Abstract: Nature conducts its action in a very private manner. To
reveal these actions classical science has done a great effort. But
classical science can experiment only with the things that can be seen
with eyes. Beyond the scope of classical science quantum science
works very well. It is based on some postulates like qubit,
superposition of two states, entanglement, measurement and
evolution of states that are briefly described in the present paper.
One of the applications of quantum computing i.e.
implementation of a novel quantum evolutionary algorithm(QEA) to
automate the time tabling problem of Dayalbagh Educational Institute
(Deemed University) is also presented in this paper. Making a good
timetable is a scheduling problem. It is NP-hard, multi-constrained,
complex and a combinatorial optimization problem. The solution of
this problem cannot be obtained in polynomial time. The QEA uses
genetic operators on the Q-bit as well as updating operator of
quantum gate which is introduced as a variation operator to converge
toward better solutions.
Abstract: In this paper electrical characteristics of various kinds
of multiple-gate silicon nanowire transistors (SNWT) with the
channel length equal to 7 nm are compared. A fully ballistic quantum
mechanical transport approach based on NEGF was employed to
analyses electrical characteristics of rectangular and cylindrical
silicon nanowire transistors as well as a Double gate MOS FET. A
double gate, triple gate, and gate all around nano wires were studied
to investigate the impact of increasing the number of gates on the
control of the short channel effect which is important in nanoscale
devices. Also in the case of triple gate rectangular SNWT inserting
extra gates on the bottom of device can improve the application of
device. The results indicate that by using gate all around structures
short channel effects such as DIBL, subthreshold swing and delay
Abstract: Quantum computation using qubits made of two component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is analyzed. We construct a general framework for quantum algorithms to be executed using the collective states of the BECs. The use of BECs allows for an increase of energy scales via bosonic enhancement, resulting in two qubit gate operations that can be performed at a time reduced by a factor of N, where N is the number of bosons per qubit. We illustrate the scheme by an application to Deutsch-s and Grover-s algorithms, and discuss possible experimental implementations. Decoherence effects are analyzed under both general conditions and for the experimental implementation proposed.
Abstract: The paper contains an investigation on basic problems
about the zeros of analytic theta functions. A brief introduction to
analytic representation of finite quantum systems is given. The zeros
of this function and there evolution time are discussed. Two open
problems are introduced. The first problem discusses the cases when
the zeros follow the same path. As the basis change the quantum state
|f transforms into different quantum state. The second problem is
to define a map between two toruses where the domain and the range
of this map are the analytic functions on toruses.
Abstract: The paper contains an investigation of winding numbers
of paths of zeros of analytic theta functions. We have considered
briefly an analytic representation of finite quantum systems ZN.
The analytic functions on a torus have exactly N zeros. The brief
introduction to the zeros of analytic functions and there time evolution
is given. We have discussed the periodic finite quantum systems. We
have introduced the winding numbers in general. We consider the
winding numbers of the zeros of analytic theta functions.
Abstract: In this study, a low temperature sensor highly selective to CO in presence of methane is fabricated by using 4 nm SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) prepared by sonication assisted precipitation. SnCl4 aqueous solution was precipitated by ammonia under sonication, which continued for 2 h. A part of the sample was then dried and calcined at 400°C for 1.5 h and characterized by XRD and BET. The average particle size and the specific surface area of the SnO2 QDs as well as their sensing properties were compared with the SnO2 nano-particles which were prepared by conventional sol-gel method. The BET surface area of sonochemically as-prepared product and the one calcined at 400°C after 1.5 hr are 257 m2/gr and 212 m2/gr respectively while the specific surface area for SnO2 nanoparticles prepared by conventional sol-gel method is about 80m2/gr. XRD spectra revealed pure crystalline phase of SnO2 is formed for both as-prepared and calcined samples of SnO2 QDs. However, for the sample prepared by sol-gel method and calcined at 400°C SnO crystals are detected along with those of SnO2. Quantum dots of SnO2 show exceedingly high sensitivity to CO with different concentrations of 100, 300 and 1000 ppm in whole range of temperature (25- 350°C). At 50°C a sensitivity of 27 was obtained for 1000 ppm CO, which increases to a maximum of 147 when the temperature rises to 225°C and then drops off while the maximum sensitivity for the SnO2 sample prepared by the sol-gel method was obtained at 300°C with the amount of 47.2. At the same time no sensitivity to methane is observed in whole range of temperatures for SnO2 QDs. The response and recovery times of the sensor sharply decreases with temperature, while the high selectivity to CO does not deteriorate.
Abstract: Polymeric microreactors have emerged as a new
generation of carriers that hold tremendous promise in the areas of
cancer therapy, controlled delivery of drugs, for removal of
pollutants etc. Present work reports a simple and convenient
methodology for synthesis of polystyrene and poly caprolactone
microreactors. An aqueous suspension of carboxylated (1μm)
polystyrene latex particles was mixed with toluene solution followed
by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Freezed particles were incubated at
-20°C and characterized for formation of voids on the surface of
polymer microspheres by Field Emission Scanning Electron
Microscope. The hollow particles were then overnight incubated at
40ºC with unfunctionalized quantum dots (QDs) in 5:1 ratio. QDs
Encapsulated polystyrene microcapsules were characterized by
Likewise Poly ε-caprolactone microreactors were prepared by
micro-volcanic rupture of freeze dried microspheres synthesized
using emulsification of polymer with aqueous Poly vinyl alcohol and
freezed with liquid nitrogen. Microreactors were examined with Field
Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for size and morphology.
Current study is an attempt to create hollow polymer particles which
can be employed for microencapsulation of nanoparticles and drug
Abstract: A new decomposition form is introduced in this report
to establish a criterion for the bi-partite separability of Bell diagonal
states. A such criterion takes a quadratic inequality of the coefficients
of a given Bell diagonal states and can be derived via a simple
algorithmic calculation of its invariants. In addition, the criterion can
be extended to a quantum system of higher dimension.
Abstract: The deterministic quantum transfer-matrix (QTM)
technique and its mathematical background are presented. This
important tool in computational physics can be applied to a class of
the real physical low-dimensional magnetic systems described by the
Heisenberg hamiltonian which includes the macroscopic molecularbased
spin chains, small size magnetic clusters embedded in some
supramolecules and other interesting compounds. Using QTM, the
spin degrees of freedom are accurately taken into account, yielding
the thermodynamical functions at finite temperatures.
In order to test the application for the susceptibility calculations to
run in the parallel environment, the speed-up and efficiency of
parallelization are analyzed on our platform SGI Origin 3800 with
p = 128 processor units. Using Message Parallel Interface (MPI)
system libraries we find the efficiency of the code of 94% for
p = 128 that makes our application highly scalable.
Abstract: We demonstrate single-photon interference over 10 km using a plug and play system for quantum key distribution. The quality of the interferometer is measured by using the interferometer
visibility. The coding of the signal is based on the phase coding and the value of visibility is based on the interference effect, which result a number of count. The setup gives full control of polarization inside
the interferometer. The quality measurement of the interferometer is based on number of count per second and the system produces 94 % visibility in one of the detectors.
Abstract: The solvated electron is self-trapped (polaron) owing
to strong interaction with the quantum polarization field. If the
electron and quantum field are strongly coupled then the collective
localized state of the field and quasi-particle is formed. In such a
formation the electron motion is rather intricate. On the one hand the
electron oscillated within a rather deep polarization potential well
and undergoes the optical transitions, and on the other, it moves
together with the center of inertia of the system and participates in
the thermal random walk. The problem is to separate these motions
correctly, rigorously taking into account the conservation laws. This
can be conveniently done using Bogolyubov-Tyablikov method of
canonical transformation to the collective coordinates. This
transformation removes the translational degeneracy and allows one
to develop the successive approximation algorithm for the energy and
wave function while simultaneously fulfilling the law of conservation
of total momentum of the system. The resulting equations determine
the electron transitions and depend explicitly on the translational
velocity of the quasi-particle as whole. The frequency of optical
transition is calculated for the solvated electron in ammonia, and an
estimate is made for the thermal-induced spectral bandwidth.
Abstract: The effect of the number of quantum dot (QD) layers
on the saturated gain of doped QD semiconductor optical amplifiers
(SOAs) has been studied using multi-population coupled rate
equations. The developed model takes into account the effect of
carrier coupling between adjacent layers. It has been found that
increasing the number of QD layers (K) increases the unsaturated
optical gain for K
Abstract: In the present work, an attempt is made to understand
electromagnetic field confinement in a subwavelength waveguide
structure using concepts of quantum mechanics. Evanescent field in
the waveguide is looked as inability of the photon to get confined in
the waveguide core and uncertainty of position is assigned to it. The
momentum uncertainty is calculated from position uncertainty.
Schrödinger wave equation for the photon is written by incorporating
position-momentum uncertainty. The equation is solved and field
distribution in the waveguide is obtained. The field distribution and
power confinement is compared with conventional waveguide theory.
They were found in good agreement with each other.
Abstract: One-way functions are functions that are easy to
compute but hard to invert. Their existence is an open conjecture; it
would imply the existence of intractable problems (i.e. NP-problems
which are not in the P complexity class).
If true, the existence of one-way functions would have an impact
on the theoretical framework of physics, in particularly, quantum
mechanics. Such aspect of one-way functions has never been shown
In the present work, we put forward the following.
We can calculate the microscopic state (say, the particle spin in the
z direction) of a macroscopic system (a measuring apparatus
registering the particle z-spin) by the system macroscopic state (the
apparatus output); let us call this association the function F. The
question is: can we compute the function F in the inverse direction?
In other words, can we compute the macroscopic state of the system
through its microscopic state (the preimage F -1)?
In the paper, we assume that the function F is a one-way function.
The assumption implies that at the macroscopic level the Schrödinger
equation becomes unfeasible to compute. This unfeasibility plays a
role of limit of the validity of the linear Schrödinger equation.
Abstract: To evaluate genetic variation of wheat (Triticum
aestivum) affected by heat and drought stress on eight Australian
wheat genotypes that are parents of Doubled Haploid (HD) mapping
populations at the vegetative stage, the water stress experiment was
conducted at 65% field capacity in growth room. Heat stress
experiment was conducted in the research field under irrigation over
summer. Result show that water stress decreased dry shoot weight
and RWC but increased osmolarity and means of Fv/Fm values in all
varieties except for Krichauff. Krichauff and Kukri had the
maximum RWC under drought stress. Trident variety was shown
maximum WUE, osmolarity (610 mM/Kg), dry mater, quantum yield
and Fv/Fm 0.815 under water stress condition. However, the
recovery of quantum yield was apparent between 4 to 7 days after
stress in all varieties. Nevertheless, increase in water stress after that
lead to strong decrease in quantum yield. There was a genetic
variation for leaf pigments content among varieties under heat stress.
Heat stress decreased significantly the total chlorophyll content that
measured by SPAD. Krichauff had maximum value of Anthocyanin
content (2.978 A/g FW), chlorophyll a+b (2.001 mg/g FW) and
chlorophyll a (1.502 mg/g FW). Maximum value of chlorophyll b
(0.515 mg/g FW) and Carotenoids (0.234 mg/g FW) content
belonged to Kukri. The quantum yield of all varieties decreased
significantly, when the weather temperature increased from 28 ÔùªC to
36 ÔùªC during the 6 days. However, the recovery of quantum yield
was apparent after 8th day in all varieties. The maximum decrease
and recovery in quantum yield was observed in Krichauff. Drought
and heat tolerant and moderately tolerant wheat genotypes were
included Trident, Krichauff, Kukri and RAC875. Molineux, Berkut
and Excalibur were clustered into most sensitive and moderately
sensitive genotypes. Finally, the results show that there was a
significantly genetic variation among the eight varieties that were
studied under heat and water stress.
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation
Abstract: Research in quantum computation is looking for the consequences of having information encoding, processing and communication exploit the laws of quantum physics, i.e. the laws which govern the ultimate knowledge that we have, today, of the foreign world of elementary particles, as described by quantum mechanics. This paper starts with a short survey of the principles which underlie quantum computing, and of some of the major breakthroughs brought by the first ten to fifteen years of research in this domain; quantum algorithms and quantum teleportation are very biefly presented. The next sections are devoted to one among the many directions of current research in the quantum computation paradigm, namely quantum programming languages and their semantics. A few other hot topics and open problems in quantum information processing and communication are mentionned in few words in the concluding remarks, the most difficult of them being the physical implementation of a quantum computer. The interested reader will find a list of useful references at the end of the paper.
Abstract: This paper reports on the theoretical performance
analysis of the 1.3 μm In0.42Ga0.58As /In0.26Ga0.74As multiple quantum
well (MQW) vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) on the
ternary In0.31Ga0.69As substrate. The output power of 2.2 mW has
been obtained at room temperature for 7.5 mA injection current. The
material gain has been estimated to be ~3156 cm-1 at room
temperature with the injection carrier concentration of 2×1017 cm-3.
The modulation bandwidth of this laser is measured to be 9.34 GHz
at room temperature for the biasing current of 2 mA above the
threshold value. The outcomes reveal that the proposed InGaAsbased
MQW laser is the promising one for optical communication
Abstract: The elimination of ranitidine (a pharmaceutical
compound) has been carried out in the presence of UV-C radiation.
After some preliminary experiments, it has been experienced the no
influence of the gas nature (air or oxygen) bubbled in photolytic
experiments. From simple photolysis experiments the quantum yield
of this compound has been determined. Two photolytic
approximation has been used, the linear source emission in parallel
planes and the point source emission in spherical planes. The
quantum yield obtained was in the proximity of 0.05 mol Einstein-1
regardless of the method used. Addition of free radical promoters
(hydrogen peroxide) increases the ranitidine removal rate while the
use of photocatalysts (TiO2) negatively affects the process.
Abstract: Optical emission based on excitonic scattering processes becomes important in dense exciton systems in which the average distance between excitons is of the order of a few Bohr radii but still below the exciton screening threshold. The phenomena due to interactions among excited states play significant role in the emission near band edge of the material. The theory of two-exciton collisions for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well systems is a mild attempt to understand the physics associated with the optical spectra due to excitonic scattering processes in these novel systems. The four typical processes considered give different spectral shape, peak position and temperature dependence of the emission spectra. We have used the theory of scattering together with the second order perturbation theory to derive the radiative power spontaneously emitted at an energy ħω by these processes. The results arrived at are purely qualitative in nature. The intensity of emitted light in quantum well systems varies inversely to the square of temperature, whereas in case of bulk materials it simply decreases with the temperature.