Abstract: This paper presents design, analysis and comparison of the different rotor type permanent magnet machines. The presented machines are designed as having same geometrical dimensions and same materials for comparison. The main machine parameters of interior and exterior rotor type machines including eddy current effect, torque-speed characteristics and magnetic analysis are investigated using MAXWELL program. With this program, the components of the permanent magnet machines can be calculated with high accuracy. Six types of Permanent machines are compared with respect to their topology, size, magnetic field, air gap flux, voltage, torque, loss and efficiency. The analysis results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed machines design methodology. We believe that, this study will be a helpful resource in terms of examination and comparison of the basic structure and magnetic features of the PM (Permanent magnet) machines which have different rotor structure.
Abstract: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are
widely in use to improve quality, reliability of wireless transmission
and increase the spectral efficiency. However in MIMO systems,
multiple copies of data are received after experiencing various
channel effects. The limitations on account of complexity due to
number of antennas in case of conventional decoding techniques have
been looked into. Accordingly we propose a modified sphere decoder
(MSD-1) algorithm with lower complexity and give rise to system
with high spectral efficiency. With the aim to increase signal
diversity we apply rotated quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)
constellation in multi dimensional space. Finally, we propose a new
architecture involving space time trellis code (STTC) concatenated
with space time block code (STBC) using MSD-1 at the receiver for
improving system performance. The system gains have been verified
with channel state information (CSI) errors.
Abstract: Stegnography is a new way of secret
communication the most widely used mechanism on account
of its simplicity is the use of the least significant bit. We have
used the least significant bit (2 LSB and 4 LSB) substitution
method. Depending upon the characteristics of the individual
portions of cover image we decide whether to use 2 LSB or 4
LSB thus it is an adaptive stegnography technique. We used
one of the three channels to behave as indicator to indicate the
presence of hidden data in other two channels. The module
showed impressive results in terms of capacity to hide the
data. In proposed method, instead of using RGB color space
directly, YCbCr color space is used to make use of human
visual system characteristic.
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a dynamic TDMA slot
reservation (DTSR) protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee plays a critically important role
in such networks. We consider the problem of providing QoS
guarantee to users as well as to maintain the most efficient use of
scarce bandwidth resources. According to one hop neighboring
information and the bandwidth requirement, our proposed protocol
dynamically changes the frame length and the transmission schedule.
A dynamic frame length expansion and shrinking scheme that
controls the excessive increase of unassigned slots has been
proposed. This method efficiently utilizes the channel bandwidth by
assigning unused slots to new neighboring nodes and increasing the
frame length when the number of slots in the frame is insufficient to
support the neighboring nodes. It also shrinks the frame length when
half of the slots in the frame of a node are empty. An efficient slot
reservation protocol not only guarantees successful data
transmissions without collisions but also enhance channel spatial
reuse to maximize the system throughput. Our proposed scheme,
which provides both QoS guarantee and efficient resource utilization,
be employed to optimize the channel spatial reuse and maximize the
system throughput. Extensive simulation results show that the
proposed mechanism achieves desirable performance in multichannel
multi-rate cognitive radio ad hoc networks.
Abstract: In this paper sensitivity analysis is performed for
reliability evaluation of power systems. When examining the
reliability of a system, it is useful to recognize how results
change as component parameters are varied. This knowledge
helps engineers to understand the impact of poor data, and
gives insight on how reliability can be improved. For these
reasons, a sensitivity analysis can be performed. Finally, a real
network was used for testing the presented method.
Abstract: WiMAX is defined as Worldwide Interoperability for
Microwave Access by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to
promote conformance and interoperability of the IEEE 802.16
standard, officially known as WirelessMAN. The attractive features
of WiMAX technology are very high throughput and Broadband
Wireless Access over a long distance. A detailed simulation
environment is demonstrated with the UGS, nrtPS and ertPS service
classes for throughput, delay and packet delivery ratio for a mixed
environment of fixed and mobile WiMAX. A simple mobility aspect
is considered for the mobile WiMAX and the PMP mode of
transmission is considered in TDD mode. The Network Simulator 2
(NS-2) is the tool which is used to simulate the WiMAX network
scenario. A simple Priority Scheduler and Weighted Round Robin
Schedulers are the WiMAX schedulers used in the research work
Abstract: In this paper, a system level behavioural model for RF
power amplifier, which exhibits memory effects, and based on multibranch
system is proposed. When higher order terms are included,
the memory polynomial model (MPM) exhibits numerical
instabilities. A set of memory orthogonal polynomial model
(OMPM) is introduced to alleviate the numerical instability problem
associated to MPM model. A data scaling and centring algorithm was
applied to improve the power amplifier modeling accuracy.
Simulation results prove that the numerical instability can be greatly
reduced, as well as the model precision improved with nonlinear
Abstract: This paper presents a new method for estimating the nonstationary
noise power spectral density given a noisy signal. The
method is based on averaging the noisy speech power spectrum using
time and frequency dependent smoothing factors. These factors are
adjusted based on signal-presence probability in individual frequency
bins. Signal presence is determined by computing the ratio of the
noisy speech power spectrum to its local minimum, which is updated
continuously by averaging past values of the noisy speech power
spectra with a look-ahead factor. This method adapts very quickly to
highly non-stationary noise environments. The proposed method
achieves significant improvements over a system that uses voice
activity detector (VAD) in noise estimation.
Abstract: In this paper a novel high output impedance, low input impedance, wide bandwidth, very simple current mirror with input and output voltage requirements less than that of a simple current mirror is presented. These features are achieved with very simple structure avoiding extra large node impedances to ensure high bandwidth operation. The circuit's principle of operation is discussed and compared to simple and low voltage cascode (LVC) current mirrors. Such outstanding features of this current mirror as high output impedance ~384K, low input impedance~6.4, wide bandwidth~178MHz, low input voltage ~ 362mV, low output voltage ~ 38mV and low current transfer error ~4% (all at 50μA) makes it an outstanding choice for high performance applications. Simulation results in BSIM 0.35μm CMOS technology with HSPICE are given in comparison with simple, and LVC current mirrors to verify and validate the performance of the proposed current mirror.
Abstract: In this study, a double-sided linear switched reluctance
motor (LSRM) drive was investigated as an alternative actuator for
vertical linear transportation applications such as a linear elevator
door, hospital and subway doors which move linearly and where
accurate position control and rapid response is requested. A prototype
sliding elevator door that is focused on a home elevator with LSRMs
is designed. The motor has 6/4 poles, 3 phases, 8A, 24V, 250 W and
250 N pull forces. Air gap between rotor and translator poles of the
designed motor and phase coil-s ideal inductance profile are obtained
in compliance with the geometric dimensions. Operation and
switching sections as motor and generator has been determined from
the inductance profile.
Abstract: The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS
(Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using
multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented.
The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which
are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy
efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the
sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter
has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W,
with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The
input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC.
Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining
constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The
energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS
condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately
in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in
terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched
flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.
Abstract: A spatial classification technique incorporating a State of Art Feature Extraction algorithm is proposed in this paper for classifying a heterogeneous classes present in hyper spectral images. The classification accuracy can be improved if and only if both the feature extraction and classifier selection are proper. As the classes in the hyper spectral images are assumed to have different textures, textural classification is entertained. Run Length feature extraction is entailed along with the Principal Components and Independent Components. A Hyperspectral Image of Indiana Site taken by AVIRIS is inducted for the experiment. Among the original 220 bands, a subset of 120 bands is selected. Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM) is calculated for the selected forty bands. From GLRLMs the Run Length features for individual pixels are calculated. The Principle Components are calculated for other forty bands. Independent Components are calculated for next forty bands. As Principal & Independent Components have the ability to represent the textural content of pixels, they are treated as features. The summation of Run Length features, Principal Components, and Independent Components forms the Combined Features which are used for classification. SVM with Binary Hierarchical Tree is used to classify the hyper spectral image. Results are validated with ground truth and accuracies are calculated.
Abstract: In this paper, an efficient wave concept iterative
process (WCIP) with auxiliary Sources is presented for full wave
investigation of an active microwave structure on micro strip
technology. Good agreement between the experimental and
simulation results is observed.
Abstract: For micro-gyroscopes, the angular rate detection components have to oscillate forwards and backwards alternatively. An innovative design of micro-electromagnetic drive module is proposed to make a Π-type disc reciprocally and efficiently rotate within a certain of angular interval. Twelve Electromagnetic poles enclosing the thin disc are designed to provide the magnetic drive power. Isotropic etching technique is employed to fabricate the high-aspect-ratio trench, so that the contact angle of wire against trench can be increased and the potential defect of cavities and pores within the wire can be prevented. On the other hand, a Π-type thin disc is designed to conduct the pitch motion as an angular excitation, in addition to spinning, is exerted on the gyroscope. The efficacy of the micro-magnetic drive module is verified by the commercial software, Ansoft Maxewll. In comparison with the conventional planar windings in micro-scale systems, the magnetic drive force is increased by 150%.
Abstract: The utilize of renewable energy sources becomes
more crucial and fascinatingly, wider application of renewable
energy devices at domestic, commercial and industrial levels is not
only affect to stronger awareness but also significantly installed
capacities. Moreover, biomass principally is in form of woods and
converts to be energy for using by humans for a long time.
Gasification is a process of conversion of solid carbonaceous fuel
into combustible gas by partial combustion. Many gasified models
have various operating conditions because the parameters kept in
each model are differentiated. This study applied the experimental
data including three inputs variables including biomass consumption;
temperature at combustion zone and ash discharge rate and gas flow
rate as only one output variable. In this paper, response surface
methods were applied for identification of the gasified system
equation suitable for experimental data. The result showed that linear
model gave superlative results.
Abstract: Due to insufficient frequency band and tremendous growth of the mobile users, complex computation is needed for the use of resources. Long distance communication began with the introduction of telegraphs and simple coded pulses, which were used to transmit short messages. Since then numerous advances have rendered reliable transfer of information both easier and quicker. Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes is implemented without the use of wires. Wireless network can be broadly categorized in infrastructure network and infrastructure less network. Infrastructure network is one in which we have a base station to serve the mobile users and in the infrastructure less network is one in which no infrastructure is available to serve the mobile users this kind of networks are also known as mobile Adhoc networks. In this paper we have simulated the result for different scenarios with protocols like AODV and DSR; we simulated the result for throughput, delay and receiving traffic in the given scenario.
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a WLAN
propagation model, using Spectral Analyzer measurements. The
signal is generated by two Access Points (APs) on the base floor at
the administrative Communication School of ESPOL building. In
general, users do not have a Q&S reference about a wireless network;
however, this depends on the level signal as a function of frequency,
distance and other path conditions between receiver and transmitter.
Then, power density of the signal decrease as it propagates through
space and data transfer rate is affected. This document evaluates and
implements empirical mathematical formulation for the
characterization of WLAN radio wave propagation on two aisles of
the building base floor.
Abstract: In this paper, multilayered coreless printed circuit
board (PCB) step-down power transformers for DC-DC converter
applications have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. A set
of two different circular spiral step-down transformers were
fabricated in the four layered PCB. These transformers have been
modelled with the assistance of high frequency equivalent circuit and
characterized with both sinusoidal and square wave excitation. This
paper provides the comparative results of these two different
transformers in terms of their resistances, self, leakage, mutual
inductances, coupling coefficient and also their energy efficiencies.
The operating regions for optimal performance of these transformers
for power transfer applications are determined. These transformers
were tested for the output power levels of about 30 Watts within the
input voltage range of 12-50 Vrms. The energy efficiency for these
step down transformers is observed to be in the range of 90%-97% in
MHz frequency region.
Abstract: In a very simple form a Mobile Agent is an independent piece of code that has mobility and autonomy behavior. One of the main advantages of using Mobile Agent in a network is - it reduces network traffic load. In an, ad hoc network Mobile Agent can be used to protect the network by using agent based IDS or IPS. Besides, to deploy dynamic software in the network or to retrieve information from network nodes Mobile Agent can be useful. But in an ad hoc network the Mobile Agent itself needs some security. Security services should be guaranteed both for Mobile Agent and for Agent Server. In this paper to protect the Mobile Agent and Agent Server in an ad hoc network we have proposed a solution which is based on Threshold Cryptography, a new vibe in the cryptographic world where trust is distributed among multiple nodes in the network.
Abstract: Since large power transformers are the most
expensive and strategically important components of any power
generator and transmission system, their reliability is crucially
important for the energy system operation. Also, Circuit breakers are
very important elements in the power transmission line so monitoring
the events gives a knowledgebase to determine time to the next
maintenance. This paper deals with the introduction of the
comparative method of the state estimation of transformers and
Circuit breakers using continuous monitoring of voltage, current.
This paper gives details a new method based on wavelet to apparatus
insulation monitoring. In this paper to insulation monitoring of
transformer, a new method based on wavelet transformation and
neutral point analysis is proposed. Using the EMTP tools, fault in
transformer winding and the detailed transformer winding model
were simulated. The current of neutral point of winding was analyzed
by wavelet transformation. It is shown that the neutral current of the
transformer winding has useful information about fault in insulation
of the transformer.