Abstract: Jatropha curcas stem was analyzed for chemical
compositions: 19.11% pentosan, 42.99% alphacellulose and 24.11%
lignin based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The condition to
fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in J. curcas stem using
steam explosion was optimized. The procedure started from cutting J.
curcas stem into small pieces and soaked in water for overnight.
After that, they were steam exploded at 214 °C and 21 kg/cm2 for 5
min. The obtained hydrolysate contained 1.55 g/L ferulic acid which
after that was used as substrate for vanillin production by Aspergillus
niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in one-step process. The
maximum 0.65 g/L of vanillin were obtained with the conversion rate
of 45.2% based on the initial ferulic acid.
Abstract: This was the first document revealing the
investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J.
curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98%
protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The
appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with
grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended
in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J.
curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reaction was controlled at
temperature 50 °C in water bath for 45 minutes. After that, the
supernatant (protein hydrolysate) was separated using centrifuge at
8000g for 30 minutes. The maximum yield of resulting protein
hydrolysate was 73.27 % with 7.34% moisture, 71.69% total protein,
7.12% lipid, 2.49% ash. The product was also capable of well
dissolving in water.
Abstract: Sunflower stalks were analysed for chemical
compositions: pentosan 15.84%, holocellulose 70.69%,
alphacellulose 45.74%, glucose 27.10% and xylose 7.69% based on
dry weight of 100-g raw material. The most optimum condition for
steam explosion pretreatment was as follows. Sunflower stalks were
cut into small pieces and soaked in 0.02 M H2SO4 for overnight.
After that, they were steam exploded at 207 C and 21 kg/cm2 for 3
minutes to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The
resulting hydrolysate, containing hemicellulose, and cellulose pulp
contained xylose sugar at 2.53% and 7.00%, respectively.The pulp
was further subjected to enzymatic saccharification at 50 C, pH 4.8 citrate buffer) with pulp/buffer 6% (w/w)and Celluclast 1.5L/pulp
2.67% (w/w) to obtain single glucose with maximum yield 11.97%.
After fixed-bed fermentation under optimum condition using
conventional yeast mixtures to produce bioethanol, it indicated
maximum ethanol yield of 0.028 g/100 g sunflower stalk.