Abstract: s the floating offshore wind turbine industry continues to develop and grow, the capabilities of established port facilities need to be assessed as to their ability to support the expanding construction and installation requirements. This paper assesses current infrastructure requirements and projected changes to port facilities that may be required to support the floating offshore wind industry. Understanding the infrastructure needs of the floating offshore renewable industry will help to identify the port-related requirements. Floating offshore wind turbines can be installed further out to sea and in deeper waters than traditional fixed offshore wind arrays, meaning it can take advantage of stronger winds. Separate ports are required for substructure construction, fit-out of the turbines, moorings, subsea cables and maintenance. Large areas are required for the laydown of mooring equipment, inter array cables, turbine blades and nacelles. The capabilities of established port facilities to support floating wind farms are assessed by evaluation of size of substructures, height of wind turbine with regards to the cranes for fitting of blades, distance to offshore site and offshore installation vessel characteristics. The paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using large land based cranes, inshore floating crane vessels or offshore crane vessels at the fit-out port for the installation of the turbine. Water depths requirements for import of materials and export of the completed structures will be considered. There are additional costs associated with any emerging technology. However, part of the popularity of Floating Offshore Wind Turbines stems from the cost savings against permanent structures like fixed wind turbines. Floating Offshore Wind Turbine developers can benefit from lighter, more cost effective equipment which can be assembled in port and towed to site rather than relying on large, expensive installation vessels to transport and erect fixed bottom turbines. The ability to assemble Floating Offshore Wind Turbines equipment on shore means minimising highly weather dependent operations like offshore heavy lifts and assembly, saving time and costs and reducing safety risks for offshore workers. Maintenance might take place in safer onshore conditions for barges and semi submersibles. Offshore renewables, such as floating wind, can take advantage of this wealth of experience, while oil and gas operators can deploy this experience at the same time as entering the renewables space. The floating offshore wind industry is in the early stages of development and port facilities are required for substructure fabrication, turbine manufacture, turbine construction and maintenance support. The paper discusses the potential floating wind substructures as this provides a snapshot of the requirements at the present time, and potential technological developments required for commercial development. Scaling effects of demonstration-scale projects will be addressed; however the primary focus will be on commercial-scale (30+ units) device floating wind energy farms.
Abstract: Facing a period of major change that is rarely seen in a century, China formulates the 14th Five-Year Plan and places emphasis on promoting high-quality development. In this context, the overall urban design has become a crucial and systematic tool for high-quality urban development. However, there are bottlenecks in the cognition of nature, content scope and transmission mechanisms of the current overall urban design in China. The paper interprets the emerging demands of the 14th Five-Year Plan on urban design in terms of new value-quality priority, new dynamic-space performance, new target-region coordination and new path-refined governance. Based on the new trend and appeal, the multi-dimensional thinking integrated with the major tasks of urban design are proposed accordingly, which is the biomass thinking in ecological, production and living element, the strategic thinking in spatial structure, the systematic thinking in the cityscape, the low-carbon thinking in urban form, the governance thinking in public space, the user thinking in design implementation. The paper explores the possibility of transforming the value thinking and technical system of urban design in China and provides a breakthrough path for the urban planning and design industry to better respond to the propositions of the country’s 14th Five-Year Plan.
Abstract: This paper investigates civic representation in mid-century diplomatic buildings through the case of the U.S. Embassy in Karachi (1955-59), Pakistan, designed by the Austrian-American architect Richard Neutra (1892-1970) and the American architect Robert Alexander (1907-92). Texts, magazines, and oral histories at that time highlighted the need for a new postwar expression of American governmental architecture, leaning toward modernization, technology, and monumentality. Descriptive, structural, and historical analyses of the U.S. Embassy in Karachi revealed the emergence of a new prototypical solution for postwar diplomatic buildings: the combination of one main orthogonal block, seen as a modern-day corps de logis, and a flanking arcuated pavilion, often organized in one or two stories. Although the U.S. Embassy relied on highly industrialized techniques and abstract images of social progress, archival work at the Neutra’s archives at the University of California, Los Angeles, revealed that much of this project was adapted to vernacular elements and traditional forms—such as the intriguing use of reinforced concrete barrel vaults.
Abstract: The trend of autonomous vehicles is the future solution to road networks congestion in terms of their advanced ability to drive closer together and at higher speeds than humans can do safely. Infrastructure sector can drive the economic prosperity and provide a balance and inclusive growth of sustainable economy development. In this paper, the road infrastructure and the future development of electric car, self-driving of autonomous vehicles and the increasing demand of automated car parking system are critically revised and this paper aims to provide the insight and achieve better sustainable infrastructure and community in smart city.
Abstract: To study the local force characteristics of a spatial Y-arch bridge, a medium-bearing spatial Y-arch bridge is used as the object of study, and the finite element software FEA is used to establish a spatial finite element model and analyze the force conditions of the arch legs under different most unfavorable loading conditions. It is found that the forces on the arch foot under different conditions are mainly in the longitudinal direction and transverse direction, which should be considered for strengthening. The research results can provide reference for the design and construction of the same type of bridge.
Abstract: Zhejiang’s special geographical environment has created characteristic mountain dwellings with climate adaptability. Among them, the terrain of southern Zhejiang is dominated by mountainous and hilly landforms, and its traditional dwellings have distinctive characteristics. They are often adapted to local conditions and laid out in accordance with the mountains. In order to block the severe winter weather conditions, local traditional building materials such as rammed earth are mostly used. However, with the development of urbanization, traditional villages have undergone large-scale changes, gradually losing their original uniqueness. In order to solve this problem, this paper takes traditional villages around Baishanzu National Park in Zhejiang as an example and selects nine typical villages in Jingning County and Longquan, respectively. Based on field investigations, this paper extracts the environmental adaptability of local traditional rammed earth houses from the perspective of “geographical embeddedness”. And then combined with case analysis, the paper discusses the translation and development of its traditional architectural methods in contemporary rammed earth buildings in southern Zhejiang.
Abstract: The rivers in Bangladesh are highly unstable having loose boundaries, mild slope of water surface and bed, irregular siltation of huge sediment coming from upstream, among others. The groins are installed in the river bank to deflect the flowing water away from the vulnerable zones. The conventional groins are found to be unstable and ineffective. The combined groin having both impermeable and permeable components in the same structure improves the flow field to function better over others. The main goal of this study is to analyze the hydraulic characteristics induced by the combined groins of different alignments by using a 2D numerical model, iRIC Nays2DH. In this numerical simulation, the K-ε model for turbulence and Cubic Interpolation Pseudo-particle (CIP) method for advective terms are utilized. A particular flow condition is applied in the channel for all sets of groins with different alignments. The simulation results reveal that the combined groins alter the flow patterns considerably, with no significant recirculation of flow in the groin field. The effect of different alignments of groins is found somewhat different. Based on hydraulic features caused by the groins, the combined groin that aligns the permeable component towards slightly downstream performs better over others.
Abstract: Quality of life, environmental impact, congestion of mobility means, and infrastructures remain significant challenges for urban mobility. Solutions like car sharing, spatial redesign, eCommerce, and autonomous vehicles will likely increase the unit veh-km and the density of cars in urban traffic, thus reducing congestion. However, the impact of such solutions is not clear for researchers. Congestion arises from growing populations that must travel greater distances to arrive at similar locations (e.g., workplaces, schools) during the same time frame (e.g., rush hours). This paper first reviews the research and application cases of urban congestion methods through recent years. Rethinking the question of time, it then investigates people’s willingness and flexibility to adapt their arrival and departure times from workplaces. We use neural networks and methods of supervised learning to apply a methodology for predicting peoples’ intentions from their responses in a questionnaire. We created and distributed a questionnaire to more than 50 companies in the Paris suburb. Obtained results illustrate that our methodology can predict peoples’ intentions to reschedule their activities (work, study, commerce, etc.).
Abstract: Realistically, 3-D printing as a technology has not yet reached the required maturity level to handle construction housing projects for citizens on a country scale. However, potentially, it has all of the required elements for addressing this issue. There are two main high-level elements of this technology that need to be capitalized on in order for the technology to reach its full potential: technical and logistical. This paper aims to cover how 3-D printing can be a viable technical solution for housing projects and describes the impact of 3-D printing technical features on the logistical aspects of completing a housing project. Additionally, a perspective about 3-D printing in Saudi Arabia will be presented in order to give the reader an idea of where the Kingdom stands in the deployment of this technology. Finally, a glimpse will be given regarding the potential utilization of this technology for space applications.
Abstract: In this study a composite index of factors linked to the resilience capacity of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to flooding is proposed and tested. A sample of SMEs located in flood-prone areas (n = 391) was administered a structured questionnaire pertaining to cognitive, managerial and contextual factors that affect the ability to prepare, withstand, and recover from flooding events. Through the proposed index, a bottom-up, self-assessment approach is set forth that could assist in standardizing such assessments with an overarching aim of reducing the vulnerability of SMEs to floods. This is achieved by examining critical internal and external parameters affecting SMEs’ resilience capacity which is particularly important taking into account the limited resources these enterprises tend to have at their disposal and that they can generate single points of failure in dense supply chain networks.
Abstract: Since the expression of the coefficient of friction by Colebrook-White which turns out to be an implicit equation, equations have been developed to facilitate their applicability. In this work, this equation was applied to the penstock of the Three Gorges dam in order to observe the evolution of the turbulent boundary layer and the friction along the walls. Thus, the study is being carried out using a 3D digital approach in FLUENT in order to take into account the wall effects. It appears that according to the position of the portions, we have a variation in the evolutions of the turbulent friction and of the values of the boundary layer. We also observe that the inclination of the pipe has a significant influence on this turbulent friction; similarly, one could not make a fair evaluation of the latter without specifying the choice and location of the wall.
Abstract: To obtain high mechanical performance, the fresh conditions of a mortar are decisive. Measuring the absorption of aggregates used in mortar mixes is a fundamental requirement for proper design of the mixes prior to their placement in construction sites. In this sense, absorption is a determining factor in the design of a mix because it conditions the amount of water, which in turn affects the water/cement ratio and the final porosity of the mortar. Thus, this work focuses on the mechanical behavior of recycled mortars manufactured from moisture correction using the Thermogravimetric Balancing Halogen Light (TBHL) technique in comparison with the traditional ASTM C 128 International Standard method. The advantages of using the TBHL technique are favorable in terms of reduced consumption of resources such as materials, energy and time. The results show that in contrast to the ASTM C 128 method, the TBHL alternative technique allows obtaining a higher precision in the absorption values of recycled aggregates, which is reflected not only in a more efficient process in terms of sustainability in the characterization of construction materials, but also in an effect on the mechanical performance of recycled mortars.
Abstract: The use of technological innovations has been touted to be beneficial in the delivery of construction projects. Particularly, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely regarded to be of immense advantage for the management of construction projects. This study focused on evaluating the barriers to the use of RFID technology for the delivery of construction projects. Using Gauteng Province in South Africa as the study area, questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from construction professionals which made up the population of the study. Retrieved data were analyzed using Mean Item Score and One-Sample t-test. Findings from the study showed that the most significant barriers to the deployment of RFID for construction project delivery are high cost and lack of awareness. Conclusively, the study made recommendations that would aid in the abatement of the barriers to the use of RFID technology for construction project delivery.
Abstract: The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.
Abstract: With the current increase in CO2 emissions and global warming, the sustainability of both existing and new solutions must be assessed on a wide scale. As the implementation of closed cavity façades (CCF) is on the rise, various factors must be included in the analysis of new types of CCF. This paper aims to cover the relevant factors included in the sustainability assessment of new types of CCF. Several mathematical models are being used to describe the physical behavior of CCF. Depending on the type of CCF, they cover the main factors which affect the durability of the façade: thermal behavior of various elements in the façade, stress and deflection of the glass panels, pressure and the moisture control in the cavity. CCF itself represents a complex system in which all mentioned factors must be considered mutually. Still, the façade is only an envelope of a more complex system, the building. Choice of the façade dictates the heat loss and the heat gain, thermal comfort of inner space, natural lighting, and ventilation. Annual energy consumption for heating, cooling, lighting, and maintenance costs will present the operational advantages or disadvantages of the chosen façade system in economic and environmental aspects. Still, the only operational viewpoint is not all-inclusive. As the building codes constantly demand higher energy efficiency as well as transfer to renewable energy sources, the ratio of embodied and lifetime operational energy footprint of buildings is changing. With the drop in operational energy CO2 emissions, embodied energy emissions present a larger and larger share in the lifecycle emissions of the building. Taking all into account, the sustainability assessment of a façade, as well as other major building elements, should include all mentioned factors during the lifecycle of an element. The challenge of such an approach is a timescale. Depending on the climatic conditions on the building site, the expected lifetime of a glazed façade can exceed 25 years. In such a timespan, some of the factors can be estimated more precisely than the others. However, the ones depending on the socio-economic conditions are more likely to be harder to predict than the natural ones like the climatic load. This work recognizes and summarizes the relevant factors needed for the assessment of a new type of CCF, considering the entire lifetime of a façade element in an environmental aspect.
Abstract: The present investigation aims to study the effect of channel bed slopes on energy dissipation across the different types of Piano Key Weir (PK weir or PKW) under the free-flow conditions in rigid rectangular channels. To this end, three different types (type-A, type-B, and type-C) of PKW models were tested and examined. To document and quantify this experimental investigation, a total of 270 tests were performed, including detailed observations of the flow field. The results show that the energy dissipation of all PKW models increases with the bed slopes and decreases with increasing the discharge over the weirs. In addition, the energy dissipation over the PKW varies significantly with the geometry of the weir. The type-A PKW has shown the highest energy dissipation than the other PKWs. As the bottom slope changed from Sb = 0% to 1.25%, the energy dissipation increased by about 8.5%, 9.1%, and 10.55% for type-A, type-B, and type-C, respectively.
Abstract: A smart city is an urban setting which effectively applies technology to enhance the benefits and provides solution to the shortcoming of urbanization for its citizens while the internet of things (loT) is to connect everything embedded with electronics, software, and sensors to the internet so as to enable them to collect and exchange data. Smart city development encompasses the development and application of IoT technology and prepares for the next generation of connectivity. The governments in the major developed cities and countries across the world already started the race to adopt the IoT technology to transform their cities into smart cities in coming few years. The development of smart city definitely can assist to tackle the problems which impede the quality of life of their citizens and the hindrance of the long-term challenges of sustainability and impacts from pollution. This paper is aims to outline the adoption of IoT in different key sectors in the Singapore and describe the revolution of IoT and its adoption in the smart city.
Abstract: In view of the global population is increasing; it is the prime concern of government and community to diversify the dense population to regional area and maintain a healthy and sustained economic growth. This paper is to outline the interaction of different attributes which critically affect regional development, infrastructure and tourism. This research not only focused on the relation and interaction of regional development and associated infrastructure but also provides a holistic study and review of the ecosystem of regional development, infrastructure and tourism development. In this study, we will review the three aspects development and their interaction in different cities in Asia. The finding will demonstrate how those factors affect the ecosystem and sustainability and provide some insight and material for further review and discussion.
Abstract: Analyzing the old and bringing in the new is an ever-ongoing process in driving innovations in architecture. This paper looks at the excessive use of stone in apartment buildings in Amman and speculates on the existing possibilities of changing the cladding material. By looking at architectural exceptions present in Amman, the paper seeks to make the exception the rule, by adding new materials to the architectural library of Amman and in turn, project a series of possible new identities to the existing stone scape. Through distributing a survey, conducting a photographic study on exceptional buildings and shedding light on the historical narrative of stone, the paper highlights the ways in which new finishing materials such as plaster, paint and stone variations could be introduced in an attempt to project a new architectural identity to Amman.
Abstract: With the growing trend of adoption of advanced technologies like, building information modeling, artificial intelligence, wireless network, the collaboration and integration of these technologies into digital twin become more prominent in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry in view of the nature and scale of AEC industry which efficiently adopted the digital twin. Digital twin is provided to be effective for AEC professions for design and project management. The digital concept is continuously developing and it is vital for AEC professionals and other stakeholders to understand the digital twin concept and the adoption of various advanced building technologies related to the AEC industry. This paper is to review the application of digital twins application in project management in AEC industry and highlight the challenge of AEC partitioners faced by the revolution of technologies including digital twins and building information modelling (BIM) for further research and future study.