Abstract: The given article deals with the usage of the concept
in many spheres of science, including its place in the Kazakh
linguistics One of such concepts is the role of the “бақыт”
(“happiness”) concept in the Kazakh outlook. The work tells us about
its studying. The data about studying of the “happiness” concept in
the sphere of philosophy, psychology, cognitive linguistics, lingo
cultural study, logics, psycho-linguistic are given in this work.
Particularly dwelling at length on the studying level of the concept in
the sphere of cognitive linguistics, analysis have been made
pertaining linguist point of views. It was pointed out that the concept
of “happiness” hasn’t been studied yet in the Kazakh linguistics and
it is necessary to find out the meaning of the language units related to
this concept, i.e. blessings, proverbs, sayings and phrasiological units.
Abstract: It is well known that the phraseology of a language - the phenomenon of identity. This uniqueness is due to the fact that "there are idioms image-based views of reality that shows mainly of everyday empirical, historical and spiritual experience of a language community, associated with its cultural traditions. The article says that the phraseological units very clearly show the image of the people and give us a great view of the national identity. With the phraseology of the Kazakh and Korean language can understand the mentality of the nation, identity, perception of people. It is in the phraseological units can surprise the culture and customs of the people. Phraseological units store and transmit information about the level of material and spiritual culture of the people, his life, past and present, the development of society in general. And in Korean and Kazakh languages idioms occupy a particularly important role.
Abstract: This paper makes a contribution to the on-going
debate on conceptualization and lexicalization of cutting and
breaking (C&B) verbs by discussing data from Telugu, a language of
India belonging to the Dravidian family. Five Telugu native speakers-
verbalizations of agentive actions depicted in 43 short video-clips
were analyzed. It was noted that verbalization of C&B events in
Telugu requires formal units such as simple lexical verbs, explicator
compound verbs, and other complex verb forms. The properties of
the objects involved, the kind of instruments used, and the manner of
action had differential influence on the lexicalization patterns.
Further, it was noted that all the complex verb forms encode 'result'
and 'cause' sub-events in that order. Due to the polysemy associated
with some of the verb forms, our data does not support the
straightforward bipartition of this semantic domain.
Abstract: The report focuses on such an important indicator of the nature and direction of development of ethnic and cultural processes in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as ethno linguistic situation. It is shown that, in essence, on the one hand, expresses the degree of the actual propagation and the level of use of the languages of the various ethnic communities. On the other hand, reflects the important patterns, trends and prospects of ethno-cultural and ethnodemographic processes in the Republic. It is important to note that the ethno linguistic situation in different regions of Kazakhstan, due to its more dynamic and much more difficult to demonstrate a much greater variety of options when compared with the ethnic situation in the country. For the two major ethnic groups of the republic – Kazakh and Russian language ethno differentiating retains its value, while for the other ethnic groups observed decline in the importance of this indicator. As you know, the language of international communication in the country is Russian. As the censuses of population, the Russian language in many areas of Northern, Central and Eastern Kazakhstan becomes a means of ethno linguistic development for most of the non-Russian population. This is most clearly illustrated by the Germans, and the Slavic ethnic groups. In this case, the Russian language is not just a means of international communication for a number of ethnic groups, and ethnic groups, it becomes a factor of ethnic self-expression. The value of the Kazakh language as their mother tongue for the other groups of the population is small. More clearly it can be traced only to the Turkic-speaking population of the republic – Uzbeks, Uighurs, Tatars, Turks, etc. The state Kazakh language is a means of international communication in the Western and Southern Kazakhstan, with a predominance of the Kazakh population. The report shows that the most important factor in the development of ethno-linguistic and ethno-cultural processes is bilingualism. Comparative analysis of materials census shows, first, on the increase of the proportion of bilingual population among Kazakhs and Russian, and second, to reduce the proportion of bilingual population of other ethnic groups living in Kazakhstan, and third, a higher proportion bilingual population among residents than rural residents, regardless of their ethnicity. Bilingualism is mainly of a "national Kazakh", "national Russian" or "Kazakh-national" or "Russian-national" character. The President N.A. Nazarbayev said that the Kazakh language is the most important factor in the consolidation of the people of Kazakhstan. He therefore called on government and other state and local representative bodies fully develop the state language, to create all the necessary organizational, material and technical conditions for free and open learning the state language by all citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by
abnormalities in social communication, language abilities and
repetitive behaviors. The present study focused on some grammatical
deficits in autistic children. We evaluated the impairment of correct
use of different Persian verb tenses in autistic children-s speech. Two
standardized Language Test were administered then gathered data
were analyzed. The main result of this study was significant
difference between the mean scores of correct responses to present
tense in comparison with past tense in Persian language. This study
demonstrated that tense is severely impaired in autistic children-s
speech. Our findings indicated those autistic children-s production of
simple present/ past tense opposition to be better than production of
future and past periphrastic forms (past perfect, present perfect, past
Abstract: This study is designed to investigate errors emerged in written texts produced by 30 Turkish EFL learners with an explanatory, and thus, qualitative perspective. Erroneous language elements were identified by the researcher first and then their grammaticality and intelligibility were checked by five native speakers of English. The analysis of the data showed that it is difficult to claim that an error stems from only one single factor since different features of an error are triggered by different factors. Our findings revealed two different types of errors: those which stem from the interference of L1 with L2 and those which are developmental ones. The former type contains more global errors whereas the errors in latter type are more intelligible.
Abstract: Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).
Abstract: Metaphor has recently gained extensive interest most probably due to developments in cognitive sciences and the study of language as the reflection of humans- world perception. Metaphor is no longer reckoned as solely literary expressive means. Nowadays it is studied in a whole number of discourses, such as politics, law, medicine, sports, etc. with the purpose of the analysis and determining its role. The scientific language is not an exception. It might seem that metaphor cannot suit it; we would dare to draw a hypothesis that metaphor has indeed found its stable place in terminology. In comprehension of metaphorically represented terms the stage of visualization plays a significant role. We proceeded on the assumption that this stage is the main in provision of better term comprehension and would try to exemplify it with metaphoricallyoriented terms.
Abstract: This paper attempts to explore the phenomenon of metaphorization in English newspaper headlines from the perspective of pragmatic investigation. With relevance theory as the guideline, this paper makes an explanation of the processing of metaphor with a pragmatic approach and points that metaphor is the stimulus adopted by journalists to achieve optimal relevance in this ostensive communication, as well as the strategy to fulfill their writing purpose.
Abstract: Our research aims at helping the tutor on line to
evaluate the student-s cognitive processes. The student is a learner in
French as a Second Language who studies an on-line socio-cognitive
scenario in written communication. In our method, these cognitive
processes are defined. For that, the language abilities and learning
tasks are associated to cognitive operation. Moreover, the found
cognitive processes are named with specific terms. The result was to
create an instrumental pattern to question the learner about the
cognitive processes used to build an item of written comprehension.
Our research follows the principles of the third historical generation
of studies on the cognitive activity of the text comprehension. The
strength of our instrumental pattern stands in the precision and the
logical articulation of the questions to the learner. However, the
learner-s answers can still be subjective but the precision of the
instrument restricts it.
Abstract: Till date, English as a Second Language (ESL) educators involved in teaching language and communication to engineering students face an uphill task in developing graduate communicative competency. This challenge is accentuated by the apparent lack of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) materials for engineering students in the engineering curriculum. As such, most ESL educators are forced to play multiple roles. They don tasks such as curriculum designers, material writers and teachers with limited knowledge of the disciplinary content. Previous research indicates that prospective professional engineers should possess some sub-sets of competency: technical, linguistic oral immediacy, meta-cognitive and rhetorical explanatory competence. Another study revealed that engineering students need to be equipped with technical and linguistic oral immediacy competence. However, little is known whether these competency needs are in line with the educators- perceptions of communicative competence. This paper examines the best mix of communicative competence subsets that create the magic for engineering students in technical oral presentations. For the purpose of this study, two groups of educators were interviewed. These educators were language and communication lecturers involved in teaching a speaking course and content experts who assess students- technical oral presentations at tertiary level. The findings indicate that these two groups differ in their perceptions
Abstract: Some of the students' problems in writing skill stem
from inadequate preparation for the writing assignment. Students
should be taught how to write well when they arrive in language
classes. Having selected a topic, the students examine and explore the
theme from as large a variety of viewpoints as their background and
imagination make possible. Another strategy is that the students
prepare an Outline before writing the paper. The comparison between
the two mentioned thought provoking techniques was carried out
between the two class groups –students of Islamic Azad University of
Dezful who were studying “Writing 2" as their main course. Each
class group was assigned to write five compositions separately in
different periods of time. Then a t-test for each pair of exams between
the two class groups showed that the t-observed in each pair was
more than the t-critical. Consequently, the first hypothesis which
states those who utilize Brainstorming as a thought provoking
technique in prewriting phase are more successful than those who
outline the papers before writing was verified.
Abstract: Argument over the use of particular method in interlanguage pragmatics has increased recently. Researchers argued the advantages and disadvantages of each method either natural or elicited. Findings of different studies indicated that the use of one method may not provide enough data to answer all its questions. The current study investigated the validity of using multimethod approach in interlanguage pragmatics to understand the development of requests in Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2). To this end, the study adopted two methods belong to two types of data sources: the institutional discourse (natural data), and the role play (elicited data). Participants were 117 learners of Arabic L2 at the university level, representing four levels (beginners, low-intermediate, highintermediate, and advanced). Results showed that using two or more methods in interlanguage pragmatics affect the size and nature of data.
Abstract: This questionnaire-based study, aimed to measure and
compare the awareness of English reading strategies among EFL
learners at Bangkok University (BU) classified by their gender, field
of study, and English learning experience. Proportional stratified
random sampling was employed to formulate a sample of 380 BU
students. The data were statistically analyzed in terms of the mean
and standard deviation. t-Test analysis was used to find differences in
awareness of reading strategies between two groups (-male and
female- /-science and social-science students). In addition, one-way
analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare reading strategy
awareness among BU students with different lengths of English
learning experience. The results of this study indicated that the
overall awareness of reading strategies of EFL learners at BU was at
a high level (ðÑ = 3.60) and that there was no statistically significant
difference between males and females, and among students who have
different lengths of English learning experience at the significance
level of 0.05. However, significant differences among students
coming from different fields of study were found at the same level of
Abstract: This paper intends to identify the ethnic Kazakhstani
Koreans- political process of identity formation by exploring their
narrative and practice about the state language represented in the
course of their becoming the new citizens of a new independent state.
The Russophone Kazakhstani Koreans- inability to speak the official
language of their affiliated state is considered there as dissatisfying the
basic requirement of citizens of the independent state, so that they are
becoming marginalized from the public sphere. Their contradictory
attitude that at once demonstrates nominal reception and practical
rejection of the obligatory state language unveils a high barrier inside
between their self-language and other-language. In this paper, the
ethnic Korean group-s conflicting linguistic identity is not seen as a
free and simple choice, but as a dynamic struggle and political process
in which the subject-s past experiences and memories intersect with
the external elements of pressure.
Abstract: Abai Kunanbayev is famous for being enlightener,
composer, interpreter, social agent, philosopher, reformer, who
wanted to enrich Kazakh literature by emergence with Russian and
European culture, and also as a founder of Kazakh written literary
language. Abai Kunanbayev was born in 1845 in East Kazakhstan
area and passed away in 1904 in his hometown. His oeuvre absorbed
and reflected all changes in the life of Kazakh society of the second
half of XIX century. Because ХІХ century, especially its second half,
was an important transition period for Kazakhstan, which radically
changed traditional way of Kazakh society and predetermined further
development in consequence of activation of Russian colonial policy
and approval of commodity-money relations in Steppe Land.Abai
Kunanbayev, besides Arabic and Persian common words and
loanwords from Quran in his words of edification, had used a lot of
words of Arabic, Persian, Latin, Russian, Nogai, Shaghatai, Polish,
Greek, Turkish, which are used in the Kazakh language.
Abstract: This paper describes a system, in which various methods of text summarizing can be adapted to Polish. A structure of the system is presented. A modular construction of the system and access to the system via the Internet are signaled.
Abstract: Little research has examined working memory
capacity (WMC) in signed language interpreters and deaf signers.
This paper presents the findings of a study that investigated WMC in
professional Australian Sign Language (Auslan)/English interpreters
and deaf signers. Thirty-one professional Auslan/English interpreters
(14 hearing native signers and 17 hearing non-native signers)
completed an English listening span task and then an Auslan working
memory span task, which tested their English WMC and their Auslan
WMC, respectively. Moreover, 26 deaf signers (6 deaf native signers
and 20 deaf non-native signers) completed the Auslan working
memory span task. The results revealed a non-significant difference
between the hearing native signers and the hearing non-native signers
in their English WMC, and a non-significant difference between the
hearing native signers and the hearing non-native signers in their
Auslan WMC. Moreover, the results yielded a non-significant
difference between the hearing native signers- English WMC and
their Auslan WMC, and a non-significant difference between the
hearing non-native signers- English WMC and their Auslan WMC.
Furthermore, a non-significant difference was found between the deaf
native signers and the deaf non-native signers in their Auslan WMC.
Abstract: Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document
referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its
origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the
complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during
translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing
solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have
designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a
bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle
multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.