Abstract: The morphological parameter of a thin film surface
can be characterized by power spectral density (PSD) functions
which provides a better description to the topography than the RMS
roughness and imparts several useful information of the surface
including fractal and superstructure contributions. Through the
present study Nanoparticle copper/carbon composite films were
prepared by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD method
from acetylene gas and copper target. Surface morphology of thin
films is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The
Carbon content of our films was obtained by Rutherford Back
Scattering (RBS) and it varied from .4% to 78%. The power values of
power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM data were determined by
the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms. We investigate the effect
of carbon on the roughness of thin films surface. Using such
information, roughness contributions of the surface have been
Abstract: In this paper, the experimental design of using the
Taguchi method is employed to optimize the processing parameters in
the plasma arc surface hardening process. The processing parameters
evaluated are arc current, scanning velocity and carbon content of
steel. In addition, other significant effects such as the relation between
processing parameters are also investigated. An orthogonal array,
signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are
employed to investigate the effects of these processing parameters.
Through this study, not only the hardened depth increased and surface
roughness improved, but also the parameters that significantly affect
the hardening performance are identified. Experimental results are
provided to verify the effectiveness of this approach.
Abstract: Refractive index control of benzocyclobutene (BCB 4024-40) is achieved by facilitating different conditions during the thermal curing of BCB film. Refractive index (RI) change of 1.49% is obtained with curing of BCB film using an oven, while the RI change is 0.1% when the BCB is cured using a hotplate. The two different curing methods exhibit a temperature dependent refractive index change of the BCB photosensitive polymer. By carefully controlling the curing conditions, multiple layers of BCB with different RI can be fabricated, which can then be applied in the fabrication of optical waveguides.
Abstract: Aligned and random nanofibrous scaffolds of PVA/PCL/nHA were fabricated by electrospinning method. The composite nanofibrous scaffolds were subjected to detailed analysis. Morphological investigations revealed that the prepared nanofibers have uniform morphology and the average fiber diameters of aligned and random scaffolds were 135.5 and 290 nm, respectively. The obtained scaffolds have a porous structure with porosity of 88 and 76% for random and aligned nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, FTIR analysis demonstrated that there were strong intramolecular interactions between the molecules of PVA/PCL/nHA. On the other hand, mechanical characterizations show that aligning the nanofibers, could significantly improve the rigidity of the resultant biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds.
Abstract: This paper proposes the numerical simulation of the
investment casting of gold jewelry. It aims to study the behavior of
fluid flow during mould filling and solidification and to optimize the
process parameters, which lead to predict and control casting defects
such as gas porosity and shrinkage porosity. A finite difference
method, computer simulation software FLOW-3D was used to
simulate the jewelry casting process. The simplified model was
designed for both numerical simulation and real casting production.
A set of sensor acquisitions were allocated on the different positions
of the wax tree of the model to detect filling times, while a set of
thermocouples were allocated to detect the temperature during
casting and cooling. Those detected data were applied to validate the
results of the numerical simulation to the results of the real casting.
The resulting comparisons signify that the numerical simulation can
be used as an effective tool in investment-casting-process
optimization and casting-defect prediction.
Abstract: Application of nanoparticles as additives in membrane
synthesis for improving the resistance of membranes against fouling
has triggered recent interest in new membrane types. However, most
nanoparticle-enhanced membranes suffer from the tradeoff between
permeability and selectivity. In this study, nano-WS2 was explored as
the additive in membrane synthesis by non-solvent induced phase
separation. Blended PES-WS2 flat-sheet membranes with the
incorporation of ultra-low concentrations of nanoparticles (from 0.025
to 0.25%, WS2/PES ratio) were manufactured and investigated in
terms of permeability, fouling resistance and solute rejection.
Remarkably, a significant enhancement in the permeability was
observed as a result of the incorporation of ultra-low fractions of
nano-WS2 to the membrane structure. Optimal permeability values
were obtained for modified membranes with 0.10%
nanoparticle/polymer concentration ratios. Furthermore, fouling
resistance and solute rejection were significantly improved by the
incorporation of nanoparticles into the membrane matrix. Specifically,
fouling resistance of modified membrane can increase by around 50%.
Abstract: In this study we investigate the insertion of
pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of
Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into
the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related
to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via
hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube
molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target
therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic
Abstract: To improve the material characteristics of single- and
poly-crystals of pure copper, the respective relationships between crystallographic orientations and microstructures, and the bending and mechanical properties were examined. And texture distribution is also
analyzed. A grain refinement procedure was performed to obtain a
grained structure. Furthermore, some analytical results related to
crystal direction maps, inverse pole figures, and textures were obtained from SEM-EBSD analyses. Results showed that these
grained metallic materials have peculiar springback characteristics with various bending angles.
Abstract: Arc welding creates a weld pool to realize continuity between pieces of assembly. The thermal history of the weld is dependent on heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool. The metallurgical transformation during welding and cooling are modeled in the literature only at solid state neglecting the fluid flow. In the present paper we associate a heat transfer – fluid flow and metallurgical model for the 16MnD5 steel. The metallurgical transformation model is based on Leblond model for the diffusion kinetics and on the Koistinen-Marburger equation for Marteniste transformation. The predicted thermal history and metallurgical transformations are compared to a simulation without fluid phase. This comparison shows the great importance of the fluid flow modeling.
Abstract: Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell
plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell
plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure
analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization
of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines
thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced
using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique
based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to
minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain
constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design
variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed
plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design
of the fuel cell plate.
Abstract: The term hybrid composite refers to the composite
containing more than one type of fiber material as reinforcing fillers.
It has become attractive structural material due to the ability of
providing better combination of properties with respect to single fiber
containing composite. The eco-friendly nature as well as processing
advantage, light weight and low cost have enhanced the attraction
and interest of natural fiber reinforced composite. The objective of
present research is to study the mechanical properties of jute-coir
fiber reinforced hybrid polypropylene (PP) composite according to
filler loading variation. In the present work composites were
manufactured by using hot press machine at four levels of fiber
loading (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %). Jute and coir fibers were utilized at a
ratio of (1:1) during composite manufacturing. Tensile, flexural,
impact and hardness tests were conducted for mechanical
characterization. Tensile test of composite showed a decreasing trend
of tensile strength and increasing trend of the Young-s modulus with
increasing fiber content. During flexural, impact and hardness tests,
the flexural strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and hardness
were found to be increased with increasing fiber loading. Based on
the fiber loading used in this study, 20% fiber reinforced composite
resulted the best set of mechanical properties.
Abstract: In the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method, use of Carbon dioxide flooding whereby CO2 is injected into an oil reservoir to increase output when extracting oil resulted significant recovery worldwide. The carbon dioxide function as a pressurizing agent when mixed into the underground crude oil will reduce its viscosity and will enable a rapid oil flow. Despite the CO2’s advantage in the oil recovery, it may result to asphaltene precipitation a problem that will cause the reduction of oil produced from oil wells. In severe cases, asphaltene precipitation can cause costly blockages in oil pipes and machinery. This paper presents reviews of several studies done on mathematical modeling of asphaltene precipitation. The synthesized result from several researches done on this topic can be used as guide in order to better understand asphaltene precipitation. Likewise, this can be used as initial reference for students, and new researchers doing study on asphaltene precipitation.
Abstract: Particle boards were prepared from Maize cob (MC) and urea-formaldehyde resin (UFR) on compression moulding machine. The amount of MC was varied from 50-120g while 30g of UFR was kept constant. Some mechanical properties of the particle boards were tested using the standard ASM methods. The results show that as the MC content increased from 50- 120g in 30g UFR, the hardness increased from about 6.89 x 102 to7.51 x 102MPa. Impact strength decreased from 3.3x 10-2 to 0.45 x 10-2J/M2, while tensile strength initially increased from 2.63 x 102 to 3.14 x 102 MPa as the MC increased from 50 to 60g in 30g UFR, thereafter, it decreased to about 1.35 x 102MPa at 120g in 30g content.
Abstract: For more than 120 years, gold mining formed the
backbone the South Africa-s economy. The consequence of mine
closure was observed in large-scale land degradation and widespread
pollution of surface water and groundwater. This paper investigates
the feasibility of using natural zeolite in removing heavy metals
contaminating the Wonderfonteinspruit Catchment Area (WCA), a
water stream with high levels of heavy metals and radionuclide
pollution. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption
behavior of natural zeolite with respect to Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+.
The data was analysed using the Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms.
Langmuir was found to correlate the adsorption of Fe2+, Mn2+, Ni2+,
and Zn2+ better, with the adsorption capacity of 11.9 mg/g, 1.2 mg/g,
1.3 mg/g, and 14.7 mg/g, respectively. Two kinetic models namely,
pseudo-first order and pseudo second order were also tested to fit the
data. Pseudo-second order equation was found to be the best fit for
the adsorption of heavy metals by natural zeolite. Zeolite
functionalization with humic acid increased its uptake ability.
Abstract: Group-III nitride material as particularly AlxGa1-xN is
one of promising optoelectronic materials to require for shortwavelength
devices. To achieve the high-quality AlxGa1-xN films for
a high performance of such devices, AlN-nucleation layers are the
important factor. To improve the AlN-nucleation layers with a
variation of Ga-addition, XRD measurements were conducted to
analyze the crystalline quality of the subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N with the
minimum ω-FWHMs of (0002) and (10-10) reflections of 425 arcsec
and 750 arcsec, respectively. SEM and AFM measurements were
performed to observe the surface morphology and TEM
measurements to identify the microstructures and orientations.
Results showed that the optimized Ga-atoms in the Al(Ga)Nnucleation
layers improved the surface diffusion to form moreuniform
crystallites in structure and size, better alignment of each
crystallite, and better homogeneity of island distribution. This, hence,
improves the orientation of epilayers on the Si-surface and finally
improves the crystalline quality and reduces the residual strain of
subsequent Al0.1Ga0.9N layers.
Abstract: The aim of our work is to study phase composition,
particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites
with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials
are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous
phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained
by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous
precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed
in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at
temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were
investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD),
magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced
by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing
temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from
anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the
pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of
the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality
S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld
refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples
is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle
Abstract: At the present, auto part industries have become higher challenge in strategy market. As this consequence, manufacturers need to have better response to customers in terms of quality, cost, and delivery time. Moreover, they need to have a good management in factory to comply with international standard maximum capacity and lower cost. This would lead companies to have to order standard part from aboard and become the major cost of inventory. The development of auto part research by recycling materials experiment is to compare the auto parts from recycle materials to international auto parts (CKD). Factors studied in this research were the recycle material ratios of PU-foam, felt, and fabric. Results of recycling materials were considered in terms of qualities and properties on the parameters such as weight, sound absorption, water absorption, tensile strength, elongation, and heat resistance with the CKD. The results were showed that recycling materials would be used to replace for the CKD.
Abstract: This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.
Abstract: Novel acrylated epoxidized hemp oil (AEHO) based
bioresins were successfully synthesised, characterized and applied to
biocomposites reinforced with woven jute fibre. Characterisation of
the synthesised AEHO consisted of acid number titrations and FTIR
spectroscopy to assess the success of the acrylation reaction. Three
different matrices were produced (vinylester (VE), 50/50 blend of
AEHO/VE and 100% AEHO) and reinforced with jute fibre to form
three different types of biocomposite samples. Mechanical properties
in the form of flexural and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were
investigated and compared for the different samples. Results from the
mechanical tests showed that AEHO and 50/50 based neat bioresins
displayed lower flexural properties compared with the VE samples.
However when applied to biocomposites and compared with VE
based samples, AEHO biocomposites demonstrated comparable
flexural performance and improved ILSS. These results are attributed
to improved fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion due to surface-chemical
compatibility between the natural fibres and bioresin.
Abstract: Tungsten trioxide has been prepared by using P-PTA
as a precursor on alumina substrates by spin coating method.
Palladium introduced on WO3 film via electrolysis deposition by
using palladium chloride as catalytic precursor. The catalytic
precursor was introduced on the series of films with different
morphologies. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and XPS were applied to analyze structure and
morphology of the fabricated thin films. Then we measured variation
of samples- electrical conductivity of pure and Pd added films in air
and diluted hydrogen. Addition of Pd resulted in a remarkable
improvement of the hydrogen sensing properties of WO3 by detection
of Hydrogen below 1% at room temperature. Also variation of the
electrical conductivity in the presence of diluted hydrogen revealed
that response of samples depends rather strongly on the palladium
configuration on the surface.