Jeffrey's Prior for Unknown Sinusoidal Noise Model via Cramer-Rao Lower Bound

This paper employs the Jeffrey's prior technique in the process of estimating the periodograms and frequency of sinusoidal model for unknown noisy time variants or oscillating events (data) in a Bayesian setting. The non-informative Jeffrey's prior was adopted for the posterior trigonometric function of the sinusoidal model such that Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) inference was used in carving-out the minimum variance needed to curb the invariance structure effect for unknown noisy time observational and repeated circular patterns. An average monthly oscillating temperature series measured in degree Celsius (0C) from 1901 to 2014 was subjected to the posterior solution of the unknown noisy events of the sinusoidal model via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). It was not only deduced that two minutes period is required before completing a cycle of changing temperature from one particular degree Celsius to another but also that the sinusoidal model via the CRLB-Jeffrey's prior for unknown noisy events produced a miniature posterior Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) compare to a known noisy events.

Using HMM-based Classifier Adapted to Background Noises with Improved Sounds Features for Audio Surveillance Application

Discrimination between different classes of environmental sounds is the goal of our work. The use of a sound recognition system can offer concrete potentialities for surveillance and security applications. The first paper contribution to this research field is represented by a thorough investigation of the applicability of state-of-the-art audio features in the domain of environmental sound recognition. Additionally, a set of novel features obtained by combining the basic parameters is introduced. The quality of the features investigated is evaluated by a HMM-based classifier to which a great interest was done. In fact, we propose to use a Multi-Style training system based on HMMs: one recognizer is trained on a database including different levels of background noises and is used as a universal recognizer for every environment. In order to enhance the system robustness by reducing the environmental variability, we explore different adaptation algorithms including Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR), Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) and the MAP/MLLR algorithm that combines MAP and MLLR. Experimental evaluation shows that a rather good recognition rate can be reached, even under important noise degradation conditions when the system is fed by the convenient set of features.

Featured based Segmentation of Color Textured Images using GLCM and Markov Random Field Model

In this paper, we propose a new image segmentation approach for colour textured images. The proposed method for image segmentation consists of two stages. In the first stage, textural features using gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) are computed for regions of interest (ROI) considered for each class. ROI acts as ground truth for the classes. Ohta model (I1, I2, I3) is the colour model used for segmentation. Statistical mean feature at certain inter pixel distance (IPD) of I2 component was considered to be the optimized textural feature for further segmentation. In the second stage, the feature matrix obtained is assumed to be the degraded version of the image labels and modeled as Markov Random Field (MRF) model to model the unknown image labels. The labels are estimated through maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation criterion using ICM algorithm. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with that of the existing schemes, JSEG and another scheme which uses GLCM and MRF in RGB colour space. The proposed method is found to be outperforming the existing ones in terms of segmentation accuracy with acceptable rate of convergence. The results are validated with synthetic and real textured images.

Method to Improve Channel Coding Using Cryptography

A new approach for the improvement of coding gain in channel coding using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) algorithm is proposed. This new approach uses the avalanche effect of block cipher algorithm AES and soft output values of MAP decoding algorithm. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated in the presence of Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). For the verification of proposed approach, computer simulation results are included.

Speech Enhancement by Marginal Statistical Characterization in the Log Gabor Wavelet Domain

This work presents a fusion of Log Gabor Wavelet (LGW) and Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimator as a speech enhancement tool for acoustical background noise reduction. The probability density function (pdf) of the speech spectral amplitude is approximated by a Generalized Laplacian Distribution (GLD). Compared to earlier estimators the proposed method estimates the underlying statistical model more accurately by appropriately choosing the model parameters of GLD. Experimental results show that the proposed estimator yields a higher improvement in Segmental Signal-to-Noise Ratio (S-SNR) and lower Log-Spectral Distortion (LSD) in two different noisy environments compared to other estimators.