Bartlett, J.G. (2009) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Microsoft
Encarta (DVD). Redmond, W.A. Microsoft Corporation
 Central Intelligence Agency (2010). World Fact Book: HIV/AIDS in
Nigeria. Retrieved October 15, 2012 from
 Central Intelligence Agency (2012). World Fact Book: HIV/AIDS adult
prevalence rate. Retrieved October 15, 2012 from
 Masha, G.I. (2003). Counseling in HIV/AIDS: the nature and purpose.
In S.M. Saye (ed.), Main issues in guidance and counseling for tertiary
institutions (vol.1, p.148 - 157). Kano: Rainbow Royale
 Abdullahi, M.I. (2003). Guidance and Counselling strategies for the
prevention and management of HIV/AIDS prevalence in schools. In
S.M. Saye (ed.), Main Issues in Guidance and Counselling for tertiary
institutions (vol.1, p.136 - 142). Kano: Rainbow Royale.
 Family Health International. (2000). Kano state, Nigeria: Report of
rapid assessment in selected LGAs (PDF). Available at
 Family Health International. (2007). HIV counselling and testing for
youth (PDF). NC. USA: Research Triangle Park. http://www.fhi.org.
 Herek, G M., Capitanio, J.P., & Widaman, K.F. (2003) Stigma, Social
Risk, and Health Policy: Public Attitudes toward HIV Surveillance
Policies and the Social Construction of Illness Health Psychology 22(5),
 Holmes, C.B., Losina, E., Walensky, R.P., Yazdanpanah, Y., &
Freedberg K.A. (2003). Review of human immunodeficiency virus type
1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin. Infect.
Dis. 36 (5): 656-662. doi:10.1086/367655. PMID 12594648.
 Ojikutu, R.K., Adeleke, I.A., Yusuf, T., & Ajijola, L.A. (2010).
Knowledge, risk perception and behaviour on HIV/AIDS among
students of tertiary institutions in lagos state, Nigeria. E-Leader
Budapest, 11(3) 145-153
 Yahaya,L.A., Jimoh, A.A.G, & Balogun, O.R. (2010). Factors hindering
acceptance of HIV/AIDS Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT)
among youths in Kwara State Nigeria. Journal of AIDS and HIV
Research 2(7), 138-143.
 Ahmad, U. (2007). Attitudes of students to VCT: A case study of Federal
College of Education, Kano. Unpublished Post graduate research
project, Federal College of Education, Kano.
 Iliyasu, Z., Abubakar, I.S., Kabir, M., & Aliyu, M.H. (2012). A survey
of HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviour and attitude towards VCT
among out-of-school youth in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Retrieved
September 15, 2012 from
 Van Denburg, T.F., & Kiesler, D.J. (2002). "An Interpersonal
Communication Perspective on Resistance in Psychotherapy". Journal
of Clinical Psychology 58 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1002/jclp.1143.
 Haruna, A. S. (2012). Impacts of stereotyping and stigmatization on
VCT among undergraduate students of Federal College of Education,
Kano. A paper presented at the 14th National conference of the School
of Education, Federal College of Education, Kano 16th - 20th July, 2012.
 Mnyanda, Y.N. (2006). Managing HIV and AIDS stigma in the
workplace: case study of the Eastern Cape. Cape Town: Department of
 Saye, S.M. (2003). Introduction to guidance and counselling. In S.M.
Sulaiman (ed), Main issues in guidance and counselling for tertiary
institutions vol.1, p.1 - 13.
 Olayiwola, A.O. (2008). Procedures in educational research. Kaduna:
 The Research Advisors (2006). Sample size table. Retrieved October 10,
2012 from http//:www.research-advisors.com/tools/samplesize.thm
 Nkpa, N. (1997). Educational research for modern scholars. Enugu:
 Norusis, M. (2004). Statistical package for social sciences 13.0
statistical procedure comparison. Upper saddle-River, NJ: Prentice Hall
 Mebu, V.A. (2008). HIV/AIDS awareness and attitudes towards sexual
behaviour of students of University of Jos. University of Jos-Nigeria:
Unpublished M.Ed dissertation.
 Pawinski, R., & Lallo, U.(2001). Community attitudes to HIV/AIDS.
South African Medical Journal 91(1), 448-450.
 Ekanem, E.E., & Gbadegesin, A.(2004). Voluntary Counseling and
Testing (VCT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus: a study on
acceptability by Nigerian women attending antenatal clinics. African
Journal of Reproductive Health 8(2), 91-100.
 Skinner, D. (2002). Stigma and the ABCD: a consideration in South
Africa. Unpublished paper.
 Haruna, A.S., Mebu, V.A., & Gambo, J (2012). Gender stereotyping and
vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: implications for peace education
curriculum. Journal of WCCI 8(1) 155-164.