Abstract: In this numerical study, natural convection of Cu–water nanofluid in a cavity submitted to different heating modes on its vertical walls is analyzed. Maxwell-Garnetts (MG) and Brinkman models have been utilized for calculating the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluid, respectively. Influences of Rayleigh number (Ra = 103−106), nanoparticle volume concentration (f = 0-0.04) and Hartmann number (Ha = 0-90) on the flow and heat transfer characteristics have been examined. The results indicate that the Hartmann number influences the heat transfer at Ra = 106 more than other Raleigh numbers, as the least effect is observed at Ra = 103. Moreover, the results show that the solid volume fraction has a significant influence on heat transfer, depending on the value of Hartmann, heat generation or absorption coefficient and Rayleigh numbers.
Abstract: In Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), there are a variety of numerical methods, of which some depend on macroscopic model representatives. These models can be solved by finite-volume, finite-element or finite-difference methods on a microscopic description. However, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is considered to be a mesoscopic particle method, with its scale lying between the macroscopic and microscopic scales. The LBM works well for solving incompressible flow problems, but certain limitations arise from solving compressible flows, particularly at high Mach numbers. An improved lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flow problems is presented in this research study. A higher-order Taylor series expansion of the Maxwell equilibrium distribution function is used to overcome limitations in LBM when solving high-Mach-number flows. Large eddy simulation (LES) is implemented in LBM to simulate turbulent jet flows. The results have been validated with available experimental data for turbulent compressible free jet flow at subsonic speeds.
Abstract: A hybrid quasi-steady thermal lattice Boltzmann model was used to study the combined effects of temperature and contact angle on the movement of slugs and droplets of oil in water (O/W) system flowing between two parallel plates. The model static contact angle due to the deposition of the O/W droplet on a flat surface with simulated hydrophilic characteristic at different fluid temperatures, matched very well the proposed theoretical calculation. Furthermore, the model was used to simulate the dynamic behavior of droplets and slugs deposited on the domain’s upper and lower surfaces, while subjected to parabolic flow conditions. The model accurately simulated the contact angle hysteresis for the dynamic droplets cases. It was also shown that at elevated temperatures the required power to transport the mixture diminished remarkably.
Abstract: The present paper deals with a numerical simulation of temperature field inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components. The temperature distribution is investigated using a co-flow planar SOFC comprising the air and fuel channel and two-ceramic electrodes, anode and cathode, separated by a dense ceramic electrolyte. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for the numerical simulation of the physical problem. The effects of inlet temperature, anode thermal conductivity and current density on temperature distribution are discussed. It was found that temperature distribution is very sensitive to the inlet temperature and the current density.
Abstract: Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.
Abstract: A two-dimensional numerical study for flow past a square cylinder in presence of flat plate both at upstream and downstream position is carried out using the single-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for gap spacing 0.5 and 1. We select Reynolds numbers from 80 to 200. The wake structure mechanism within gap spacing and near wake region, vortex structures around and behind the main square cylinder in presence of flat plate are studied and compared with flow pattern around a single square cylinder. The results are obtained in form of vorticity contour, streamlines, power spectra analysis, time trace analysis of drag and lift coefficients. Four different types of flow patterns were observed in both configurations, named as (i) Quasi steady flow (QSF), (ii) steady flow (SF), (iii) shear layer reattachment (SLR), (iv) single bluff body (SBB). It is observed that upstream flat plate plays a vital role in significant drag reduction. On the other hand, rate of suppression of vortex shedding is high for downstream flat plate case at low Reynolds numbers. The reduction in mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force for upstream flat plate case are89.1% and 86.3% at (Re, g) = (80, 0.5d) and (120, 1d) and reduction for downstream flat plate case for mean drag force and root mean square value of drag force are 11.10% and 97.6% obtained at (180, 1d) and (180, 0.5d).
Abstract: The present study focused on the investigation of the
effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural
convection in a rectangular cavity using numerical technique.
Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a
normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behaviors were studied using computational method based on Lattice
Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a
laminar flow in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106
for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2.0 with a fluid of
Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness
elements caused a minimum to maximum decrease in the heat
transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to smooth enclosure.
The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms
Abstract: In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy
generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have
been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method.
Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have
constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been
considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The
effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume
concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds
numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and
temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition
of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow
pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low
Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase
of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the
total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation
occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds
number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low
Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number,
the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was
decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The
present results are validated by favorable comparisons with
previously published results. The results of the problem are presented
in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.
Abstract: In this research numerical simulations are performed,
using the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, in the
range 3 ≤ β = w[d] ≤ 30 at Re = 100, 200 and 300, where β the
blockage ratio, w is the equispaced distance between centers of
cylinders, d is the diameter of the cylinder and Re is the Reynolds
number, respectively. Special attention is paid to the effect of the
equispaced distance between centers of cylinders. Visualization of
the vorticity contour visualization are presented for some simulation
showing the flow dynamics and patterns for blockage effect. Results
show that the drag and mean drag coefficients, and Strouhal number,
in general, decrease with the increase of β for fixed Re. It is found
that the decreasing rate of drag and mean drag coefficients and
Strouhal number is more distinct in the range 3 ≤ β ≤ 15. We found
that when β > 15, the blockage effect almost diminishes. Our results
further indicate that the drag and mean drag coefficients, peak value
of the lift coefficient, root-mean-square value of the lift and drag
coefficients and the ratio between lift and drag coefficients decrease
with the increase of Re. The results indicate that symmetry boundary
condition have more blockage effect as compared to periodic
Abstract: Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square
cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single
relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was
introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal
roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid
of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored
from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic
behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square
cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall.
Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls
with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the
same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational
algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies
performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement
was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in
the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.
Abstract: A new algorithm based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed as a potential solver for one-dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of wood particles. To check the validity of this algorithm, the LBM results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and particle size on the evolution of the local temperature and mass loss inside the wood particle.
Abstract: A numerical study based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is proposed to solve one, two and three dimensional heat and mass transfer for isothermal carbonization of thick wood particles. To check the validity of the proposed model, computational results have been compared with the published data and a good agreement is obtained. Then, the model is used to study the effect of reactor temperature and thermal boundary conditions, on the evolution of the local temperature and the mass distributions of the wood particle during carbonization
Abstract: Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.
Abstract: The radiation effect within the solid anode, electrolyte, and cathode SOFC layers problem has been investigated in this paper. Energy equation is solved by the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The Rosseland method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrodes. The Schuster-Schwarzschild method is used to model the radiative transfer in the electrolyte. Without radiative effect, the found results are in good agreement with those published. The obtained results show that the radiative effect can be neglected.
Abstract: This paper examines the natural convection in a square enclosure filled with a water-Al2O3 nanofluid and is subjected to a magnetic field. The side walls of the cavity have spatially varying sinusoidal temperature distributions. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is applied to solve the coupled equations of flow and temperature fields. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number of the base fluid, Ra=103 to 106, Hartmann number varied from Ha=0 to 90, phase deviation (γ=0, π/4, π/2, 3π/4 and π) and the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles between Ø = 0 and 6%. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase of the Hartmann number. For γ=π/2 and Ra=105 the magnetic field augments the effect of nanoparticles. At Ha=0, the greatest effects of nanoparticles are obtained at γ = 0 and π/4 for Ra=104 and 105 respectively.
Abstract: A numerical investigation is performed for non Newtonian fluids flow between two concentric cylinders. The D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatangar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying to the power-law model. The inner and outer cylinders rotate in the same and the opposite direction while the end walls are maintained at rest. The combined effects of the Reynolds number (Re) of the inner and outer cylinders, the radius ratio (η) as well as the power-law index (n) on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of a finite aspect ratio (Γ). Two flow modes are obtained: a primary mode (laminar stable regime) and a secondary mode (laminar unstable regime). The so obtained flow structures are different from one mode to another. The transition critical Reynolds number Rec from the primary to the secondary mode is analyzed for the co-courant and counter-courant flows. This critical value increases as n increases. The prediction of the swirling flow of non Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries is shown in the present work.
Abstract: In this paper effects of inclination angle on natural
convection flow in an open cavity has been analyzed with Lattice
Boltzmann Method (LBM).The angle of inclination varied from θ= -
45° to 45° with 15° intervals. Study has been conducted for Rayleigh
numbers (Ra) 104 to 106. The comparisons show that the average
Nusselt number increases with growth of Rayleigh number and the
average Nusselt number increase as inclination angles increases at
Ra=104.At Ra=105 and Ra=106 the average Nusselt number enhance
as inclination angels varied from θ= -45° to θ= 0° and decrease as
inclination angels increase in θ= 0° to θ= 45°.
Abstract: In this paper Lattice Boltzmann simulation of
turbulent natural convection with large-eddy simulations (LES) in a
square cavity which is filled by water has been investigated. The
present results are validated by finds of other investigations which
have been done with different numerical methods. Calculations were
performed for high Rayleigh numbers of Ra=108 and 109. The results
confirm that this method is in acceptable agreement with other
verifications of such a flow. In this investigation is tried to present
Large-eddy turbulence flow model by Lattice Boltzmann Method
(LBM) with a clear and simple statement. Effects of increase in
Rayleigh number are displayed on streamlines, isotherm counters and
average Nusselt number. Result shows that the average Nusselt
number enhances with growth of the Rayleigh numbers.
Abstract: A numerical study of flow in a horizontally channel
partially filled with a porous screen with non-uniform inlet has been
performed by lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The flow in porous
layer has been simulated by the Brinkman-Forchheimer model.
Numerical solutions have been obtained for variable porosity models
and the effects of Darcy number and porosity have been studied in
detail. It is found that the flow stabilization is reliant on the Darcy
number. Also the results show that the stabilization of flow field and
heat transfer is depended to Darcy number. Distribution of stream
field becomes more stable by decreasing Darcy number. Results
illustrate that the effect of variable porosity is significant just in the
region of the solid boundary. In addition, difference between constant
and variable porosity models is decreased by decreasing the Darcy
Abstract: The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) with double populations is applied to solve the steady-state laminar natural convective heat transfer in a triangular cavity filled with water. The bottom wall is heated, the vertical wall is cooled, and the inclined wall is kept adiabatic. The buoyancy effect was modeled by applying the Boussinesq approximation to the momentum equation. The fluid velocity is determined by D2Q9 LBM and the energy equation is discritized by D2Q4 LBM to compute the temperature field. Comparisons with previously published work are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. Numerical results are obtained for a wide range of parameters: the Rayleigh number from to and the inclination angle from 0° to 360°. Flow and thermal fields were exhibited by means of streamlines and isotherms. It is observed that inclination angle can be used as a relevant parameter to control heat transfer in right-angled triangular enclosures.