A Modern Review of the Non-Invasive Continuous Blood Glucose Measuring Devices and Techniques for Remote Patient Monitoring System

Diabetes disease that arises from the higher glucose level due to insulin shortage or insulin opposition in the human body has become a common disease in the world. No medicine can cure it completely. However, by taking medicine, maintaining diets, and having exercises regularly, a diabetes patient can keep his glucose level within the specified limits and in this way, he/she can lead a normal life like a healthy person. But to control glucose levels, a patient needs to monitor them regularly. Various techniques are being used over the last four decades. This modern review article aims to provide a comparative study report on various blood glucose monitoring techniques in a very concise and organized manner. The review mainly emphasizes working principles, cost, technology, sensors, measurement types, measurement accuracy, advantages, and disadvantages, etc. of various techniques and then compares among each other. Besides, the use of algorithms and simulators for the growth of this technology is also presented. Finally, current research trends of this measurement technology have also been discussed.

[1] C. E. F. do Amaral and B. Wolf, “Current development in non-invasive glucose monitoring,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 541-549, 2008.
[2] R. Beebe and J. Myers, “Paramedic Professional Medical Emergencies,” Maternal Health and Pediatric, vol. 2, second edition, Cengage Learning, 2010, pp. 324-336.
[3] E. Wilkins and P. Atanasov, “Glucose monitoring: state of the art and future possibilities,” Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 273-288, 1996.
[4] J. Peacock, “Diabetes,” first edition, Capstone Press, Incorporated, 1999, pp. 4-6.
[5] J. M. Wojcicki and P. Ladyzynski, “Toward the improvement of diabetes treatment: recent developments in technical support,” Journal of Artificial Organs, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 73-87, 2003.
[6] E. Öztürk, A. K. K. Arslan, M. B. Yerer, and A. Bishayee, “Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies,” Biomedical Pharmacother, vol. 95, pp. 230-234, Nov. 2017.
[7] R. Hanas, “Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: How to Become an Expert on Your Own Diabetes,” sixth edition, Class Pub., 2010, pp. 5-7.
[8] D. B. Sacks, M. Arnold, G. L. Bakris, D. E. Bruns, A. R. Horvath, M. S. Kirkman, A. Lernmark, B. E. Metzger, and D. M. Nathan, “Guidelines and Recommendations for Laboratory Analysis in the Diagnosis and Management of Diabetes Mellitus,” Diabetes Care, vol. 34, no. 6, 2011, pp. e61-e99.
[9] Diabetes Facts and Figures, IDF Diabetes Atlas Ninth edition 2019, https://idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes/facts-figures.html, accessed on 23 August 2021.
[10] J. d. R. F. Suvi Karuranga, Yadi Huang, Belma Malanda, IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th Edition. Brussels, Belgium, 2017, pp. 1-150.
[11] J. Lucisano, T. Routh, J. Lin, and D. Gough, “Glucose Monitoring in Individuals with Diabetes using a Long-Term Implanted Sensor/ Telemetry System and Model,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 64, no.9, pp. 1982-1993, Sept. 2017.
[12] M. S. Boyne, D. M. Silver, J. Kaplan, and C. D. Saudek, “Timing of changes in interstitial and venous blood glucose measured with a continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor,” Diabetes, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2790-2794, 2003.
[13] E. Cengiz and W. V. Tamborlane, “A tale of two compartments: interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. S-11-S-16, 2009.
[14] N. S. Oliver, C. Toumazou, A. E. G. Cass, and D. G. Johnston, “Glucose sensors: a review of current and emerging technology,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, 2009, PMID: 19317813, pp. 197-210.
[15] E. Kulcu, J. A. Tamada, G. Reach, R. O. Potts, and M. J. Lesho, “Physiological Differences Between Interstitial Glucose and Blood Glucose Measured in Human Subjects,” Diabetes Care, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2405-2409, 2003.
[16] J. Shao, M. Lin, Y. Li, X. Li, J. Liu, J. Liang, et al., “In Vivo Blood Glucose Quantification Using Raman Spectroscopy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, p. e48127, 2012.
[17] E. Renard, J. Place, M. Cantwell, H. Chevassus, and C. C. Palerm, “Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Using a Subcutaneous Glucose Sensor and Intraperitoneal Insulin Delivery: Feasibility Study Testing a New Model for the Artificial Pancreas,” Diabetes Care, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 121-127, 2010.
[18] D. Elleri, D. B. Dunger, and R. Hovorka, “Closed-loop insulin delivery for treatment of type I diabetes,” BMC Med, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 120, 2011.
[19] L. Heinemann and G. Schmelzeisen-Redeker, “Non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring in Type I diabetic patients with optical glucose sensors,” Diabetologia, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 848-854, 1998.
[20] C.-F. So, K.-S. Choi, T. K. Wong, and J. W. Chung, “Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Medical Devices, Auckland, New Zealand, vol. 5, p. 45, 2012.
[21] S. K. Vashist, “Non-invasive glucose monitoring technology in diabetes management: a review,” Journal of Analytical Chimica Acta, vol. 750, no. 0, pp. 16-27, 2012.
[22] O. S. Khalil, “Spectroscopic and Clinical Aspects of Noninvasive Glucose Measurements,” Journal of Clinical Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 165-177, 1999.
[23] Y. Yamakoshi, M. Ogawa, T. Yamakoshi, M. Satoh, M. Nogawa, S. Tanaka, T. Tamura, P. Rolfe, and K. Yamakoshi, “A New Non-invasive Method for Measuring Blood Glucose Using Instantaneous Differential Near Infrared Spectrophotometry,” Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Annual International Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Lyon, France, August 23-26, 2007, pp. 2964-2967, doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2007.4352951.
[24] M. H. Bhuyan, S. D. Monty and M. R. Z. Sarkar, “Design and Implementation of an NIR-Technique Based Non-Invasive Glucometer using Microcontroller,” Journal of Bangladesh Electronics Society, ISSN: 1816-1510, vol. 19, no 1-2, June-December 2019, pp. 75-84.
[25] M. Ogawa, Y. Yamakoshi, M. Satoh, M. Nogawa, T. Yamakoshi, S. Tanaka, P. Rolfe, T. Tamura, and K. Yamakoshi “Support vector machines as multivariate calibration model for prediction of blood glucose concentration using a new non-invasive optical method named Pulse Glucometry,” Proceedings of the 29th IEEE Annual International Conference of Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Lyon, France, August 23-26, 2007, pp. 4561-4563.
[26] R. Müller, M. Haertelt, J. Niemasz, K. Schwarz, V. Daumer, Y. V. Flores, R. Ostendorf, and R. Rehm, Thermoelectrically-Cooled InAs/GaSb Type-II Superlattice Detectors as an Alternative to HgCdTe in a Real-Time Mid-Infrared Backscattering Spectroscopy System, Journal of Micromachines, vol. 11, 2020, article no. 1124, 14, pages; doi: 10.3390/mi11121124.
[27] A. Zhao, X. Tang, Z. Zhang and J. Liu, “The parameters optimization selection of Savitzky-Golay filter and its application in smoothing pretreatment for FTIR spectra,” Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2014, pp. 516-521, doi: 10.1109/ICIEA.2014.6931218.
[28] K. Polat and S. Güneş, “An expert system approach based on principal component analysis and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to diagnosis of diabetes disease,” Journal of Digital Signal Processing, ISSN 1051-2004, vol. 17, issue 4, 2007, pp. 702-710, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsp.2006.09.005.
[29] D. Kim, I. K. Ilev and J. U. Kang, “Using Mid-Infrared Glucose Absorption Peak Changes for High-Precision Glucose Detection,” LEOS IEEE LASERS and Electro-Optics Society Annual Meeting Conference Proceedings, 2007, pp. 226-227, doi: 10.1109/LEOS.2007.4382359.
[30] J. L. Smith, “The Pursuit of Noninvasive Glucose: “Hunting the Deceitful Turkey”,” second edition, 2006, p. 44.
[31] Z. Zhao and R. A. Myllyla, “Photoacoustic blood glucose and skin measurement based on optical scattering effect,” in Proceeding of SPIE, Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine III, vol. 4707, Saratov, Russia, July 16, 2002, pp. 153-157.
[32] O. C. Kulkarni, P. Mandal, S. S. Das, and S. Banerjee, “A Feasibility Study on Noninvasive Blood Glucose Measurement Using Photoacoustic Method,” Proceedings of the IEEE 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Chegdu, June 18-20, 2010, pp. 1-4.
[33] Z. Ren, G. Liu, and Z. Huang, “Noninvasive detection of glucose level based on tunable pulsed laser induced photoacoustic technique,” Proceedings of the SPIE International Symposium on Optoelectronic Technology and Application, vol. 9297, Dec. 3, 2014, pp. 929707-09.
[34] C. E. F. do Amaral, “Multi-parameter Methods for Non-invasive Measurement of Blood Glucose,” PhD Thesis, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Department, Technical University of Munich, Germany, 2008.
[35] H. A. MacKenzie, H. S. Ashton, S. Spiers, Y. Shen, S. S. Freeborn, J. Hannigan, J. Lindberg, and P. Rae, “Advances in photoacoustic noninvasive glucose testing,” Journal of Clinical Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1587-1595, 1999.
[36] M. S. Chou, “Method and apparatus for noninvasive measurement of blood glucose by photoacoustics,” United States Patent 6,049,728, April 11, 2000.
[37] A. J. Berger, T.-W. Koo, I. Itzkan, G. Horowitz, and M. S. Feld, “Multicomponent Blood Analysis by Near-Infrared Raman Spectroscopy,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 2916-2926, 1999.
[38] M. Hunter, A. Enejder, T. Scecina, M. Feld, and W. C. Shih, “Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive glucose measurements," United States Patent US 8,355,767 B2, January 15, 2013.
[39] A. Ergin, M. Vilaboy, A. Tchouassi, R. Greene, and G. Thomas, “Detection and analysis of glucose at metabolic concentration using Raman spectroscopy,” Proceeding of the 29th IEEE Bioengineering Conference, March 22-23, 2003, pp. 337-338.
[40] A. Ergin and G. Thomas, “Noninvasive detection of glucose in porcine eyes,” Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Bioengineering Conference, Northeast, April 2-3, 2005, pp. 246-247.
[41] J. L. Lambert and M. S. Borchert, “Non-invasive glucose monitor,” United States Patent US 6,424,850 B1, Jul 23, 2002.
[42] E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T.-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 45, no. 2, p. R1, 2000.
[43] J. Popp, V. V. Tuchin, A. Chiou, and S. H. Heinemann, “Handbook of Biophotonics,” second edition, Wiley, 2011, p. 2.
[44] D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science, vol. 254, no. 5035, pp. 1178-81, 1991.
[45] J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia, New York, NY, USA, vol. 2, no. 1-2, p. 9, 2000.
[46] R. He, H. Wei, H. Gu, Z. Zhu, Y. Zhang, X. Guo, T. Cai, “Effects of optical clearing agents on noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with optical coherence tomography: a pilot study,” SPIE Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 17, no. 10, p. 101513, October 2012.
[47] K. V. Larin, M. Motamedi, T. V. Ashitkov, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Specificity of noninvasive blood glucose sensing using optical coherence tomography technique: a pilot study,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 48, no. 10, p. 1371, 2003.
[48] M. J. Schurman and W. J. Shakespeare, “Method and apparatus for monitoring glucose levels in a biological tissue,” United States Patent US 7,254,429 B2, August 7, 2007.
[49] A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside,” SPIE Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 12, no. 5, p. 051403, 2007.
[50] S. Vaddiraju, D. J. Burgess, I. Tomazos, F. C. Jain, and F. Papadimitrakopoulos, “Technologies for continuous glucose monitoring: current problems and future promises,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 1540, 2010.
[51] X. Zhang, C. M. Ting, and J. H. Yeo, "Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement," in Proceeding of SPIE, Optics in Health Care and Biomedical Optics IV, vol 7845, Beijing, China, Oct 18, 2010, pp. 78452X-78452X-6.
[52] O. K. Cho, Y. O. Kim, H. Mitsumaki, and K. Kuwa, "Noninvasive measurement of glucose by metabolic heat conformation method," Clinical chemistry, vol. 50(10), pp. 1894-1898, 2004.
[53] F. Tang, X. Wang, D. Wang, and J. Li, "Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method," Sensors, vol. 8(5), pp. 3335-3344, 2008.
[54] J. B. Ko, O. K. Cho, Y. O. Kim, and K. Yasuda, "Body metabolism provides a foundation for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring," Diabetes care, vol. 27(5), pp. 1211-1212, 2004.
[55] Z.-C. Chen, X.-l. Jin, J.-m. Zhu, D.-y. Wang, and T.-t. Zhang, "Non-invasive glucose measuring apparatus based on conservation of energy method," Journal of Central South University of Technology, vol. 16(6), pp. 982-986, 2009.
[56] S. Mansouri and J. S. Schultz, “A miniature optical glucose sensor based on affinity binding,” Nature biotechnology, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 885-890, 1984.
[57] G. Eigner, P. I. Sas, and L. Kovács, “Continuous glucose monitoring systems in the service of artificial pancreas,” 9th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI), Romania, May 15-17, 2014, pp. 117-122.
[58] A. Tura, A. Maran, and G. Pacini, “Non-invasive glucose monitoring: assessment of technologies and devices according to quantitative criteria,” Diabetes Research on Clinical Practice, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 16-40, 2007.
[59] H. V. Hsieh, D. B. Sherman, S. A. Andaluz, T. J. Amiss, and J. B. Pitner, “Fluorescence resonance energy transfer glucose sensor from site-specific dual-labeling of glucose/galactose binding protein using ligand protection,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 6, pp. 1286-1295, 2011.
[60] W. S. Grundfest and M. Stavridi, “Glucose fluorescence monitor and method,” United States Patent US5341805 A, August 30, 1994.
[61] A.-K. M. O. Ola, S. Abdalsalam, R. M. Abd-Alhadi, S. D. Alshmaa, “Design of Simple Noninvasive Glucose Measuring Device,” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computing, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Khartoum, Sudan, August 26-28, 2013, pp. 216-219.
[62] A. Shinde and R. Prasad, “Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Measurement using NIR technique based on occlusion spectroscopy,” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), vol. 3, pp. 8325-8333, 2011.
[63] I. Fine, “Non-invasive method and system of optical measurements for determining the concentration of a substance in blood,” United States Patent US 6,400,972 B1, June 4, 2002.
[64] G. Talukdar, “Non-Invasive Measurement of Glucose Content in Human Body: A Comparative Study,” Proceeding of 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering for Assistive Technologies, May 29, 2012, pp. 1-6.
[65] D. Xiang, “Advances in Near-infrared Glucose Monitoring Using Pure Component Selectivity Analysis for Model Characterization and a Novel Digital Micromirror Array Spectrometer,” PhD Thesis, The University of Iowa, USA, 2006.
[66] A. K. Amerov, Y. Sun, M. A. Arnold, and G. W. Small, “Kromoscopic analysis in two- and three-component aqueous solutions of blood constituents,” Proceeding of SPIE Conference on Optical Diagnostics and Sensing of Biological Fluids and Glucose and Cholesterol Monitoring, vol. 4263, June 13, 2001, pp. 1-10.
[67] L. A. Sodickson and M. J. Block, “Kromoscopic analysis: a possible alternative to spectroscopic analysis for noninvasive measurement of analytes in vivo,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 1838-44, 1994.
[68] M. J. Block, H. E. Guthermann, and L. Sodickson, “Rapid non-invasive optical analysis using broad bandpass spectral processing,” United States Patent US6028311 A, February 22, 2000.
[69] J. Li, T. Igbe, Y. Liu, Z. Nie, W. Qin, L. Wang, and Y. Hao, “An Approach for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Based on Bio-impedance Difference Considering Blood Volume Pulsation,” IEEE Access, e-ISSN: 2169-3536vol. 6, pp. 51119-51129, 22 August 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2866601.
[70] S. Saha, H. C.-Garcia, I. Sotiriou, O. Lipscombe, I. Gouzouasis, M. Koutsoupidou, G. Palikaras, R. Mackenzie, T. Reeve, P. Kosmas, and E. Kallos, “A Glucose Sensing System Based on Transmission Measurements at Millimetre Waves using Micro strip Patch Antennas,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06926-1.
[71] V. Trugul, and I. Kale, “Characterization of the complex permittivity of glucose/water solutions for noninvasive RF/Microwave blood glucose sensing,” Proceedings of IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), May 2016, doi: 10.1109/I2MTC.2016.7520546.
[72] M. M. Nazarov, O. P. Cherkasova, and A. P. Shkurinov, “Study of dielectric function of acquaous solutions of glucose and albumin by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 46, pp. 488-495, 2016.
[73] M. Baghelani, Z. Abbasi, M. Daneshmand, and P. E. Light, “Non invasive continuous time glucose monitoring system using a chipless printable sensor based on split ring microwave resonators,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, Article no. 12980, 2020, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69547-1.
[74] C. Lee and C. Yang, “Complementary Split-Ring Resonators for Measuring Dielectric Constants and Loss Tangents,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 563-565, August 2014.
[75] A. E. Omer, G. Shaker, S. S.-Naeini, G. Alquié, F. Deshours, and H. Kokabi, “Triple-Poles Complementary Split Ring Resonator for Sensing Diabetics Glucose Levels at cm-Band,” August 2019.
[76] A. E. Omer, G. Shaker, S. S.-Naeini, H. Kokabi, G. Alquié, F. Deshours, and R. M. Shubair, “Low-cost portable microwave sensor for non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose level: novel design utilizing a four-cell CSRR hexagonal configuration,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, Article number: 15200, 2020.
[77] S. Afroz, S. W. Thomas, G. Mumcu, C. W. Locke, S. E. Saddow, “A Biocompatible SiC RF Antenna for In-Vivo Sensing Applications,” Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium of Materials Research Society, vol. 1433, 2012, doi: 10.1557/opl.2012.1150.
[78] S. Lee, V. Nayak, J. Dodds, M. Pishko, N. B. Smith, “Glucose measurements with sensors and ultrasound,” Journal of Ultrasound Medicine Biology, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 971-977, 2005.
[79] A. R. Sadrolhosseini, P. M. Nia, M. Naseri, A. Mohammadi, Y. W. Fen, S. Shafie, and H. M. Kamari, “Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor Based on Polypyrrole–Chitosan–BaFe2O4 Nanocomposite Layer to Detect the Sugar,” Applied Sciences, vol. 10, 2020, Article no. 2855; doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082855.
[80] A. R. Sadrolhosseini, S. A. Rashid, N. Jamaluddin, A. S. M. Noor, and A. M. Isloor, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor using polypyrrole-chitosan/graphene quantum dots layer for detection of sugar,” Materials Research Express, vol. 6, article no. 075028, 2019.
[81] C. K. Huang, H. C. Chih, and C. D. Chin, “Interferometric optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration,” Applied Optics, vol. 42, 2003, pp. 5774-5776.
[82] A. A. Kolomenskii, P. D. Gershon, and H. A. Schuessler, “Sensitivity and detection limit of concentration and adsorption measurements by laser-induced surface plasmon resonance,” Applied Optics, vol. 36, 1997, pp. 6539-6547.
[83] I. Abdulhalim, M. Zourob, and A. Lakhtakia, “Surface plasmon resonance for biosensing: a mini-review,” Electromagnetics Journal, vol. 28, 2008, pp. 214-242.
[84] A. M. Shrivastav, U. Cvelbar, and I. A. Abdulhalim, “Comprehensive review on plasmonic-based biosensors used in viral diagnostics,” Communication Biology, vol. 4, article no. 70, January 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01615-8.
[85] K. Rebrin, G. M. Steil, W. P. Van Antwerp, and J. J. Mastrototaro, “Subcutaneous glucose predicts plasma glucose independent of insulin: implications for continuous monitoring,” American Journal of Physiological-Endocrinol Metab, vol. 277, no. 3 Pt 1, 1999, E561-E571.
[86] O. Amir, D. Weinstein, S. Zilberman, M. Less, D. Perl-Treves, H. Primack, A. Weinstein, E. Gabis, B. Fikhte, and A. Karasik, “Continuous noninvasive glucose monitoring technology based on "occlusion spectroscopy",” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 1, no. 4, July 2007, pp. 463-469, PMID: 19885108; PMCID: PMC2769638, doi: 10.1177/193229680700100403.
[87] N. A. B. A. Salam, W. H. bin M. Saad, Z. B. Manap, and F. Salehuddin, “The Evolution of Non-invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System for Personal Application,” Journal of Telecommunication, Electronics and Computational Engineering (JTEC), vol. 8, no. 1, 2016, pp. 59-65.
[88] K-U. Jagemann, C. Fischbacher, K. Danzer, U. A. Mueller. and B. Mertes, “Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for non-invasive determination of blood/tissue glucose using neural networks,” Z Für Physical Chemistry, vol. 191, 1995, pp. 179-190.
[89] I. M. E. Wentholt, J. B. L. Hoekstra, A. Zwart, and J. H. DeVries, “Pendra goes Dutch: lessons for the CE mark in Europe,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1055-1058.
[90] C. F. So, K. S. Choi, T. K. S. Wong, and J. Chung, “Recent advances in noninvasive glucose monitoring,” Medical Devices, Auckland, vol. 5, 2012, pp. 45-52.
[91] L. Tang, S. J. Chang, C. J. Chen, and J. T. Liu, “Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Technology: A Review,” Sensors Journal, (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 20, no. 23, article no. 6925, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20236925.
[92] D. Bruen, C. Delaney, L. Florea, and D. Diamond, “Glucose Sensing for Diabetes Monitoring: Recent Developments,” Sensors Journal (Basel, Switzerland), vo. 17, no. 8, article no. 1866, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081866.
[93] K. S. Khadilkar, T. Bandgar, V. Shivane, A. Lila, and N. Shah, “Current concepts in blood glucose monitoring,” Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 17, 2013. S643-S649, doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.123556.
[94] A. Gorst, K. Zavyalova, V. Yakubov, A. Mironchev and A. Zapasnoy, “Theoretical Simulation of the Near-Field Probe for Non-Invasive Measurements on Planar Layers with Biological Characteristics,” Bioengineering Journal, vol. 7, article no. 0149, 2020, pp. 1-16, doi:10.3390/bioengineering7040149.
[95] E.-Y. Park, J. Baik, H. Kim, S.-M. Park, and C. Kim, “Ultrasound-modulated optical glucose sensing using a 1645 nm laser,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, article no. 13361, 2020.
[96] M. Baghelani, Z. Abbasi, M. Daneshmand, and P. E. Light, “Non-invasive continuous-time glucose monitoring system using a chipless printable sensor based on split ring microwave resonators,” Scientific Reports, vol. 10, Article # 12980, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69547-1.
[97] S. Haxha and J. Jhoja, “Optical Based Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring Sensor Prototype,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1-11, December 2016, article # 6805911, doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2016.2616491.
[98] R. Kumari, P. N. Patel, and R. Yadav, “An ENG resonator-based microwave sensor for the characterization of aqueous glucose,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 7, January 2018, p. 075601, doi: 10.1088/1361-6463/aaa5c5.
[99] Y. Zhao, S. Li, A. Davidson, B. Yang, Q. Wang, and Q. Lin, “A MEMS viscometric sensor for continuous glucose monitoring, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, IOP Publishing, vol. 17, 2007, pp. 2528-2537, doi:10.1088/0960-1317/17/12/020.
[100] X. Huang, S. Li, D. Li, Q. Wang, and Q. Lin, “A MEMS Dielectric Affinity Glucose Biosensor,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 14-20, doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2013.2262603.
[101] T. B. Chiddarwar and W. Patil, “Design of Sensitive MEMS Differential Dielectric Sensor for Glucose Measurement,” International Journal of Computing and Technology (IJCT), vol. 1, issue 3, ISSN: 2348-6090, April 2014.
[102] N. Samyuktha, P. Maneesha, B. R. Sreelakshmi, P. K. Pattnaik, and K. Narayan, “Application of MEMS based capacitive sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose,” IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON 2015), Macao, China, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/TENCON.2015.7372771.
[103] H. Gergeroglu, S. Yildirim, and M. F. Ebeoglugil, “Nano-carbons in biosensor applications: an overview of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and fullerenes (C60),” SN Applied Sciences, vol. 2, article no. 603, March 2020. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-2404-1.
[104] M. Sireesha, V. J. Babu, A. S. K. Kiranm, and S. Ramakrishna, “A review on carbon nanotubes in biosensor devices and their applications in medicine,” Journal of Nanocomposites, Taylor and Francis, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 36-57, doi: 10.1080/20550324.2018.1478765.
[105] V. Turgul and I. Kale, “Permittivity extraction of glucose solutions through artificial neural networks and non-invasive microwave glucose sensing,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 277, July 2018, pp. 65-72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sna.2018.03.041.
[106] A. Gorst, K. Zavyalova, A. Mironchev, A. Zapasnoy, and A, Klokov, “Simulation and Experimental Study of the Near Field Probe in the Form of a Folded Dipole for Measuring Glucose Concentration,” Applied Sciences, vol. 11, article # 5415, 2021, pages 19, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125415.
[107] M. A. Arnold, “Non-invasive glucose monitoring,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 46-49, 1996.
[108] J. Nystrom, B. Lindholm-Sethson, L. Stenberg, S. Ollmar, J. W. Eriksson, and P. Geladi, “Combined near-infrared spectroscopy and multi-frequency bio-impedance investigation of skin alterations in diabetes patients based on multivariate analyses,” Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 324-329, 2003, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02348438.
[109] D. J. Cox, W. L. Clarke, L. Gonder-Frederick, S. Pohl, C. Hoover, A. Snyder, L. Zimbelman, W. R. Carter, S. Bobbitt, and J. Pennebaker, “Accuracy of perceiving blood glucose in IDDM,” Diabetes Care, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 529-536, 1985, PMID: 4075939 doi: 10.2337/diacare.8.6.529.
[110] M. Gusev, L. Poposka, G. Spasevski, M. Kostoska, B. Koteska, M. Simjanoska, N. Ackovska, A. Stojmenski, J. Tasic, and J. Trontelj, “Noninvasive Glucose Measurement Using Machine Learning and Neural Network Methods and Correlation with Heart Rate Variability,” Journal of Sensors, Hindawi Publishing, vol. 2020, Article ID: 9628281, 13 pages, https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9628281.
[111] Z. Zhang, “A mathematical model for predicting glucose levels in critically-ill patients: the PIGnOLI model,” PeerJ. 3:e1005, pages 11, June 9, 2015, doi: 10.7717/peerj.1005.
[112] V. Nademi, “Improved Blood Glucose-Insulin Monitoring with Dual-Layer Predictive Control Design,” International Journal of Biomedical and Biological Engineering, vol. 12, no. 9, 2018, pp. 398-402.
[113] M. Catalogna, E. Cohen, S. Fishman, Z. Halpern, U. Nevo, and E. Ben-Jacob, “Artificial Neural Networks Based Controller for Glucose Monitoring during Clamp Test,” PLOS ONE vol. 7, no. 8, August 2012, article no. e44587, doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044587.
[114] P. Jain, A. M. Joshi, and S. P. Mohanty, “iGLU: An Intelligent Device for Accurate Noninvasive Blood Glucose-Level Monitoring in Smart Healthcare,” IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 35-42, 1 January 2020, doi: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2940855.
[115] A. M. Joshi, P. Jain, S. P. Mohanty, and N. Agrawal, “iGLU 2.0: A New Wearable for Accurate Non-Invasive Continuous Serum Glucose Measurement in IoMT Framework,” IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 327-335, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.1109/TCE.2020.3011966.
[116] M. Islam, M. S. Ali, N. J. Shoumy, S. Khatun, M. S. A. Karim, and B. S. Bari, “Non invasive blood glucose concentration level estimation accuracy using ultra wide band and artificial intelligence,” SN Applied Sciences, Springer Nature Journal, Switzerland, vol. 20, article # 278, pages 9, 2020, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-019-1884-3.
[117] Q. Fang, and D. A. Boas, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration in 3D turbid media accelerated by graphics processing units,” Optics Express, OSA Publishing, vol. 17, no. 22, pp. 20178-20190, 2009, doi: https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.020178.
[118] S. Yan, and Q. Fang, “Hybrid mesh and voxel based Monte Carlo algorithm for accurate and efficient photon transport modeling in complex bio-tissues,” Biomedical Optics Express, OSA Publishing, vol. 11, no. 11, 2020, doi: 10.1364/boe.409468.
[119] M. Althobaiti and I. Al-Naib, “Optimization of Dual-Channel Near-Infrared Non-Invasive Glucose Level Measurement Sensors Based on Monte-Carlo Simulations,” IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 1-9, June 2021, article no. 3700109, doi: 10.1109/JPHOT.2021.3079408.
[120] B. Kapilevich and B. Litvak, “Optimized Microwave Sensor for Online Concentration Measurements of Binary Liquid Mixtures,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2611-2616, October 2011, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2011.2149517.
[121] B. Camli, E. Kusakci, B. Lafci, S. Salman, H. Torun and A. D. Yalcinkaya, “Cost-Effective, Microstrip Antenna Driven Ring Resonator Microwave Biosensor for Biospecific Detection of Glucose,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 404-409, March-April 2017, Art no. 6900706, doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2017.2659226.
[122] M. Koutsoupidou, H. Cano-Garcia, R. L. Pricci, S. C. Saha, G. Palikaras, E. Kallos and P. Kosmas, “Study and Suppression of Multipath Signals in a Non-Invasive Millimeter Wave Transmission Glucose Sensing System,” IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 187-193, September 2020, doi: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2938876.
[123] H. Choi J. Naylon, S. Luzio, J. Beutler, J. Birchall, C. Martin, and A. Porch, “Design and In Vitro Interference Test of Microwave Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring Sensor,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 3016-3025, October 2015, doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2015.2472019.
[124] L. O. Bagio, “Finite Element Modeling of Electrochemical Biosensors,” MSc in EE Thesis, December 2018, California State University, Northridge, USA, URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10211.3/207848.
[125] J. Vrba, J. Karch, and D. Vrba, “Phantoms for Development of Microwave Sensors for Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitoring,” International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, vol. 2015, article ID. 570870, 5 pages, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/570870.
[126] J. Karch, “Dielectric-properties measurements of glucose solutions and design of suitable measurement probe for noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose levels,” MS Thesis, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, 2014.
[127] J. Venkataraman and B. Freer, “Feasibility of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring: In-vitro measurements and phantom models,” IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (APSURSI), WA, USA, 2011, pp. 603-606, doi: 10.1109/APS.2011.5996782.
[128] A. Kumar, C. Wang, F.-Y. Meng, Z.-L. Zhou, M. Zhao, G.-F. Yan, E.-S. Kim, and N.-Y. Kim, “High-Sensitivity, Quantified, Linear and Mediator-Free Resonator-Based Microwave Biosensor for Glucose Detection,” Sensors, vol. 20, article no. 4024, July 2020, 17 pages, doi: 10.3390/s20144024.
[129] M. S. Wróbel, “Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization,” 39th International Conference Microelectronics and Packaging (IMAPS), IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 104, 2015, Poland, article no. 012036, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/104/1/012036.
[130] S. P. Singh, S. Mukherjee, L. H. Galindo, P. T. C. So, R. R. Dasari, U. Z. Khan, R. Kannan, A. Upendran, and J. W. Kang, “Evaluation of accuracy dependence of Raman spectroscopic models on the ratio of calibration and validation points for non-invasive glucose sensing,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 410, no. 4, July 2018, pp, 6469–6475, doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1244-y.
[131] J. Kottmann, J. M. Rey, and M. W. Sigrist, “Mid-Infrared Photoacoustic Detection of Glucose in Human Skin: Towards Non-Invasive Diagnostics,” Sensors, vol. 16, article no: 1663, 2016.
[132] C. Jang, J.-K. Park, H.-J. Lee, G.-H. Yun, and J.-G. Yook, “Non-Invasive Fluidic Glucose Detection Based on Dual Microwave Complementary Split Ring Resonators with a Switching Circuit for Environmental Effect Elimination,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 20, 2020, pp. 8520-8527.
[133] S. A. Siddiqui, Y. Zhang, J. Lloret, H. Song, and Z. Obradovic, “Pain-Free Blood Glucose Monitoring Using Wearable Sensors: Recent Advancements and Future Prospects,” IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering, vol. 11, 2018, pp. 21-35.
[134] F. Tang, X. Wang, D. Wang, and J. Li, “Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method,” Sensors Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, 2008, pp. 3335-3344, doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/s8053335.
[135] O. K. Cho, Y. O. Kim, H. Mitsumaki, and K. Kuwa “Noninvasive measurement of glucose by metabolic heat conformation method,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 10, October 2004, pp. 1894-1898, doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2004.036954. Epub 2004, Aug 12. PMID: 15308597.
[136] T. Danne, R. Nimri, T. Battelino, R. M. Bergenstal, K. L. Close, J. H. DeVries, S. Garg, L. Heinemann, I. Hirsch, S. A. Amiel, R. Beck, E. Bosi et al., “International Consensus on Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring,” Diabetes Care, vol. 40, no. 12, 2017, pp. 1631-1640, doi: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc17-1600.
[137] F. Reiterer, P. Polterauer, M. Schoemaker, G. S.-Redecker, G. Freckmann, L. Heinemann, L. delRe, “Significance and Reliability of MARD for the Accuracy of CGM Systems,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 11, 2017, pp. 59–67.
[138] T. S. Bailey, “Clinical Implications of Accuracy Measurements of Continuous Glucose Sensors,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. S2, May 2017, pp. S51-S54, doi:10.1089/dia.2017.0050.
[139] R. R. Chai amd T. Draxler, “Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) or Mean Absolute Error (MAE)? – Arguments Against Avoiding RMSE in the Literature,” Geosci. Model Dev., vol. 7, 2014, pp. 1247-1250, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-7-1247-2014.
[140] R. Pamungkas, A. Putrada, and M. Abdurohman, “Performance Improvement of Non Invasive Blood Glucose Measuring System With Near Infra-Red Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Kinetik: Game Technology, Information System, Computer Network, Computing, Electronics, and Control, ISSN: 2503-2267, vol. 4, no. 4, November 2019, pp. 315-324, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.22219/kinetik.v4i4.844.
[141] S. A. Boren and W. L. Clarke, “Analytical and Clinical Performance of Blood Glucose Monitors,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 4, 2010, pp. 84-97.
[142] D. C. Klonoff, C. Lias, R. Vigersky, W. Clarke, J. L. Parkes, D. B. Sacks, M. S. Kirkman, B. Kovatchev, “The Surveillance Error Grid,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 8, 2014, pp. 658-672.
[143] D. C. Klonoff, “The Need for Clinical Accuracy Guidelines for Blood Glucose Monitors,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 6, 2012, pp.1-4.
[144] W. L. Clarke, D. Cox, L. A. G.-Frederick, W. Carter, and S. L. Pohl, “Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care, vol. 10, 1987, pp. 622-628.
[145] Diabetes Care uses Clarke Error Grid Analysis (EGA) Analysis: http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/10/5/622?ijkey=959ce0073ff9f91dfd78630b4259267d96a9db0f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[146] J. L. Parkes, S. L. Slatin, S. Pardo, and B. H. Ginsberg, “A new consensus error grid to evaluate the clinical significance of inaccuracies in the measurement of blood glucose,” Diabetes Care, vol. 23, no. 8, August 2000, pp. 1143-1148, https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.23.8.1143.
[147] ISO Focus, The Magazine of the International Organization for Standardization, vol. 6, no. 2, February 2009, ISSN 1729-8709, p. 32.
[148] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Available online: https://www.iso.org, accessed on 28 August 2021.
[149] N. Jendrike, A. Baumstark, U. Kamecke, C. Haug, and G. Freckmann, “ISO 15197: 2013 Evaluation of a Blood Glucose Monitoring System’s Measurement Accuracy,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 6, November 2017, pp. 1275-1276, PMCID: PMC5951056, PMID: 28849677, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1932296817727550.
[150] A. Baumstark, C. Schmid, S. Pleus, D. Rittmeyer, C. Haug, and G. Freckmann, “Accuracy Assessment of an Advanced Blood Glucose Monitoring System for Self-Testing With Three Reagent System Lots Following ISO 15197:2013,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 8, no. 6, August 7, 2014; pp. 1241-1242. doi:10.1177/1932296814546529.
[151] S. Pleus, A. Baumstark, N. Jendrike, J. Mende, M. Link, E. Zschornack, C. Haug, and G. Freckmann, “System accuracy evaluation of 18 CE-marked current-generation blood glucose monitoring systems based on EN ISO 15197:2015,” BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care vol. 8, e001067, 2020; doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-001067.
[152] W. V. Gonzales, A. T. Mobashsher, and A. Abbosh, “The Progress of Glucose Monitoring—A Review of Invasive to Minimally and Non-Invasive Techniques, Devices and Sensors,” Sensors, vol. 19, 2019, article no. 800, p. 9, doi: 10.3390/s19040800.
[153] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO 15197:2013. In Vitro Diagnostic Test Systems—Requirements for Blood-Glucose Monitoring Systems for Self-Testing in Managing Diabetes Mellitus; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Geneva, Switzerland, 2013.
[154] G. Freckmann, A. Baumstark, N. Jendrike, D. Rittmeyer, S. Pleus, and C. Haug, “Accuracy Evaluation of Four Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems in the Hands of Intended Users and Trained Personnel Based on ISO 15197 Requirements,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 19, 2017, pp. 246-254.
[155] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). International Organization for Standardization (ISO). In vitro diagnostic test systems—Requirements for blood-glucose monitoring systems for self-testing in managing diabetes mellitus (ISO 15197:2013). In EN ISO 15197:2015; International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.
[156] G. Freckmann, C. Schmid, A. Baumstark, M. Rutschmann, C. Haug, and L. Heinemann, “Analytical Performance Requirements for Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose with Focus on System Accuracy: Relevant Differences among ISO 15197:2003, ISO 15197:2013, and Current FDA Recommendations,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2015, pp. 885-894.
[157] US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Blood Glucose Monitoring Test Systems for Prescription Point-of-Care Use; US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Silver Spring, MD, USA, 2016.
[158] US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose Test Systems for over-the-Counter Use; US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): Silver Spring, MD, USA, 2016.
[159] European Commission. In vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices. Online: http://ec.europa.eu/growth/single-market/european-standards/harmonised-standards/iv-diagnostic-medical-devices/#Note%202.1, accessed on 12 August 2021.
[160] Government of Canada. New Requirements for Medical Device License Applications for Lancing Devices and Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems. Online: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/ drugs-health-products/medical-devices/activities/announcements/notice-new-requirementsmedical-device-licence-applications-lancing-devices-blood-glucose-monitoring-systems.html, accessed on 12 August 2021.
[161] Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Instrução Normativa Nº 24; Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA): Brasília, Brazil, 2018.
[162] China Food & Drug Administration (CFDA). Glucometer Registration Technical Review Guidelines; Chemical Inspection and Regulation Service (CIRS): Beijing, China, 2016.
[163] Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). Handling of Self-Testing Blood Glucose Meters. Online: http://www.std.pmda.go.jp/stdDB/Data/MDStd/CerStd/Notif/K1100009_01_2016_en.pdf, accessed on 2 August 2021.
[164] Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). List of Certification Standards; Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA): Tokyo, Japan, 2018.
[165] Department of Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Australian Regulatory Guidelines for Medical Devices (ARGMD). Online: https://www.tga.gov.au/publication/australian-regulatoryguidelines-medical-devices-argmd, accessed on 5 August 2021.
[166] Standards Australia. ISO 15197:2013. Online: https://www.standards.org.au/standardscatalogue/international/iso-slash-tc--212/iso--15197-colon-2013, accessed on 5 August 2021.
[167] Department of Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Medical Devices Regulation: An Introduction. Online: http://www.tga.gov.au/sme-assist/medical-devices-regulation-introduction, accessed on 5 August 2021.
[168] I. Harman-Boehm, A. Gal, A. M. Raykhman, E. Naidis, and Y. Mayzel “Noninvasive glucose monitoring: increasing accuracy by combination of multi-technology and multi-sensors,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 4, no. 3, May 2010; pp. 583-595, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/193229681000400312.
[169] Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring via a Fiber Optic Sensor, https://en.eyesense.com/, accessed on 6 August 2021.
[170] Invisible Eye Glucose Monitor Accurately Measures Sugar Levels, https://www.labiotech.eu/more-news/noviosense-glucose-monitor-diabetes/, accessed on 6 August 2021.
[171] A. E. Kownacka, D. Vegelyte, M. Joosse, N. Anton, B. J. Toebes, J. Lauko, I. Buzzacchera, K. Lipinska, D. A. Wilson, N. Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, and C. J. Wilson, “Clinical Evidence for Use of a Noninvasive Biosensor for Tear Glucose as an Alternative to Painful Finger-Prick for Diabetes Management Utilizing a Biopolymer Coating,” Bio macromolecules, vol. 19, no. 11, 2018, pp. 4504-4511, ACS Publications, doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01429.
[172] Glucose Measurement System Skips the Finger Stab, https://healthtechinsider.com/2021/05/04/glucose-measurement-system-skips-the-finger-stab-video/, accessed on 10 August 2021.
[173] C8 Non-Invasive Optical Glucose Monitor System Cleared for Sale in Europe https://www.medgadget.com/2012/10/c8-non-invasive-optical-glucose-monitor-system-cleared-for-sale-in-europe-video.html, accessed on 10 August 2021.
[174] Non-invasive continuous blood glucose monitoring. Online: https://patents.google.com/patent/US5823966A/en, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[175] C. D. Malchoff, J. I. Landau, K. Shoukri, J. M. Buchert, “A Novel Noninvasive Blood Glucose Monitor,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 12, December 2002, pp. 2268-2275.
[176] Glucose Monitor Uses LASER Sensor: Device could replace implants and frequent finger pricking for diabetics, report published in The International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE) on 01 October 2015. Online: https://spie.org/news/spie-professional-magazine-archive/2015-october/pbw-glucose-monitor-laser-sensor?SSO=1, accessed on 6 August 2021.
[177] Measure blood sugar with light. https://scienceinfo.net/measure-blood-sugar-with-light.html, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[178] Hitachi Developing Non-Invasive Blood Sugar Monitoring Device- Proprietary Technologies would take the Pain and Hassle out of Measuring Blood Sugar Levels. Online: https://www.hitachi.com/New/cnews/040223.html, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[179] Biosensors Inc. Online: http://www.biosensors-tech.com/technology.php, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[180] R. Weiss, Y. Yegorchikov, A. Shusterman, and I. Raz, “Noninvasive Continuous Glucose Monitoring Using Photoacoustic Technology—Results from the First 62 Subjects,” Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 1, February 2007, doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.0059.
[181] Glucon: Blood Sugar Magic. Online: https://www.medgadget.com/2005/06/glucon_blood_su.html, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[182] World's first blood sampling-free (non-invasive) blood glucose sensor using advanced laser technology. Light Touch Technology (LTT), http://www.light-tt.co.jp/product?lang=en, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[183] ESER G2 Mobile-Noninvasive Glucose Monitor. Online: http://www.eserdigital.com/productform/42-en.html, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[184] MediWise. GlucoWise. Available online: http://www.gluco-wise.com/, accessed on 6 August 2021.
[185] S. Saha, H. Cano-Garcia, I. Sotiriou, O. Lipscombe, I. Gouzouasis, M. Koutsoupidou, G. Palikaras, R. Mackenzie, T. Reeve, P. Kosmas, and E. Kallos, “A Glucose Sensing System Based on Transmission Measurements at Millimeter Waves using Micro strip Patch Antennas,” Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, July 2017, Article 6855, p. 1-11, doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06926-1.
[186] A. DeHennis, S. Tankiewicz, T. Whitehurst, Analyte Sensor. US Patent US 9,901,293 B2, 24 February 2015.
[187] R. Z. Jafri, C. A. Balliro, F. El-Khatib, M. Maheno, M. A. Hillard, A. J. Donovan, R. Selagamsetty, H. U. I. Zheng, E. Damiano, S. J. Russell, “A Three-Way Accuracy Comparison of the Dexcom G5, Abbott Freestyle Libre Pro, and Senseonics Eversense CGM Devices in an Outpatient Study of Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 67, July 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.2337/db18-14-OR.
[188] Senseonics. Eversense User Guide. Online: https://www.ascensiadiabetes.com/eversense/eversense-cgm-system/, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[189] Y. (J.) Segman, “Device and Method for Noninvasive Glucose Assessment,” Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 6, 2018, pp. 1159-1168, doi: 10.1177/1932296818763457.
[190] Measure blood sugar with light. https://scienceinfo.net/measure-blood-sugar-with-light.html, accessed on 7 August 2021.
[191] Tech4Life Enterprises, Non-Invasive Glucometer, https://tech4lifeenterprises.com/non-invasive-glucometer/, accessed on 18 August 2021.
[192] World Global Network (WGN), Helo Extense. https://website.worldgn.com/heloextense/, accessed on 15 August 2021.
[193] Nemaura Medical, SugarBEAT® Complete FDA Clinic Data file, “A Prospective Single Centre Evaluation of the Accuracy and safety of the sugarBEAT® Non-invasive Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) System,” 18 December 2018, European Clinical Program, https://nemauramedical.com/publications/, accessed on 5 August 2021.
[194] E. Hadar, R. Chen, Y. Toledano, K. Tenenbaum-Gavish, Y. Atzmon, and M. Hod, “Noninvasive, continuous, real-time glucose measurements compared to reference laboratory venous plasma glucose values,” The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 32, no. 20, April 2018, pp. 3393-3400, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2018.1463987.
[195] https://nfb.org//sites/default/files/images/nfb/publications/vod/vod212/vodspr0601.htm, accessed on 7 August 2021.