Bold Headlines of Urban Eyescapes: A Computational Approach of Urban Mapping via Digital Surveying and Eye-Tracking Technologies

The sensory stimuli from the urban environment are often distinguished as subtle structures that derive from experiencing the city. The experience of the urban environment is also related to the social relationships and memories that complete the 'urban eyescapes' and the way individuals can recall them. Despite the fact that the consideration of urban sensory stimuli is part of urban design, currently the account of visual experience in urban studies is hard to be identified. This article explores ways of recording how the senses mediate one's engagement with the urban environment. This study involves an experiment in the urban environment of the Copenhagen city centre, with 20 subjects performing a walking task. The aim of the experiment is to categorize the visual 'Bold Headlined Stimuli’ (BHS) of the examined environment, using eye-tracking techniques. The analysis allows us to identify the Headlining Stimuli Process, (HSP) in the select urban environment. HSP is significantly mediated by body mobility and perceptual memories and has shown how urban stimuli influence the intelligibility and the recalling patterns of the urban characteristics. The results have yielded a 'Bold Headline list' of stimuli related to: the spatial characteristics of higher preference; the stimuli that are relevant to livability; and the spatial dimensions easier to recall. The data of BHS will be used in cross-disciplinary city analysis. In the future, these results could be useful in urban design, to provide information on how urban space affects the human activities.

Experimental Characterization of the Shear Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam Elements in Chips

This work deals with the experimental study of the mechanical behavior, by shear tests (fracture shear), elements of concrete beams reinforced with fibers in chips. These fibers come from the machining waste of the steel parts. The shear tests are carried out on prismatic specimens of dimensions 10 x 20 x 120 cm3. The fibers are characterized by mechanical resistance and tearing. The optimal composition of the concrete was determined by the workability test. Two fiber contents are selected for this study (W = 0.6% and W = 0.8%) and a BT control concrete (W = 0%) of the same composition as the matrix is developed to serve as a reference with a sand-to-gravel ratio (S/G) of concrete matrix equal to 1. The comparison of the different results obtained shows that the chips fibers confer a significant ductility to the material after cracking of the concrete. Also, the fibers used limit diagonal cracks in shear and improve strength and rigidity.