Abstract: Power dissipation increases exponentially during test mode as compared to normal operation of the circuit. In extreme cases, test power is more than twice the power consumed during normal operation mode. Test vector generation scheme is key component in deciding the power hungriness of a circuit during testing. Test vector count and consequent leakage current are functions of test vector generation scheme. Fault based test vector count optimization has been presented in this work. It helps in reducing test vector count and the leakage current. In the presented scheme, test vectors have been reduced by extracting essential child vectors. The scheme has been tested experimentally using stuck at fault models and results ensure the reduction in test vector count.
Abstract: The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.
Abstract: In this study, the potential benefits of playing action
video game among congenitally deaf and dumb subjects is reported in
terms of EEG ratio indices. The frontal and occipital lobes are
associated with development of motor skills, cognition, and visual
information processing and color recognition. The sixteen hours of
First-Person shooter action video game play resulted in the increase
of the ratios β/(α+θ) and β/θ in frontal and occipital lobes. This can
be attributed to the enhancement of certain aspect of cognition among
deaf and dumb subjects.
Abstract: This paper presents the design analysis of saddle
support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital
role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it
should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load
and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the
vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is
created in ANSYS. Stresses are calculated using mathematical
approach and ANSYS software. The analysis reveals the zone of high
localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle
support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the
methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.
Abstract: Due to the limited energy resources, energy efficient operation of sensor node is a key issue in wireless sensor networks. Clustering is an effective method to prolong the lifetime of energy constrained wireless sensor network. However, clustering in wireless sensor network faces several challenges such as selection of an optimal group of sensor nodes as cluster, optimum selection of cluster head, energy balanced optimal strategy for rotating the role of cluster head in a cluster, maintaining intra and inter cluster connectivity and optimal data routing in the network. In this paper, we propose a protocol supporting an energy efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing method to prolong the lifetime of sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol prolongs network lifetime due to the use of efficient clustering, cluster head selection/rotation and data routing.
Abstract: In present paper we proposed a simple and effective method to compress an image. Here we found success in size reduction of an image without much compromising with it-s quality. Here we used Haar Wavelet Transform to transform our original image and after quantization and thresholding of DWT coefficients Run length coding and Huffman coding schemes have been used to encode the image. DWT is base for quite populate JPEG 2000 technique.
Abstract: Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a non-traditional
machining process being widely used for commercial machining of
brittle and fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and
semiconductor materials. However, USM could be a viable
alternative for machining a tough material such as titanium; and this
aspect needs to be explored through experimental research. This
investigation is focused on exploring the use of ultrasonic machining
for commercial machining of pure titanium (ASTM Grade-I) and
evaluation of tool wear rate (TWR) under controlled experimental
conditions. The optimal settings of parameters are determined
through experiments planned, conducted and analyzed using Taguchi
method. In all, the paper focuses on parametric optimization of
ultrasonic machining of pure titanium metal with TWR as response,
and validation of the optimized value of TWR by conducting
Abstract: The use of hard and brittle material has become
increasingly more extensive in recent years. Therefore processing of
these materials for the parts fabrication has become a challenging
problem. However, it is time-consuming to machine the hard brittle
materials with the traditional metal-cutting technique that uses
abrasive wheels. In addition, the tool would suffer excessive wear as
well. However, if ultrasonic energy is applied to the machining
process and coupled with the use of hard abrasive grits, hard and
brittle materials can be effectively machined. Ultrasonic machining
process is mostly used for the brittle materials. The present research
work has developed models using finite element approach to predict
the mechanical stresses sand strains produced in the tool during
ultrasonic machining process. Also the flow behavior of abrasive
slurry coming out of the nozzle has been studied for simulation using
ANSYS CFX module. The different abrasives of different grit sizes
have been used for the experimentation work.
Abstract: The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly
spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using
traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform
intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation
techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods
introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The
lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from
irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In
this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been
established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and
cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of
reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative
magnitudes of each spectral component.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used to monitor/observe vast inaccessible regions through deployment of large number of sensor nodes in the sensing area. For majority of WSN applications, the collected data needs to be combined with geographic information of its origin to make it useful for the user; information received from remote Sensor Nodes (SNs) that are several hops away from base station/sink is meaningless without knowledge of its source. In addition to this, location information of SNs can also be used to propose/develop new network protocols for WSNs to improve their energy efficiency and lifetime. In this paper, range free localization protocols for WSNs have been proposed. The proposed protocols are based on weighted centroid localization technique, where the edge weights of SNs are decided by utilizing fuzzy logic inference for received signal strength and link quality between the nodes. The fuzzification is carried out using (i) Mamdani, (ii) Sugeno, and (iii) Combined Mamdani Sugeno fuzzy logic inference. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed protocols provide better accuracy in node localization compared to conventional centroid based localization protocols despite presence of unintentional radio frequency interference from radio frequency (RF) sources operating in same frequency band.