Abstract: We investigate sonic cues for binaural sound localization within classrooms and present a structural model for the same. Two of the primary cues for localization, interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) created between the two ears by sounds from a particular point in space, are used. Although these cues do not lend any information about the elevation of a sound source, the torso, head, and outer ear carry out elevation dependent spectral filtering of sounds before they reach the inner ear. This effect is commonly captured in head related transfer function (HRTF) which aids in resolving the ambiguity from the ITDs and ILDs alone and helps localize sounds in free space. The proposed structural model of HRTF produces well controlled horizontal as well as vertical effects. The implemented HRTF is a signal processing model which tries to mimic the physical effects of the sounds interacting with different parts of the body. The effectiveness of the method is tested by synthesizing spatial audio, in MATLAB, for use in listening tests with human subjects and is found to yield satisfactory results in comparison with existing models.
Abstract: This paper presents comparison among methods of
determination of the characteristic polynomial coefficients. First, the
resultant systems from the methods are compared based on frequency
criteria such as the closed loop bandwidth, gain and phase margins.
Then the step responses of the resultant systems are compared on the
basis of the transient behavior criteria including overshoot, rise time,
settling time and error (via IAE, ITAE, ISE and ITSE integral
indices). Also relative stability of the systems is compared together.
Finally the best choices in regards to the above diverse criteria are
Abstract: Based on the sources- smoothed rank profile (SRP) and modified minimum description length (MMDL) principle, a method for estimation of the source coherency structure (SCS) and the number of wideband sources is proposed in this paper. Instead of focusing, we first use a spatial smoothing technique to pre-process the array covariance matrix of each frequency for de-correlating the sources and then use smoothed rank profile to determine the SCS and the number of wideband sources. We demonstrate the availability of the method by numerical simulations.
Abstract: Application of neural networks in execution of
programmed pulse width modulation (PPWM) of a voltage source
inverter (VSI) is studied in this paper. Using the proposed method it is
possible to cancel out the desired harmonics in output of VSI in
addition to control the magnitude of fundamental harmonic,
contineously. By checking the non-trained values and a performance
index, the most appropriate neural network is proposed. It is shown
that neural networks may solve the custom difficulties of practical
utilization of PPWM such as large size of memory, complex digital
circuits and controlling the magnitude of output voltage in a discrete
Abstract: The ideal sinc filter, ignoring the noise statistics, is often
applied for generating an arbitrary sample of a bandlimited signal by
using the uniformly sampled data. In this article, an optimal interpolator is proposed; it reaches a minimum mean square error (MMSE)
at its output in the presence of noise. The resulting interpolator is
thus a Wiener filter, and both the optimal infinite impulse response
(IIR) and finite impulse response (FIR) filters are presented. The
mean square errors (MSE-s) for the interpolator of different length
impulse responses are obtained by computer simulations; it shows that
the MSE-s of the proposed interpolators with a reasonable length are
improved about 0.4 dB under flat power spectra in noisy environment with signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR) equal 10 dB. As expected,
the results also demonstrate the improvements for the MSE-s with various fractional delays of the optimal interpolator against the ideal
sinc filter under a fixed length impulse response.
Abstract: This paper introduces an adaptive control scheme to synchronize two identical Chua's systems. Introductory part of the paper is presented in the first part of the paper and then in the second part, a new theorem is proposed based on which an adaptive control scheme is developed to synchronize two identical modified Chua's circuit. Finally, numerical simulations are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Abstract: The electric power industry is currently undergoing an unprecedented reform. One of the most exciting and potentially profitable recent developments is increasing usage of artificial intelligence techniques. The intention of this paper is to give an overview of using neural network (NN) techniques in power systems. According to the growth rate of NNs application in some power system subjects, this paper introduce a brief overview in fault diagnosis, security assessment, load forecasting, economic dispatch and harmonic analyzing. Advantages and disadvantages of using NNs in above mentioned subjects and the main challenges in these fields have been explained, too.
Abstract: Ultra-wide band (UWB) communication is one of
the most promising technologies for high data rate wireless networks
for short range applications. This paper proposes a blind channel
estimation method namely IMM (Interactive Multiple Model) Based
Kalman algorithm for UWB OFDM systems. IMM based Kalman
filter is proposed to estimate frequency selective time varying
channel. In the proposed method, two Kalman filters are concurrently
estimate the channel parameters. The first Kalman filter namely
Static Model Filter (SMF) gives accurate result when the user is static
while the second Kalman filter namely the Dynamic Model Filter
(DMF) gives accurate result when the receiver is in moving state. The
static transition matrix in SMF is assumed as an Identity matrix
where as in DMF, it is computed using Yule-Walker equations. The
resultant filter estimate is computed as a weighted sum of individual
filter estimates. The proposed method is compared with other existing
channel estimation methods.
Abstract: Cross layer optimization based on utility functions has
been recently studied extensively, meanwhile, numerous types of
utility functions have been examined in the corresponding literature.
However, a major drawback is that most utility functions take a fixed
mathematical form or are based on simple combining, which can
not fully exploit available information. In this paper, we formulate a
framework of cross layer optimization based on Adaptively Weighted
Utility Functions (AWUF) for fairness balancing in OFDMA networks.
Under this framework, a two-step allocation algorithm is
provided as a sub-optimal solution, whose control parameters can be
updated in real-time to accommodate instantaneous QoS constrains.
The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves
high throughput while balancing the fairness among multiple users.
Abstract: In this paper the FPGA implementations for four
stream ciphers are presented. The two stream ciphers, MUGI and
SNOW 2.0 are recently adopted by the International Organization for
Standardization ISO/IEC 18033-4:2005 standard. The other two
stream ciphers, MICKEY 128 and TRIVIUM have been submitted
and are under consideration for the eSTREAM, the ECRYPT
(European Network of Excellence for Cryptology) Stream Cipher
project. All ciphers were coded using VHDL language. For the
hardware implementation, an FPGA device was used. The proposed
implementations achieve throughputs range from 166 Mbps for
MICKEY 128 to 6080 Mbps for MUGI.
Abstract: This paper proposes an efficient finite precision block floating point (BFP) treatment to the fixed coefficient finite impulse response (FIR) digital filter. The treatment includes effective implementation of all the three forms of the conventional FIR filters, namely, direct form, cascaded and par- allel, and a roundoff error analysis of them in the BFP format. An effective block formatting algorithm together with an adaptive scaling factor is pro- posed to make the realizations more simple from hardware view point. To this end, a generic relation between the tap weight vector length and the input block length is deduced. The implementation scheme also emphasises on a simple block exponent update technique to prevent overflow even during the block to block transition phase. The roundoff noise is also investigated along the analogous lines, taking into consideration these implementational issues. The simulation results show that the BFP roundoff errors depend on the sig- nal level almost in the same way as floating point roundoff noise, resulting in approximately constant signal to noise ratio over a relatively large dynamic range.
Abstract: This study presents a novel means of designing a simple and effective torque controller for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM). The overall stability of the system is shown using Lyapunov technique. The Lyapunov functions used contain a term penalizing the integral of the tracking error, enhancing the stability. The tracking error is shown to be globally uniformly bounded. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the approach.
Abstract: Improving the reactive power and voltage profile of a
distribution substation is investigated in this paper. The purpose is to
properly determination of the shunt capacitors on/off status and
suitable tap changer (TC) position of a substation transformer. In
addition, the limitation of secondary bus voltage, the maximum
allowable number of switching operation in a day for on load tap
changer and on/off status of capacitors are taken into account. To
achieve these goals, an artificial neural network (ANN) is designed to
provide preliminary scheduling. Input of ANN is active and reactive
powers of transformer and its primary and secondary bus voltages.
The output of ANN is capacitors on/off status and TC position. The
preliminary schedule is further refined by fuzzy dynamic
programming in order to reach the final schedule. The operation of
proposed method in Q/V improving is compared with the results
obtained by operator operation in a distribution substation.
Abstract: In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.
Abstract: In this paper a new cost function for blind equalization
is proposed. The proposed cost function, referred to as the modified
maximum normalized cumulant criterion (MMNC), is an extension
of the previously proposed maximum normalized cumulant criterion
(MNC). While the MNC requires a separate phase recovery system
after blind equalization, the MMNC performs joint blind equalization
and phase recovery. To achieve this, the proposed algorithm
maximizes a cost function that considers both amplitude and phase of
the equalizer output. The simulation results show that the proposed
algorithm has an improved channel equalization effect than the MNC
algorithm and simultaneously can correct the phase error that the
MNC algorithm is unable to do. The simulation results also show that
the MMNC algorithm has lower complexity than the MNC algorithm.
Moreover, the MMNC algorithm outperforms the MNC algorithm
particularly when the symbols block size is small.
Abstract: In this paper, we show that the stability can not be
achieved with current stabilizing MPC methods for some unstable
processes. Hence we present a new method for stabilizing these
processes. The main idea is to use a new time varying weighted cost
function for traditional GPC. This stabilizes the closed loop system
without adding soft or hard constraint in optimization problem. By
studying different examples it is shown that using the proposed
method, the closed-loop stability of unstable nonminimum phase
process is achieved.
Abstract: This paper presents anti-synchronization of chaos
between two different chaotic systems using active control method.
The proposed technique is applied to achieve chaos antisynchronization
for the Lü and Rössler dynamical systems.
Numerical simulations are implemented to verify the results.
Abstract: The current methods of predictive controllers are
utilized for those processes in which the rate of output variations is
not high. For such processes, therefore, stability can be achieved by
implementing the constrained predictive controller or applying
infinite prediction horizon. When the rate of the output growth is
high (e.g. for unstable nonminimum phase process) the stabilization
seems to be problematic. In order to avoid this, it is suggested to
change the method in the way that: first, the prediction error growth
should be decreased at the early stage of the prediction horizon, and
second, the rate of the error variation should be penalized. The
growth of the error is decreased through adjusting its weighting
coefficients in the cost function. Reduction in the error variation is
possible by adding the first order derivate of the error into the cost
function. By studying different examples it is shown that using these
two remedies together, the closed-loop stability of unstable
nonminimum phase process can be achieved.
Abstract: In this paper, an effective sliding mode design is
applied to chaos synchronization. The proposed controller can make
the states of two identical modified Chua-s circuits globally
asymptotically synchronized. Numerical results are provided to show
the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Abstract: Developing techniques for mobile robot navigation constitutes one of the major trends in the current
research on mobile robotics. This paper develops a local
model network (LMN) for mobile robot navigation. The
LMN represents the mobile robot by a set of locally valid
submodels that are Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLPs).
Training these submodels employs Back Propagation (BP) algorithm. The paper proposes the fuzzy C-means (FCM) in this scheme to divide the input space to sub regions, and then a submodel (MLP) is identified to represent a particular
region. The submodels then are combined in a unified
structure. In run time phase, Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) are employed as windows for the activated submodels. This
proposed structure overcomes the problem of changing operating regions of mobile robots. Read data are used in all experiments. Results for mobile robot navigation using the
proposed LMN reflect the soundness of the proposed