Abstract: Modeling dam-break flows over non-flat beds requires
an accurate representation of the topography which is the main
source of uncertainty in the model. Therefore, developing robust
and accurate techniques for reconstructing topography in this class
of problems would reduce the uncertainty in the flow system. In
many hydraulic applications, experimental techniques have been
widely used to measure the bed topography. In practice, experimental
work in hydraulics may be very demanding in both time and cost.
Meanwhile, computational hydraulics have served as an alternative
for laboratory and field experiments. Unlike the forward problem,
the inverse problem is used to identify the bed parameters from the
given experimental data. In this case, the shallow water equations
used for modeling the hydraulics need to be rearranged in a way
that the model parameters can be evaluated from measured data.
However, this approach is not always possible and it suffers from
stability restrictions. In the present work, we propose an adaptive
optimal control technique to numerically identify the underlying bed
topography from a given set of free-surface observation data. In this
approach, a minimization function is defined to iteratively determine
the model parameters. The proposed technique can be interpreted
as a fractional-stage scheme. In the first stage, the forward problem
is solved to determine the measurable parameters from known data.
In the second stage, the adaptive control Ensemble Kalman Filter is
implemented to combine the optimality of observation data in order to
obtain the accurate estimation of the topography. The main features
of this method are on one hand, the ability to solve for different
complex geometries with no need for any rearrangements in the
original model to rewrite it in an explicit form. On the other hand, its
achievement of strong stability for simulations of flows in different
regimes containing shocks or discontinuities over any geometry.
Numerical results are presented for a dam-break flow problem over
non-flat bed using different solvers for the shallow water equations.
The robustness of the proposed method is investigated using different
numbers of loops, sensitivity parameters, initial samples and location
of observations. The obtained results demonstrate high reliability and
accuracy of the proposed techniques.
Abstract: In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.
Abstract: In this paper we present the design and the implementation of a target tracking system where the target is set to be a moving person in a video sequence. The system can be applied easily as a vision system for mobile robot. The system is composed of two major parts the first is the detection of the person in the video frame using the SVM learning machine based on the “HOG” descriptors. The second part is the tracking of a moving person it’s done by using a combination of the Kalman filter and a modified version of the Camshift tracking algorithm by adding the target motion feature to the color feature, the experimental results had shown that the new algorithm had overcame the traditional Camshift algorithm in robustness and in case of occlusion.
Abstract: This paper presents a prediction performance of
feedforward Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Echo State Networks
(ESN) trained with extended Kalman filter. Feedforward neural
networks and ESN are powerful neural networks which can track and
predict nonlinear signals. However, their tracking performance
depends on the specific signals or data sets, having the risk of
instability accompanied by large error. In this study we explore this
process by applying different network size and leaking rate for
prediction of nonlinear or chaotic signals in MLP neural networks.
Major problems of ESN training such as the problem of initialization
of the network and improvement in the prediction performance are
tackled. The influence of coefficient of activation function in the
hidden layer and other key parameters are investigated by simulation
results. Extended Kalman filter is employed in order to improve the
sequential and regulation learning rate of the feedforward neural
networks. This training approach has vital features in the training of
the network when signals have chaotic or non-stationary sequential
pattern. Minimization of the variance in each step of the computation
and hence smoothing of tracking were obtained by examining the
results, indicating satisfactory tracking characteristics for certain
conditions. In addition, simulation results confirmed satisfactory
performance of both of the two neural networks with modified
parameterization in tracking of the nonlinear signals.
Abstract: Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem
that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental
equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves,
and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called
model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation.
However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to
systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical
point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are
exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured
through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only
available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems
cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical
feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of
state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid
systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish
a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited
measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented
Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems
described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to
establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter
for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is
verified by numerical simulations.
Abstract: This paper presents parameter estimation of a
single-phase rectifier using extended Kalman filter (EKF). The state
space model has been obtained using Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL)
and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). The capacitor voltage and diode
current of the circuit have been estimated using EKF. Simulation
results validate the better accuracy of the proposed method as
compared to the least mean square method (LMS). Further, EKF
has the advantage that it can be used for nonlinear systems.
Abstract: A class of implicit systems is known as a more
generalized class of systems than a class of explicit systems. To
establish a control method for such a generalized class of systems, we
adopt model predictive control method which is a kind of optimal
feedback control with a performance index that has a moving
initial time and terminal time. However, model predictive control
method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not
exactly known. In other words, model predictive control method is
inapplicable to systems with limited measurable states. In fact, it
is usual that the state variables of systems are measured through
outputs, hence, only limited parts of them can be used directly. It is
also usual that output signals are disturbed by process and sensor
noises. Hence, it is important to establish a state estimation method
for nonlinear implicit systems with taking the process noise and
sensor noise into consideration. To this purpose, we apply the model
predictive control method and unscented Kalman filter for solving
the optimization and estimation problems of nonlinear implicit
systems, respectively. The objective of this study is to establish a
model predictive control with unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear
Abstract: In the last decade, automotive companies have invested a lot in terms of innovation about many aspects regarding the automatic driver assistance systems. One innovation regards the usage of a smart camera placed on the car’s side mirror for monitoring the back and lateral road situation. A common road scenario is the overtaking of the preceding car and, in this case, a brief distraction or a loss of concentration can lead the driver to undertake this action, even if there is an already overtaking vehicle, leading to serious accidents. A valid support for a secure drive can be a smart camera system, which is able to automatically analyze the road scenario and consequentially to warn the driver when another vehicle is overtaking. This paper describes a method for monitoring the side view of a vehicle by using camera optical flow motion vectors. The proposed solution detects the presence of incoming vehicles, assesses their distance from the host car, and warns the driver through different levels of alert according to the estimated distance. Due to the low complexity and computational cost, the proposed system ensures real time performances.
Abstract: Determination of state of charge (SOC) in today’s world becomes an increasingly important issue in all the applications that include a battery. In fact, estimation of the SOC is a fundamental need for the battery, which is the most important energy storage in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), smart grid systems, drones, UPS and so on. Regarding those applications, the SOC estimation algorithm is expected to be precise and easy to implement. This paper presents an online method for the estimation of the SOC of Valve-Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. The proposed method uses the well-known Kalman Filter (KF), and Neural Networks (NNs) and all of the simulations have been done with MATLAB software. The NN is trained offline using the data collected from the battery discharging process. A generic cell model is used, and the underlying dynamic behavior of the model has used two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface, and end), where the SOC determined from the voltage represents the bulk capacitor. The aim of this work is to compare the performance of conventional integration-based SOC estimation methods with a mixed algorithm. Moreover, by containing the effect of temperature, the final result becomes more accurate.
Abstract: This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.
Abstract: In this paper, we present the comparative subjective analysis of Improved Minima Controlled Recursive Averaging (IMCRA) Algorithm, the Kalman filter and the cascading of IMCRA and Kalman filter algorithms. Performance of speech enhancement algorithms can be predicted in two different ways. One is the objective method of evaluation in which the speech quality parameters are predicted computationally. The second is a subjective listening test in which the processed speech signal is subjected to the listeners who judge the quality of speech on certain parameters. The comparative objective evaluation of these algorithms was analyzed in terms of Global SNR, Segmental SNR and Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) by the authors and it was reported that with cascaded algorithms there is a substantial increase in objective parameters. Since subjective evaluation is the real test to judge the quality of speech enhancement algorithms, the authenticity of superiority of cascaded algorithms over individual IMCRA and Kalman algorithms is tested through subjective analysis in this paper. The results of subjective listening tests have confirmed that the cascaded algorithms perform better under all types of noise conditions.
Abstract: Tracking of moving people has gained a matter of great importance due to rapid technological advancements in the field of computer vision. The objective of this study is to design a motion based detection and tracking multiple walking pedestrians randomly in different directions. In our proposed method, Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to determine moving persons in image sequences. It reacts to changes that take place in the scene like different illumination; moving objects start and stop often, etc. Background noise in the scene is eliminated through applying morphological operations and the motions of tracked people which is determined by using the Kalman filter. The Kalman filter is applied to predict the tracked location in each frame and to determine the likelihood of each detection. We used a benchmark data set for the evaluation based on a side wall stationary camera. The actual scenes from the data set are taken on a street including up to eight people in front of the camera in different two scenes, the duration is 53 and 35 seconds, respectively. In the case of walking pedestrians in close proximity, the proposed method has achieved the detection ratio of 87%, and the tracking ratio is 77 % successfully. When they are deferred from each other, the detection ratio is increased to 90% and the tracking ratio is also increased to 79%.
Abstract: The context aware adaptive routing protocol is presented for unicast communication in intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The selection of the node is done by the Kalman filter prediction theory and it also makes use of utility functions. The context aware adaptive routing is defined by spray and wait technique, but the time consumption in delivering the message is too high and also the resource wastage is more. In this paper, we describe the spray and focus routing scheme for avoiding the existing problems.
Abstract: To acquire accurate ship motions at the center of gravity, a single low-cost inertial sensor is utilized and applied on board to measure ship oscillating motions. As observations, the three axes accelerations and three axes rotational rates provided by the sensor are used. The mathematical model of processing the observation data includes determination of the distance vector between the sensor and the center of gravity in x, y, and z directions. After setting up the transfer matrix from sensor’s own coordinate system to the ship’s body frame, an extended Kalman filter is applied to deal with nonlinearities between the ship motion in the body frame and the observation information in the sensor’s frame. As a side effect, the method eliminates sensor noise and other unwanted errors. Results are not only roll and pitch, but also linear motions, in particular heave and surge at the center of gravity. For testing, we resort to measurements recorded on a small vessel in a well-defined sea state. With response amplitude operators computed numerically by a commercial software (Seaway), motion characteristics are estimated. These agree well with the measurements after processing with the suggested method.
Abstract: In the current work, adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF) is presented for solution of ground radar based ballistic missile (BM) tracking problem in re-entry phase with unknown ballistic coefficient. The estimation of trajectory of any BM in re-entry phase is extremely difficult, because of highly non-linear motion of BM. The estimation accuracy of AEKF has been tested for a typical test target tracking problem adopted from literature. Further, the approach of AEKF is compared with extended Kalman filter (EKF). The simulation result indicates the superiority of the AEKF in solving joint parameter and state estimation problems.
Abstract: In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an
asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended
Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the
temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator
core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on
the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an
asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified
thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical
model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase
voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are
processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures
exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of
temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator.
The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control
algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the
stator current is nonzero current system.
Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important
parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored
at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it
is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is,
therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining
in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three
nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation.
One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one
state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF),
the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying
smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the
results are compared.
Abstract: Electro-optical (EO) stabilized platforms have been widely used for surveillance and reconnaissance on various types of vehicles, from surface ships to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). EO stabilized platforms usually consist of an assembly of structure, bearings, and motors called gimbals in which a gyroscope is installed. EO elements such as a CCD camera and IR camera, are mounted to a gimbal, which has a range of motion in elevation and azimuth and can designate and track a target. In addition, a laser range finder (LRF) can be added to the gimbal in order to acquire the precise slant range from the platform to the target. Recently, a versatile functionality of target localization is needed in order to cooperate with the weapon systems that are mounted on the same platform. The target information, such as its location or velocity, needed to be more accurate. The accuracy of the target information depends on diverse component errors and alignment errors of each component. Specially, the type of moving platform can affect the accuracy of the target information. In the case of flying platforms, or UAVs, the target location error can be increased with altitude so it is important to measure altitude as precisely as possible. In the case of surface ships, target location error can be increased with obliqueness of the elevation angle of the gimbal since the altitude of the EO stabilized platform is supposed to be relatively low. The farther the slant ranges from the surface ship to the target, the more extreme the obliqueness of the elevation angle. This can hamper the precise acquisition of the target information. So far, there have been many studies on EO stabilized platforms of flying vehicles. However, few researchers have focused on ship-borne EO stabilized platforms of the surface ship. In this paper, we deal with a target localization method when an EO stabilized platform is located on the mast of a surface ship. Especially, we need to overcome the limitation caused by the obliqueness of the elevation angle of the gimbal. We introduce a well-known approach for target localization using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and present the problem definition showing the above-mentioned limitation. Finally, we want to show the effectiveness of the approach that will be demonstrated through computer simulations.
Abstract: Recently, Electric Vehicles (EVs) have received extensive consideration since they offer a more sustainable and greener transportation alternative compared to fossil-fuel propelled vehicles. Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries are increasingly being deployed in EVs because of their high energy density, high cell-level voltage, and low rate of self-discharge. Since Li-ion batteries represent the most expensive component in the EV powertrain, accurate monitoring and control strategies must be executed to ensure their prolonged lifespan. The Battery Management System (BMS) has to accurately estimate parameters such as the battery State-of-Charge (SOC), State-of-Health (SOH), and Remaining Useful Life (RUL). In order for the BMS to estimate these parameters, an accurate and control-oriented battery model has to work collaboratively with a robust state and parameter estimation strategy. Since battery physical parameters, such as the internal resistance and diffusion coefficient change depending on the battery state-of-life (SOL), the BMS has to be adaptive to accommodate for this change. In this paper, an extensive battery aging study has been conducted over 12-months period on 5.4 Ah, 3.7 V Lithium polymer cells. Instead of using fixed charging/discharging aging cycles at fixed C-rate, a set of real-world driving scenarios have been used to age the cells. The test has been interrupted every 5% capacity degradation by a set of reference performance tests to assess the battery degradation and track model parameters. As battery ages, the combined model parameters are optimized and tracked in an offline mode over the entire batteries lifespan. Based on the optimized model, a state and parameter estimation strategy based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the relatively new Smooth Variable Structure Filter (SVSF) have been applied to estimate the SOC at various states of life.
Abstract: In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.