tbilisi, a large city of the South Caucasus, is a junction point connecting Asia and Europe, Russia and republics of the Asia Minor. Over the last years, its atmosphere has been experienced an increasing anthropogenic load. Numerical modeling method is used for study of Tbilisi atmospheric air pollution. By means of 3D non-linear non-steady numerical model a peculiarity of city atmosphere pollution is investigated during background western light air. Dust concentration spatial and time changes are determined. There are identified the zones of high, average and less pollution, dust accumulation areas, transfer directions etc. By numerical modeling, there is shown that the process of air pollution by the dust proceeds in four stages, and they depend on the intensity of motor traffic, the micro-relief of the city, and the location of city mains. In the interval of time 06:00-09:00 the intensive growth, 09:00-15:00 a constancy or weak decrease, 18:00-21:00 an increase, and from 21:00 to 06:00 a reduction of the dust concentrations take place. The highly polluted areas are located in the vicinity of the city center and at some peripherical territories of the city, where the maximum dust concentration at 9PM is equal to 2 maximum allowable concentrations. The similar investigations conducted in case of various meteorological situations will enable us to compile the map of background urban pollution and to elaborate practical measures for ambient air protection.