Abstract: Objective: Executive functioning (EF) deficits underlie several mental health diagnoses including ADHD, anxiety, and depression. Community mental health clinics face extensive waitlists for services with many referrals involving EF deficits. A pilot trial of a four-week group therapy was developed using key components from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), and mindfulness with an aim to improve EF skills and offer low-fee services. Method: Eight adults (M = 34.5) waiting for services at a community clinic were enrolled in a four-week group therapy at an in-house training clinic for doctoral trainees. Baseline EF, pre-/post-intervention ADHD and distress symptoms, group satisfaction, and curriculum helpfulness were assessed. Results: Downward trends in ADHD and distress symptoms pre/post-intervention were not significant. Favorable responses on group satisfaction and helpfulness suggest clinical utility. Conclusion: Preliminary pilot data from a brief group therapy to improve EF may be an efficacious, acceptable, and feasible intervention for adults waiting for services at community mental health and training clinics where there are high demands and limits to services and staffs.
Abstract: This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis
using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic
and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear
concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported
by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The
restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear
component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent
linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures
has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in
physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary
coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding
to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the
elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the
influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact
responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by
stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped
Abstract: This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in
air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear
simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the
speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the
damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element
method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The
method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous,
sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a
three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were
validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling
analysis and standard values.
Abstract: Earphones and headphones, which are compact electro-acoustic transducers, tend to have a lot of acoustic absorption materials and porous materials known as dampers, which often have a large number of extremely small holes and narrow slits to inhibit the resonance of the vibrating system, because the air viscosity significantly affects the acoustic characteristics in such acoustic paths. In order to perform simulations using the finite element method (FEM), it is necessary to be aware of material characteristics such as the impedance and propagation constants of sound absorbing materials and porous materials. The transfer function is widely known as a measurement method for an acoustic tube with such physical properties, but literature describing the measurements at the upper limits of the audible range is yet to be found. The acoustic tube, which is a measurement instrument, must be made narrow, and the distance between the two sets of microphones must be shortened in order to take measurements of acoustic characteristics at higher frequencies. When such a tube is made narrow, however, the characteristic impedance has been observed to become lower than the impedance of air. This paper considers the cause of this phenomenon to be the effect of the air viscosity and describes an FEM analysis of an acoustic tube considering air viscosity to compare to the theoretical formula by including the effect of air viscosity in the theoretical formula for an acoustic tube.
Abstract: Headphones and earphones have many extremely small
holes or narrow slits; they use sound-absorbing or porous material (i.e.,
dampers) to suppress vibratory system resonance. The air viscosity in
these acoustic paths greatly affects the acoustic properties. Simulation
analyses such as the finite element method (FEM) therefore require
knowledge of the material properties of sound-absorbing or porous
materials, such as the characteristic impedance and propagation
constant. The transfer function method using acoustic tubes is a widely
known measuring method, but there is no literature on taking
measurements up to the audible range. To measure the acoustic
properties at high-range frequencies, the acoustic tubes that form the
measuring device need to be narrowed, and the distance between the
two microphones needs to be reduced. However, when the tubes are
narrowed, the characteristic impedance drops below the air impedance.
In this study, we considered the effect of air viscosity in an acoustical
tube, introduced a theoretical formula for this effect in the form of
complex density and complex sonic velocity, and verified the
theoretical formula. We also conducted an experiment and observed
the effect from air viscosity in the actual measurements.
Abstract: Sound pathways in the enclosures of small earphones
are very narrow. In such narrow pathways, the speed of sound
propagation and the phase of sound waves change because of the air
viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method that
includes the effects of damping due to air viscosity for modeling the
sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the
existing finite element method for porous sound-absorbing materials.
The numerical calculation results using the proposed finite element
method are validated against the existing calculation methods.
Abstract: In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.