Pushing the Limits of Address Based Authentication: How to Avoid MAC Address Spoofing in Wireless LANs

It is well-known that in wireless local area networks, authenticating nodes by their MAC addresses is not secure since it is very easy for an attacker to learn one of the authorized addresses and change his MAC address accordingly. In this paper, in order to prevent MAC address spoofing attacks, we propose to use dynamically changing MAC addresses and make each address usable for only one session. The scheme we propose does not require any change in 802.11 protocols and incurs only a small performance overhead. One of the nice features of our new scheme is that no third party can link different communication sessions of the same user by monitoring MAC addresses therefore our scheme is preferable also with respect to user privacy.

A Novel Approach to Fault Classification and Fault Location for Medium Voltage Cables Based on Artificial Neural Network

A novel application of neural network approach to fault classification and fault location of Medium voltage cables is demonstrated in this paper. Different faults on a protected cable should be classified and located correctly. This paper presents the use of neural networks as a pattern classifier algorithm to perform these tasks. The proposed scheme is insensitive to variation of different parameters such as fault type, fault resistance, and fault inception angle. Studies show that the proposed technique is able to offer high accuracy in both of the fault classification and fault location tasks.

A 1.5V,100MS/s,12-bit Current-Mode CMOSS ample-and-Hold Circuit

A high-linearity and high-speed current-mode sampleand- hold circuit is designed and simulated using a 0.25μm CMOS technology. This circuit design is based on low voltage and it utilizes a fully differential circuit. Due to the use of only two switches the switch related noise has been reduced. Signal - dependent -error is completely eliminated by a new zero voltage switching technique. The circuit has a linearity error equal to ±0.05μa, i.e. 12-bit accuracy with a ±160 μa differential output - input signal frequency of 5MHZ, and sampling frequency of 100 MHZ. Third harmonic is equal to –78dB.

Low Power Approach for Decimation Filter Hardware Realization

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. This paper addresses usage of CIC (cascaded-integrator-comb) filter and HB (half band) filter as the decimator filter to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 and detail of the implementation step to realize this design in hardware. Low power design approach for CIC filter and half band filter will be discussed. The filter design is implemented through MATLAB system modeling, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) design flow and verified using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) board and MATLAB analysis.

Wavelet based ANN Approach for Transformer Protection

This paper presents the development of a wavelet based algorithm, for distinguishing between magnetizing inrush currents and power system fault currents, which is quite adequate, reliable, fast and computationally efficient tool. The proposed technique consists of a preprocessing unit based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in combination with an artificial neural network (ANN) for detecting and classifying fault currents. The DWT acts as an extractor of distinctive features in the input signals at the relay location. This information is then fed into an ANN for classifying fault and magnetizing inrush conditions. A 220/55/55 V, 50Hz laboratory transformer connected to a 380 V power system were simulated using ATP-EMTP. The DWT was implemented by using Matlab and Coiflet mother wavelet was used to analyze primary currents and generate training data. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique can accurately discriminate between magnetizing inrush and fault currents in transformer protection.

Voltage Stability Investigation of Grid Connected Wind Farm

At present, it is very common to find renewable energy resources, especially wind power, connected to distribution systems. The impact of this wind power on voltage distribution levels has been addressed in the literature. The majority of this works deals with the determination of the maximum active and reactive power that is possible to be connected on a system load bus, until the voltage at that bus reaches the voltage collapse point. It is done by the traditional methods of PV curves reported in many references. Theoretical expression of maximum power limited by voltage stability transfer through a grid is formulated using an exact representation of distribution line with ABCD parameters. The expression is used to plot PV curves at various power factors of a radial system. Limited values of reactive power can be obtained. This paper presents a method to study the relationship between the active power and voltage (PV) at the load bus to identify the voltage stability limit. It is a foundation to build a permitted working operation region in complying with the voltage stability limit at the point of common coupling (PCC) connected wind farm.

Analysis of Modified Heap Sort Algorithm on Different Environment

In field of Computer Science and Mathematics, sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order i.e. ascending or descending. Sorting is perhaps the most widely studied problem in computer science and is frequently used as a benchmark of a system-s performance. This paper presented the comparative performance study of four sorting algorithms on different platform. For each machine, it is found that the algorithm depends upon the number of elements to be sorted. In addition, as expected, results show that the relative performance of the algorithms differed on the various machines. So, algorithm performance is dependent on data size and there exists impact of hardware also.

Measurement of Small PD-S in Compressed SF6(10%) - N2(90%) Gas Mixture

Partial Discharge measurement is a very important means of assessing the integrity of insulation systems in a High Voltage apparatus. In compressed gas insulation systems, floating particles can initiate partial discharge activities which adversely affect the working of insulation. Partial Discharges below the inception voltage also plays a crucial in damaging the integrity of insulation over a period of time. This paper discusses the effect of loose and fixed Copper and Nichrome wire particles on the PD characteristics in SF6-N2 (10:90) gas mixtures at a pressure of 0.4MPa. The Partial Discharge statistical parameters and their correlation to the observed results are discussed.

Computation of the Filtering Properties of Photonic Crystal Waveguide Discontinuities Using the Mode Matching Method

In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching (MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure. The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.

Design Calculation and Performance Testing of Heating Coil in Induction Surface Hardening Machine

The induction hardening machines are utilized in the industries which modify machine parts and tools needed to achieve high ware resistance. This paper describes the model of induction heating process design of inverter circuit and the results of induction surface hardening of heating coil. In the design of heating coil, the shape and the turn numbers of the coil are very important design factors because they decide the overall operating performance of induction heater including resonant frequency, Q factor, efficiency and power factor. The performance will be tested by experiments in some cases high frequency induction hardening machine.

System Identification with General Dynamic Neural Networks and Network Pruning

This paper presents an exact pruning algorithm with adaptive pruning interval for general dynamic neural networks (GDNN). GDNNs are artificial neural networks with internal dynamics. All layers have feedback connections with time delays to the same and to all other layers. The structure of the plant is unknown, so the identification process is started with a larger network architecture than necessary. During parameter optimization with the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) algorithm irrelevant weights of the dynamic neural network are deleted in order to find a model for the plant as simple as possible. The weights to be pruned are found by direct evaluation of the training data within a sliding time window. The influence of pruning on the identification system depends on the network architecture at pruning time and the selected weight to be deleted. As the architecture of the model is changed drastically during the identification and pruning process, it is suggested to adapt the pruning interval online. Two system identification examples show the architecture selection ability of the proposed pruning approach.

Newton-Raphson State Estimation Solution Employing Systematically Constructed Jacobian Matrix

Newton-Raphson State Estimation method using bus admittance matrix remains as an efficient and most popular method to estimate the state variables. Elements of Jacobian matrix are computed from standard expressions which lack physical significance. In this paper, elements of the state estimation Jacobian matrix are obtained considering the power flow measurements in the network elements. These elements are processed one-by-one and the Jacobian matrix H is updated suitably in a simple manner. The constructed Jacobian matrix H is integrated with Weight Least Square method to estimate the state variables. The suggested procedure is successfully tested on IEEE standard systems.

A Trust Model using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Adapting various sensor devices to communicate within sensor networks empowers us by providing range of possibilities. The sensors in sensor networks need to know their measurable belief of trust for efficient and safe communication. In this paper, we suggested a trust model using fuzzy logic in sensor network. Trust is an aggregation of consensus given a set of past interaction among sensors. We applied our suggested model to sensor networks in order to show how trust mechanisms are involved in communicating algorithm to choose the proper path from source to destination.

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Threephase Small Power Induction Motor

This paper is proposed the dynamic simulation of small power induction motor based on Mathematical modeling. The dynamic simulation is one of the key steps in the validation of the design process of the motor drive systems and it is needed for eliminating inadvertent design mistakes and the resulting error in the prototype construction and testing. This paper demonstrates the simulation of steady-state performance of induction motor by MATLAB Program Three phase 3 hp induction motor is modeled and simulated with SIMULINK model.

Fiber Optic Sensors

Fiber optic sensor technology offers the possibility of sensing different parameters like strain, temperature, pressure in harsh environment and remote locations. these kinds of sensors modulates some features of the light wave in an optical fiber such an intensity and phase or use optical fiber as a medium for transmitting the measurement information. The advantages of fiber optic sensors in contrast to conventional electrical ones make them popular in different applications and now a day they consider as a key component in improving industrial processes, quality control systems, medical diagnostics, and preventing and controlling general process abnormalities. This paper is an introduction to fiber optic sensor technology and some of the applications that make this branch of optic technology, which is still in its early infancy, an interesting field.

Increasing Lifetime of Target Tracking Wireless Sensor Networks

A model to identify the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network is proposed. The model is a static clusterbased architecture and aims to provide two factors. First, it is to increase the lifetime of target tracking wireless sensor network. Secondly, it is to enable good localization result with low energy consumption for each sensor in the network. The model consists of heterogeneous sensors and each sensing member node in a cluster uses two operation modes–active mode and sleep mode. The performance results illustrate that the proposed architecture consumes less energy and increases lifetime than centralized and dynamic clustering architectures, for target tracking sensor network.

Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.

Chose the Right Mutation Rate for Better Evolve Combinational Logic Circuits

Evolvable hardware (EHW) is a developing field that applies evolutionary algorithm (EA) to automatically design circuits, antennas, robot controllers etc. A lot of research has been done in this area and several different EAs have been introduced to tackle numerous problems, as scalability, evolvability etc. However every time a specific EA is chosen for solving a particular task, all its components, such as population size, initialization, selection mechanism, mutation rate, and genetic operators, should be selected in order to achieve the best results. In the last three decade the selection of the right parameters for the EA-s components for solving different “test-problems" has been investigated. In this paper the behaviour of mutation rate for designing logic circuits, which has not been done before, has been deeply analyzed. The mutation rate for an EHW system modifies the number of inputs of each logic gates, the functionality (for example from AND to NOR) and the connectivity between logic gates. The behaviour of the mutation has been analyzed based on the number of generations, genotype redundancy and number of logic gates for the evolved circuits. The experimental results found provide the behaviour of the mutation rate during evolution for the design and optimization of simple logic circuits. The experimental results propose the best mutation rate to be used for designing combinational logic circuits. The research presented is particular important for those who would like to implement a dynamic mutation rate inside the evolutionary algorithm for evolving digital circuits. The researches on the mutation rate during the last 40 years are also summarized.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Technique with Residue Number System

In this paper, a residue number arithmetic is used in direct sequence spread spectrum system, this system is evaluated and the bit error probability of this system is compared to that of non residue number system. The effect of channel bandwidth, PN sequences, multipath effect and modulation scheme are studied. A Matlab program is developed to measure the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the bit error probability for the various schemes.

RBF Based Face Recognition and Expression Analysis

Facial recognition and expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and humancomputer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper skin and non-skin pixels were separated. Face regions were extracted from the detected skin regions. Facial expressions are analyzed from facial images by applying Gabor wavelet transform (GWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on face images. Radial Basis Function (RBF) Network is used to identify the person and to classify the facial expressions. Our method reliably works even with faces, which carry heavy expressions.