Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise

This paper investigates the activity of the rectus
femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat
(prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using
electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between
19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric
activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding
indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat
and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result,
Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between
prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very
small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may
be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation
programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial
research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in
various positions of salat.

[1] J. Hamill and K. M. Knutzen, K. M., “Biomechanical Basis of Human
Movement.” 3rd ed. Philadelphia. PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins,
2009, pp. 81-90.
[2] J. H. Susan, “Basic Biomechanics.” 5th ed. London: McGraw-Hill
Education, 2007, pp. 66-81.
[3] M. F. Reza, Y. Urakami, Y. Mano, “Evaluation of a New Physical
Exercise Taken From Salat (prayer) as a Short-Duration and Frequent
Physical Activity in the Rehabilitation of Geriatric and Disabled
Patients. “ Annals of Saudi Medicine, pp. 22, 3-4. 2002.
[4] D.G. Sale, “Neural adaptation to resistance training.” Medicine and
science in sport and exercise, vol. 20, pp. S135-S145, 1988.
[5] P. Aagaard, “Training induced change in neural function.” Exercise and
Sport Science Review, vol. 31, pp. 61-67. 2003.
[6] S. Israel, S. “Age –related changes in strength and special groups. In P.
Komi (Ed.). Strength and Power in Sport.” Boston: Blackwell Scientific,
1992, pp. 319-328.
[7] P. C. LaStayo, J. M. Woolf, M. D. Lewek et al., “Eccentric muscle
contractions: Their contribution to injury, prevention, rehabilitation and
sport.” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sport Physical Theraphy, vol. 33, pp.
557-571, 2003.
[8] SENIAM (2007). Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive
Assessment of Muscles. Available online at http:www.seniam.org
(Accessed 20 January 2010)
[9] A. S. Maior, R. Simau, B. F. Salles, et al.: Neuromuscular activity
during the squat exercise on an unstable platform. Braz J Biomotricity,
vol 3, pp. 121–129, 2009.
[10] R. P. Wells, “Mechanical energy costs of human movement: an
approach to evaluating the transfer possibilities of two-joint muscles.”
Journal of biomechanics, vol. 21, pp. 955-964, 1988.
[11] J. A. Halbert, C. A. Silagy, P. Finucane, R. T. Withers, P. A. Hamdorf,
G. R. Andrews, “ The effectiveness of exercise training in lowering
blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of 4
weeks or longer.” J. Human Hypertension, vol. 11, pp. 641-649, 1997.
[12] A. Korkmaz, Öter , “The Role Of Exercıse and Diet in Hypertension
Treatment Turkiye Klinikleri.” J. Med. Sci, vol. 18, pp. 213- 219, 1998.
[13] M. Hamer and E. Stamatakis, “Physical activity and mortality in men
and women with diagnosed cardiovascular disease.” Eur. J. Cardiovasc
Prev. Rehabil, vol. 16, pp. 156-160. 2009.
[14] J. P. Barlet, v. Coxam and M. J. Davicco, “Physical exercise and the
skeleton.” Arch Physiol Biochem, vol. 103, pp. 681-686, 1995.
[15] M. P. McHugh, T. F. Tyler, S. C. Greenberg, “Differences in activation
patterns between eccentric and concentric quadriceps contractions.” J
Sports Sci., vol 20, pp. 83–91, 2002.
[16] P. A. Tesch, G. A. Dudley, M. R. Duvoisin, “Force and EMG signal
patterns during repeated bouts of concentric or eccentric muscle
actions.” Acta Physiol Scand., 138, 263–271,1990.
[17] C. Manniche, E. Lundberg, I. Christensen, L. Bentzen L, G. Hesselsoe.
“Intensive dynamic back exercises for low back pain: a clinical trial.”
Pain, vol 47, pp. 53-63, 1991.
[18] A. M. Kaigle, P. Wessberg, T. H. Hansson. “Muscular and kinematic
behavior of lumbar spine during flexion-extension.” J Spinal Disrd., vol
11, pp. 163-74, 1998.
[19] J. A. Saal. “The new back school prescription: stabilization training, part
2.” Occup Med., vol 7, pp. 33-42., 1992.
[20] C. M. Norris. ”Abdominal muscle training in sport.” Br J Sports Med.,
vol 27, pp. 19-26, 1993.