Abstract: Badminton is one type of racket sports that requires repetitive overhead motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation and requires players to perform jumps, lunges, and quick directional changes. These characteristics could be stressful for body regions that may cause badminton injuries. Regarding racket players including badminton players, there have not been any studies that have utilized medical check-up to evaluate epidemiology and mechanism of injuries. In addition, epidemiology of badminton injury in school age badminton players is unknown. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the badminton injuries, physical fitness parameters, and intensity of shoulder pain using medical check-up so that the mechanisms of shoulder injuries might be revealed. The second purpose of this study was to survey the distribution of badminton injuries in elementary school age players so that injury prevention can be implemented as early as possible. The results of this study revealed that shoulder pain occurred in all players, and present shoulder pain players had smaller weight, greater shoulder external rotation (ER) gain, significantly thinner circumference of upper limbs and greater trunk extension. Identifying players with specific of these factors may enhance the prevention of badminton injury. This study also shows that there are high incidences of knee, ankle, plantar, and shoulder injury or pain in elementary school age badminton players. Injury prevention program might be implemented for elementary school age players.
Abstract: Warm-up is an essential component for optimizing performance in various sports before a physical fitness training session. This study investigated the immediate comparative effect of Self-Myofascial Release through vibration rolling (VR), non-vibration rolling (NVR), and static stretching as a part of a warm-up treatment on the functional fitness of young adults. Functional fitness is a classification of training that prepares the body for real-life movements and activities. For the present study 20male physical education students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects was ranged from 20-25 years. The functional fitness variables undertaken in the present study were flexibility, muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. Each of the three warm-up protocol was administered on consecutive days, i.e. 24 hr time gap and all tests were administered in the morning. The mean and SD were used as descriptive statistics. The significance of statistical differences among the groups was measured by applying ‘F’-test, and to find out the exact location of difference, Post Hoc Test (Least Significant Difference) was applied. It was found from the study that only flexibility showed significant difference among three types of warm-up exercise. The observed result depicted that VR has more impact on myofascial release in flexibility in comparison with NVR and stretching as a part of warm-up exercise as ‘p’ value was less than 0.05. In the present study, within the three means of warm-up exercises, vibration roller showed better mean difference in terms of NVR, and static stretching exercise on functional fitness of young physical education practitioners, although the results were found insignificant in case of muscle strength, agility, static and dynamic balance of the lower extremity. These findings suggest that sports professionals and coaches may take VR into account for designing more efficient and effective pre-performance routine for long term to improve exercise performances. VR has high potential to interpret into an on-field practical application means.
Abstract: Identifying, structuring, and racking the most important factors related to improving athletes’ performances could pave the way for improve training system. The purpose of this study was to identify the relative importance factors to improve performance of the of judo athletes with visual impairments, including blindness by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). After reviewing the literature, the relative importance of factors affecting performance of the blind judo was selected. A group of expert reviewed the first draft of the questionnaires, and then finally selected performance factors were classified into the major categories of techniques, physical fitness, and psychological categories. Later, a pre-selected experts group was asked to review the final version of questionnaire and confirm the priories of performance factors. The order of priority was determined by performing pairwise comparisons using Expert Choice 2000. Results indicated that “grappling” (.303) and “throwing” (.234) were the most important lower hierarchy factors for blind judo skills. In addition, the most important physical factors affecting performance were “muscular strength and endurance” (.238). Further, among other psychological factors “competitive anxiety” (.393) was important factor that affects performance. It is important to offer psychological skills training to reduce anxiety of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness, so they can compete in their optimal states. These findings offer insights into what should be considered when determining factors to improve performance of judo athletes with visual impairments and blindness.
Abstract: This study investigated the relation between processing information and fitness level of active (fit) and sedentary (unfit) children drawn from rural and urban areas in Botswana. It was hypothesized that fit children would display faster simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction times (CRT) and movement times (SMT). 60, third grade children (7.0 – 9.0 years) were initially selected and based upon fitness testing, 45 participated in the study (15 each of fit urban, unfit urban, fit rural). All children completed anthropometric measures, skinfold testing and submaximal cycle ergometer testing. The cognitive testing included SRT, CRT, SMT and Choice Movement Time (CMT) and memory sequence length. Results indicated that the rural fit group exhibited faster SMT than the urban fit and unfit groups. For CRT, both fit groups were faster than the unfit group. Collectively, the study shows that the relationship that exists between physical fitness and cognitive function amongst the elderly can tentatively be extended to the pediatric population. Physical fitness could be a factor in the speed at which we process information, including decision making, even in children.
Abstract: Pediatric cancer patients experience multiple distressing, challenges, physical symptom such as fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment that continue years after treatment completion. In recent years, yoga is often used in children with cancer to cope with these symptoms. Yoga practice is defined as a unique physical activity that combines physical practice, breath work and mindfulness/meditation. Yoga is an increasingly popular mind-body practice also characterized as a mindfulness mode of exercise. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of yoga intervention of children with cancer. This article planned searching the literature in this field. It has been determined that individualized yoga is feasible and provides benefits for inpatient children, improves health-related quality of life, physical activity levels, physical fitness. After yoga program, children anxiety score decreases significantly. Additionally, individualized yoga is feasible for inpatient children receiving intensive chemotherapy. As a result, yoga is an alternative and complementary medicine that can be safely used in children with cancer.
Abstract: Background: Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports where different anthropological and fitness ability parameters determine performance. It is characterized by short duration, high intensity bursts of activity. The purpose of this research was to determine anthropometric and physical fitness profile of male elite and non-elite boxers of Manipur and to compare the two groups. Materials and Methods: Nineteen subjects were selected as elite boxers and twenty-four were non-elite boxers of Manipur. A cross-sectional study was conducted on anthropometric measurements and physical fitness ability tests on 33 subjects (elite and non-elite boxers). Statistical analysis was done using descriptive statistics, t-test and logistic regression with the help of SPSS version 15 software. Results: Results showed elite boxers have significantly reduced neck girth and calf girth as compare to non-elite boxers. Elite boxers have significantly lower sub scapular skin fold (SSF) and supra iliac skin fold (SISF) than their counterparts. Higher stature, larger BTB and lower percent fat are associated with higher performance in boxing. Sit ups (SU), standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Plat taping (PT), Sit and reach (SAR) and Harvard Step Test (HST) are predicted as most contributing factors enhancing performance level among the physical fitness components. Elite boxers are found to have more functional strength (sit ups), higher explosive strength (SBJ), more agility (PT), cardio-vascular endurance and flexibility (SAR) than non-elite boxers. Conclusion: In conclusion, lower fat, higher lean body mass, larger bi-trochantric breadth, high explosive strength, agility and flexibility are significantly associated with higher performance and chance of becoming elite boxers.
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the effects of a circuit training program on muscle strength, agility, anaerobic performance and cardiovascular endurance. The study involved 24 freshmen (age 18.87+0.68 yr.) male students of the Faculty of Sport Science, Burapha University. They sample study were randomly divided into two groups: Circuit Training group (CT; n=12) and a Control group (C; n=12). Baseline data on height, weight, muscle strength (hand grip dynamometer and leg strength dynamometer), agility (agility T-Test), and anaerobic performance (Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test) and cardiovascular endurance (20 m Endurance Shuttle Run Test) were collected. The circuit training program included one circuit of eight stations of 30/60 seconds of work/rest interval with two cycles in Week 1-4, and 60/90 seconds of work/rest interval with three cycles in Week 5-8, performed three times per week. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and independent sample t-test. Statistically significance level was set at 0.05. The results show that after 8 weeks of a training program, muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance increased significantly in the CT Group (p < 0.05), while significant increase was not observed in the C Group (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the circuit training program improved muscle strength, agility, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance of the study subjects. This program may be used as a guideline for selecting a set of exercise to improve physical fitness.
Abstract: Practicing recurring resistance workout such as may cause changes in human muscle. These changes may be because combination if several factors determining physical fitness. Thus, it is important to identify these changes. Several studies were reviewed to investigate these changes. As a result, the changes included positive modifications in amplified citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity, increased capacity for pyruvate oxidation, improvement on molecular signaling on human performance, amplified resting muscle glycogen and whole GLUT4 protein content, better health outcomes such as enhancement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Sprint training also have numerous long long-term changes inhuman body such as better enzyme action, changes in muscle fiber and oxidative ability. This is important because SV is the critical factor influencing maximal cardiac output and therefore oxygen delivery and maximal aerobic power.
Abstract: The purpose of this theoretical literature review is to
study the relevant academic literature on lack of cardiorespiratory
fitness and its effects on children. The total of thirty eight relevant
documents were identified and considered for this review which
nineteen of those were original research articles published in peer
reviewed journals. The other nineteen articles were statistical
documents. This literature review is structured to examine 5 effects
in deficiency of cardiorespiratory fitness in school aged children (A)
Relative Age Effect (RAE), (B) Obesity, (C) Inadequate fitness level
(D) Unhealthy life style, and (E) Academics. The categories provide
a theoretical framework for future studies where results are driven
from the literature review. The study discusses that regular physical fitness assists children
and adolescents to develop healthy physical activity behaviors which
can be sustained throughout adult life. Conclusion suggests that
advocacy for increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary
behaviors at school and home are necessary.
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of
Aquatic and Land plyometric training on selected physical variables
in intercollegiate male handball players. To achieve this purpose of
the study, forty five handball players of Sardar Vallabhbhai National
Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat were selected as players at
random and their age ranged between 18 to 21 years. The selected
players were divided into three equal groups of fifteen players each.
Group I underwent Aquatic plyometric training, Group II underwent
Land plyometric training and Group III Control group for three days
per week for twelve weeks. Control Group did not participate in any
special training programme apart from their regular activities as per
their curriculum. The following physical fitness variables namely
speed; leg explosive power and agility were selected as dependent
variables. All the players of three groups were tested on selected
dependent variables prior to and immediately after the training
programme. The analysis of covariance was used to analyze the
significant difference, if any among the groups. Since, three groups
were compared, whenever the obtained ‘F’ ratio for adjusted posttest
was found to be significant, the Scheffe’s test to find out the paired
mean differences, if any. The 0.05 level of confidence was fixed as
the level of significance to test the ‘F’ ratio obtained by the analysis
of covariance, which was considered as an appropriate. The result of
the study indicates due to Aquatic and Land plyometric training on
speed, explosive power, and agility has been improved significantly.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe typical changes in several parameters of body composition – the amount of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), % body fat (BF) and body mass index (BMI) - in selected age categories (30+ years) of men and women in the Czech Republic, depending on the degree of sports activity. Study (n = 823, M = 343, F = 480) monitored differences in BF, SM and BMI in five age groups (from 30-39 years to 70+ years). Physically inactive individuals have (p < 0.05) higher % BF in comparison with physically active individuals (29.5 ± 0.59 vs. 27 ± 0.38%), higher BMI (27.3 ± 0.32 vs. 26.1 ± 0.20 kg/m2), but lower SM (39.0 ± 0.33 vs. 40.4 ± 0.21%). The results indicate that with an increasing age, there is a trend towards increasing values of BMI and % BF, and decreasing values of SMM.
Abstract: This paper discusses the use of a computerized test to measure the decision-making abilities of teenage basketball players in Singapore. There are five sections in this test – Competitive state anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) questionnaire (measures player’s cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence), Corsi block-tapping task (measures player’s short-term spatial memory), situation awareness global assessment technique (SAGAT) (measures players’ situation awareness in a basketball game), multiple choice questions on basketball knowledge (measures players’ knowledge of basketball rules and concepts), and lastly, a learning test that requires participants to recall and recognize basketball set plays (measures player’s ability to learn and recognize set plays). A total of 25 basketball players, aged 14 to 16 years old, from three secondary school teams participated in this experiment. The results that these basketball players obtained from this cognitive test were then used to compare with their physical fitness and basketball performance.
Abstract: Whilst there is growing evidence that activity across
the lifespan is beneficial for improved health, there are also many
changes involved with the aging process and subsequently the
potential for reduced indices of health. The nexus between all forms
of health, physical activity and aging is complex and has raised much
interest in recent times due to the realization that a multifaceted
approached is necessary in order to counteract a growing obesity
epidemic. By investigating age based trends within a population
adherring to competitive sport at older ages, further insight might be
gleaned to assist in understanding one of many factors influencing
this relationship. This study evaluated those sport psychological
constructs of health, physical fitness, mental health states, and social
dimension factors in sport that were associated with factors to
participate in sport and physical activity based on responses from the
2009 World Masters Games in Sydney. The sample consisted of
7846 athletes who competed at the games and who completed a 56
item sports participation survey using a 7-point Likert response (1 -
not important to 7 - very important). Questions focuses on factors
thought to promote participation, such as weight control, living
longer, improving mental health (self-esteem, mood states),
improving physical health and factors related to the athlete-s
competitive perspective. The most significant factors related to
participation with this cohort of masters athletes were the socializing
environment of sport, getting physically fit and improving
competitive personal best performances. Strategies to increase
participation in masters sport should focus on these factors as other
factors such as weight loss, improving mental health and living
longer were not identified as important determinates of sports
participation at the World Masters level.
Abstract: The objective of the study is to investigate the
effect of a footballer-s postural on selected physical fitness
components. Twenty-one (21) subjects of the university male
footballers under the Sport Excellence Center programme were
photographed using qualitative analysis. The postural variables
were stratified manually into normal and anomalies group and
their flexibility, strength and SAQ performance were
compared using the Mann-Whitney Test. The AROM
assessment and SAQ test reported no significance difference
(Z=-.398, p=0.711, p>0.05), similar to the lower body strength
was shown with no significance different (Z=-.493, p=0.640,
p>0.05). In contrast, only 1 RM strength test for the upper
body strength test shown with a significance different (Z=-
2.537, p=0.009, p
Abstract: The 15-a-side Fiji rugby team trains well in preparations for any rugby competition but rarely performs to expectations. In order to help the Fiji local based rugby players to identify some key basic areas in improving their performance, a series of workshops were conducted to assess their nutritional status and dietary habits in relation to energy demand during rugby matches. The nutrition workshop included the administration of questionnaires to 19 local based rugby players, requesting the following information: usual food intakes, training camp food intakes, carbohydrate loading, pre-game meals and post-game meals. The study revealed that poor eating habits of the players resulted in the low carbohydrate intake, which may have contributed to increase levels of fatigue leading to loss of stamina even before the second half of the game. It appears that the diet of most 15-a-side players does not provide enough energy to enable them to last the full eightyminutes of the game.
Abstract: Increased physical fitness participation has been
paralleled by increasedoveruse injuries such as insertional Achilles
tendinosis (AT). Treatment has provided inconsistentresults. The use
of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) offers a new
treatment consideration.The purpose of this study was to assess the
effects of ECSWTon pain, function, range of motion (ROM), joint
mobility and strength in patients with AT. Thirty subjects were
treated with ECSWT and measures were takenbefore and three
months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual
analog scale (VAS) scores for pain at rest (p=0.002); after activity
(p= 0.0001); overall improvement(p=0.0001); Lower Extremity
Functional Scale (LEFS) scores (p=0.002); dorsiflexion range of
motion (ROM) (p=0.0001); plantarflexion strength (p=0.025);
talocrural joint anterior glide (p=0.046); and subtalar joint medial and
lateral glide (p=0.025).ECSWT offers a new intervention that may
limit the progression of the disorder and the long term healthcare
costs associated with AT.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the effect of the
intervention of exercise behavior change plan for high school students
on study subjects- social and psychological factors and exercise
stages. This research uses the transtheoretical model as the research
framework. One experiment group and one control group were used in
a quasi-experimental design research. The experimental group
accepted health-related physical fitness course and the traditional
course; the control group accepted traditional physical education
course. There is a significant difference before and after the
intervention in the experimental group. Karl-s test shows the
experimental group gained a better improvement than that in the
control group. The Analysis of Covariance had shown the exercise
stages (F=7.62, p
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine and
compare physical fitness values of students engaged in different team
sport branches Totally 60 female, and 60 male athletes, that 20
athletes in each branch which are volleyball, basketball and football
participated the study as a volunteer. The mean ages of female and
male athletes were 21.20 ±1.87 and 21.61 ± 1.61 respectively. Age,
height, body weight, body mass index, flexibility, body fat
percentage, 30m sprint, maximum oxygen consumption capacity
(MaxVO2) and drop jump values were measured. As a result of
measurements, significant differences were found in height, weight,
MaxVO2, shuttle run speed between different sports branches in
female athletes. In male athletes, height, body weight, flexibility,
30m split speed and drop jump values were found significantly
different between sports branches.
As a conclusion and as a literature, it can be said that structure of
body has to be appropriate with the engaged sports branch. Physical
fitness values that required the sports branches can be expressed
clearly by increasing the number of subjects.