Abstract: The use of legendary, folkloric and religious symbols is one of the most important phenomena in modern Arabic poetry. Interestingly enough, most of the modern Arabic poetry’s pioneers were so fascinated by the biblical symbols and they managed to use many modern techniques to make these symbols adequate for their personal life from one side and fit to their Islamic beliefs from the other. One of the most famous poets to do so was al-Sayya:b. The way he employed one of these symbols ‘job’, the new features he adds to this character and the link between this character and his personal life will be discussed in this study. Besides, the study will examine the influence of al-Sayya:b on another modern poet Saadi Yusuf, who, following al-Sayya:b, used the character of Job in a special way, by mixing its features with al-Sayya:b’s personal features and in this way creating a new mixed character. A semantic, cultural and comparative analysis of the poems written by al-Sayya:b himself and the other poets who evoked the mixed image of al-Sayya:b-Job, can reveal the changes Arab poets made to the original biblical figure of Job to bring it closer to Islamic culture. The paper will make an intensive use of intertextuality idioms in order to shed light on the network of relations between three kinds of texts (indeed three ‘palimpsests’: 1- biblical- the primary text; 2- poetic- al-Syya:b’s secondary version; 3- re-poetic- Sa’di Yusuf’s tertiary version). The bottom line in this paper is that that al-Sayya:b was directly influenced by the dramatic biblical story of Job more than the brief Quranic version of the story. In fact, the ‘new’ character of Job designed by al-Sayya:b himself differs from the original one in many aspects that we can safely say it is the Sayyabian-Job that cannot be found in the poems of any other poets, unless they are evoking the own tragedy of al-Sayya:b himself, like what Saadi Yusuf did.
Abstract: The Modernist Movement initially flourished in France, Holland, Germany and the Soviet Union. Many architects and designers were inspired and followed its principles. Two of its most important architects (Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe) were introduced in this paper. Each did not follow the other’s principles and had their own particular rules; however, they shared the same features of the Modernist International Style, such as Anti-historicism, Abstraction, Technology, Function and Internationalism/ Universality. Key Modernist principles translated into high expectations, which sometimes did not meet the inhabitants’ aspirations of living comfortably; consequently, leading to a conflict and misunderstanding between the designer and their clients’ needs. Therefore, historical case studies (the Schroder and the Farnsworth houses) involving two Modernist pioneer architects have been chosen. This paper is an attempt to explore some of the influential factors affecting buildings design such as: needs, gender, and question concerning commonalities between both designers and their clients. The three aspects and two designers explored here have been chosen because they have been influenced the researchers to understand the impact of those factors on the design process, building’s performance, and the dweller’s satisfaction. This is a descriptive/ analytical research based on two historical comparative case studies that involve several steps such as: key evaluation questions (KEQs), observations, document analysis, etc. The methodology is based on data collation and finding validations. The research aims to state a manifest to regulate the relation between architects and their clients to reach the optimum building performance and functional interior design that suits their clients’ needs, reflects the architects’ character, and the school they belong to. At the end, through the investigation in this paper, the different needs between both the designers and the clients have been seen not only in the building itself but also it could convert the inhabitant’s life in various ways. Moreover, a successful relationship between the architect and their clients could play a significant role in the success of projects. In contrast, not every good design or celebrated building could end up with a successful relationship between the designer and their client or full-fill the inhabitant’s aspirations.
Abstract: Shavadoon is a type of underground living space, formerly used in urban residences of Dezful and Shooshtar cities in southwestern Iran. In spite of their high efficiency in creating cool spaces for hot summers of that area, Shavadoons were abandoned, like many other components of vernacular architecture, as a result of the modernism movement. However, Shavadoons were used by the local people as shelters during the 8-year Iran-Iraq war, and although several cases of bombardment happened during those years, no case of damage was reported in those two cities. On this basis, and regarding the high seismicity of Iran, the use of Shavadoons as post-disasters shelters can be considered as a good issue for research. This paper presents the results of a thorough study conducted on these spaces and their seismic behavior. First, the architectural aspects of Shavadoon and their construction technique are presented. Then, the results of seismic evaluation of a sample Shavadoon, conducted by a series of time history analyses, using Plaxis software and a set of selected earthquakes, are briefly explained. These results show that Shavadoons have good stability against seismic excitations. This stability is mainly because of the high strength of conglomerate materials inside which the Shavadoons have been excavated. On this basis, and considering other merits of this components of vernacular architecture in southwest of Iran, it is recommended that the revival of these components is seriously reconsidered by both architects and civil engineers.
Abstract: Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian
theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory
in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in
some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”.
Special theatrical forms have been developed in many
geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that
area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to
be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to
be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by
elements of traditional form of Iran.
Abstract: The struggle between modern and postmodern
understanding is also displayed in terms of the superiorities of
quantitative and qualitative methods to each other which are
evaluated within the scope of these understandings. By way of
assuming that the quantitative researches (modern) are able to
account for structure while the qualitative researches (postmodern)
explain the process, these methods are turned into a means for
worldviews specific to a period. In fact, process is not a functioning
independent of structure. In addition to this issue, the ability of
quantitative methods to provide scientific knowledge is also
controversial so long as they exclude the dialectical method. For this
reason, the critiques charged against modernism in terms of
quantitative methods are, in a sense, legitimate. Nevertheless, the
main issue is in which parameters postmodernist critique tries to
legitimize its critiques and whether these parameters represent a point
of view enabling democratic solutions.
In this respect, the scientific knowledge covered in Turkish media
as a means through which ordinary people have access to scientific
knowledge will be evaluated by means of content analysis within a
new objectivity conception.
Abstract: The paper reviews the relationship between spatial
and transportation planning in the Southern African Development
Community (SADC) region of Sub-Saharan Africa. It argues that
most urbanisation in the region has largely occurred subsequent to
the 1950s and, accordingly, urban development has been
profoundly and negatively affected by the (misguided) spatial and
institutional tenets of modernism. It demonstrates how a
considerable amount of the poor performance of these settlements
can be directly attributed to this. Two factors in particular about the
planning systems are emphasized: the way in which programmatic
land-use planning lies at the heart of both spatial and transportation
planning; and the way on which transportation and spatial planning
have been separated into independent processes. In the final
section, the paper identifies ways of improving the planning
system. Firstly, it identifies the performance qualities which
Southern African settlements should be seeking to achieve.
Secondly, it focuses on two necessary arenas of change: the need to
replace programmatic land-use planning practices with structuralspatial
approaches; and it makes a case for making urban corridors
a spatial focus of integrated planning, as a way of beginning the
restructuring and intensification of settlements which are currently
characterised by sprawl, fragmentation and separation