Abstract: In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene (PCE)-pools are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. Although biodegradation of chloroethenes occur in this zone, it is a slow process and a remediation strategy is needed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that combined strategy of biostimulation and in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is more efficient than the two separated strategies. Four different microcosm experiments with sediment and groundwater of a selected field site where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone were designed under i) natural conditions, ii) biostimulation with lactic acid, iii) ISCR with zero-value iron (ZVI) and under iv) a combined strategy with lactic acid and ZVI. Biotic and abiotic dehalogenation, terminal electron acceptor processes and evolution of microbial communities were determined for each experiment. The main results were: i) reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools occurs under sulfate-reducing conditions; ii) biostimulation with lactic acid supports more pronounced reductive dehalogenation of PCE and trichloroethene (TCE), but results in an accumulation of 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE); iii) ISCR with ZVI produces a sustained dehalogenation of PCE and its metabolites iv) combined strategy of biostimulation and ISCR results in a fast dehalogenation of PCE and TCE and a sustained dehalogenation of cisDCE. These findings suggest that biostimulation and ISCR with ZVI are the most suitable strategies for a complete reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools in the transition zone and further to enable the dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.
Abstract: This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized
intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist
wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of
electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra
indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional
group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple
benzene-rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are
likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy
gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles,
redox mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo
dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, RBk5) were clearly disclosed.
With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and
198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented.
This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell
(MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch
mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more
favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting
reactor scheme for operation.