The Determination of Cellulose Spiral Angle by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering from Structurally Characterized Acacia mangium Cell Wall
The spiral angle of the elementary cellulose fibril in
the wood cell wall, often called microfibril angle, (MFA). Microfibril
angle in hardwood is one of the key determinants of solid timber
performance due to its strong influence on the stiffness, strength,
shrinkage, swelling, thermal-dynamics mechanical properties and
dimensional stability of wood. Variation of MFA (degree) in the S2
layer of the cell walls among Acacia mangium trees was determined
using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The length and
orientation of the microfibrils of the cell walls in the irradiated
volume of the thin samples are measured using SAXS and optical
microscope for 3D surface measurement. The undetermined
parameters in the analysis are the MFA, (M) and the standard
deviation (σФ) of the intensity distribution arising from the wandering
of the fibril orientation about the mean value. Nine separate pairs of
values are determined for nine different values of the angle of the
incidence of the X-ray beam relative to the normal to the radial
direction in the sample. The results show good agreement. The
curve distribution of scattered intensity for the real cell wall structure
is compared with that calculated with that assembly of rectangular
cells with the same ratio of transverse to radial cell wall length. It is
demonstrated that for β = 45°, the peaks in the curve intensity
distribution for the real and the rectangular cells coincide. If this
peak position is Ф45, then the MFA can be determined from the
relation M = tan-1 (tan Ф45 / cos 45°), which is precise for rectangular
cells. It was found that 92.93% of the variation of MFA can be
attributed to the distance from pith to bark. Here we shall present our
results of the MFA in the cell wall with respect to its shape, structure
and the distance from pith to park as an important fast check and yet
accurate towards the quality of wood, its uses and application.
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