Sonic Localization Cues for Classrooms: A Structural Model Proposal

We investigate sonic cues for binaural sound localization within classrooms and present a structural model for the same. Two of the primary cues for localization, interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) created between the two ears by sounds from a particular point in space, are used. Although these cues do not lend any information about the elevation of a sound source, the torso, head, and outer ear carry out elevation dependent spectral filtering of sounds before they reach the inner ear. This effect is commonly captured in head related transfer function (HRTF) which aids in resolving the ambiguity from the ITDs and ILDs alone and helps localize sounds in free space. The proposed structural model of HRTF produces well controlled horizontal as well as vertical effects. The implemented HRTF is a signal processing model which tries to mimic the physical effects of the sounds interacting with different parts of the body. The effectiveness of the method is tested by synthesizing spatial audio, in MATLAB, for use in listening tests with human subjects and is found to yield satisfactory results in comparison with existing models.

Enhancement of a 3D Sound Using Psychoacoustics

Generally, in order to create 3D sound using binaural systems, we use head related transfer functions (HRTF) including the information of sounds which is arrived to our ears. But it can decline some three-dimensional effects in the area of a cone of confusion between front and back directions, because of the characteristics of HRTF. In this paper, we propose a new method to use psychoacoustics theory that reduces the confusion of sound image localization. In the method, HRTF spectrum characteristic is enhanced by using the energy ratio of the bark band. Informal listening tests show that the proposed method improves the front-back sound localization characteristics much better than the conventional methods