Effect of Alkali Treatment on Impact Behavior of Areca Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites

Natural fibers are considered to have potential use as reinforcing agents in polymer composite materials because of their principal benefits: moderate strength and stiffness, low cost, and being an environmental friendly, degradable, and renewable material. A study has been carried out to evaluate impact properties of composites made by areca fibers reinforced urea formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde and epoxy resins. The extracted areca fibers from the areca husk were alkali treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix. Then composites were produced by means of compression molding technique with varying process parameters, such as fiber condition (untreated and alkali treated), and fiber loading percentages (50% and 60% by weight). The developed areca fiber reinforced composites were then characterized by impact test. The results show that, impact strength increase with increase in the loading percentage. It is observed that, treated areca fiber reinforcement increases impact strength when compared to untreated areca fiber reinforcement.

Thermo-Elastic Properties of Artificial Limestone Bricks with Wood Sawdust

In this study, artificial limestone brick samples are produced by using wood sawdust wastes (WSW) having different grades of sizes and limestone powder waste (LPW). The thermo-elastic properties of produced brick samples in various WSW amounts are investigated. At 30% WSW replacement with LPW in the brick sample the thermal conductivity value is effectively reduced and the reduction in the thermal conductivity value of brick sample at 30% WSW replacement with LPW is about 38.9% as compared with control sample. The energy conservation in buildings by using LPW and WSW in masonry brick material production having low thermal conductivity reduces energy requirements. A strong relationship is also found among the thermal conductivity, unit weight and ultrasonic pulse velocity values of brick samples produced. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials etc.

Growing Zeolite Y on FeCrAlloy Metal

Structured catalysts formed from the growth of zeolites on substrates is an area of increasing interest due to the increased efficiency of the catalytic process, and the ability to provide superior heat transfer and thermal conductivity for both exothermic and endothermic processes. However, the generation of structured catalysts represents a significant challenge when balancing the relationship variables between materials properties and catalytic performance, with the Na2O, H2O and Al2O3 gel composition paying a significant role in this dynamic, thereby affecting the both the type and range of application. The structured catalyst films generated as part of this investigation have been characterised using a range of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), with the transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces being demonstrated using both SEM and XRD. The robustness of the coatings has been ascertained by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550oC), with the results indicating that the synthesis time and gel compositions have a crucial effect on the quality of zeolite growth on the FeCrAlloy wires. Finally, the activity of the structured catalyst was verified by a series of comparison experiments with standard zeolite Y catalysts in powdered pelleted forms.

Thermal Distribution in Axial-Flow Fixed Bed with Flowing Gas

This paper reported an experimental research of steady-state heat transfer behaviour of a gas flowing through a fixed bed under the different operating conditions. Studies had been carried out in a fixed-bed packed methanol synthesis catalyst percolated by air at appropriate flow rate. Both radial and axial direction temperature distribution had been investigated under the different operating conditions. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate on temperature distribution was investigated and the experimental results showed that a higher inlet air temperature was conducive to uniform temperature distribution in the fixed bed. A large temperature drop existed at the radial direction, and the temperature drop increased with the heating pipe temperature increasing under the experimental conditions; the temperature profile of the vicinity of the heating pipe was strongly affected by the heating pipe temperature. A higher air flow rate can improve the heat transfer in the fixed bed. Based on the thermal distribution, heat transfer models of the fixed bed could be established, and the characteristics of the temperature distribution in the fixed bed could be finely described, that had an important practical significance.

High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Colistin Sulfate and its Application in Medicated Premixand Animal Feed

The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an inexpensive and simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of colistin sulfate. Separation of colistin sulfate was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column using UV detection at λ=215 nm. The mobile phase was 30 mM sulfate buffer (pH 2.5):acetonitrile(76:24). An excellent linearity (r2=0.998) was found in the concentration range of 25 - 400 μg/mL. Intra- day and inter-day precisions of method (%RSD, n=3) were less than 7.9%.The developed and validated method was applied to determination of the content of colistin sulfate in medicated premix and animal feed sample.The recovery of colistin from animal feed was satisfactorily ranged from 90.92 to 93.77%. The results demonstrated that the HPLC method developed in this work is appropriate for direct determination of colistin sulfate in commercial medicated premixes and animal feed.

Optimization of Two-Stage Pretreatment Combined with Microwave Radiation Using Response Surface Methodology

Pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar that used for biobutanol production. Among pretreatment processes, microwave is considered to improve pretreatment efficiency due to its high heating efficiency, easy operation, and easily to combine with chemical reaction. The main objectives of this work are to investigate the feasibility of microwave pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of corncobs and to determine the optimal conditions using response surface methodology. Corncobs were pretreated via two-stage pretreatment in dilute sodium hydroxide (2 %) followed by dilute sulfuric acid 1 %. Pretreated corncobs were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugar. Statistical experimental design was used to optimize pretreatment parameters including temperature, residence time and solid-to-liquid ratio to achieve the highest amount of glucose. The results revealed that solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature had a significant effect on the amount of glucose.

The Effect of Alternative Fuel Combustion in the Cement Kiln Main Burner on Production Capacity and Improvement with Oxygen Enrichment

A mathematical model based on a mass and energy balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed. The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about 45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels. Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby maintain the required clinker quality, the production capacity had to be reduced by 1-15 %, depending on the fuel type. The reason for the reduction is increased exhaust gas flow rates caused by the fuel characteristics. The model, which has been successfully validated in a full-scale experiment, was also used to show that the negative impact on the production capacity can be avoided if a relatively small part of the combustion air is replaced by pure oxygen.

Product Yields and Chemical Compounds of Cogongrass by Pyrolysis in Twin Screw Feeder

Continuous pyrolysis of Cogongrass by control temperature in the novel pyrolysis reactor were conducted at three difference temperatures 400, 450 and 500°C. Preliminary calculate of the product yields founded the liquid yield of Cogongrass was highest of 41.45 %, at 500 oC. Indicated that the liquid yield from Cogongrass had good received yields because it gave over 40 % and its produced more liquid than that solid and gas. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol, 2,5-dimethyl, Phenol, 3-methyl, 2- methyl-1,3-oxathiofane, Benzene,1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten- 1-one,2,3-dimethyl, 2- Cyclopenten-1- one, 3-Methyl.

Culture of Oleaginous Yeasts in Dairy Industry Wastewaters to Obtain Lipids Suitable for the Production of II-Generation Biodiesel

The oleaginous yeasts Lipomyces starkey were grown in the presence of dairy industry wastewaters (DIW). The yeasts were able to degrade the organic components of DIW and to produce a significant fraction of their biomass as triglycerides. When using DIW from the Ricotta cheese production or residual whey as growth medium, the L. starkey could be cultured without dilution nor external organic supplement. On the contrary, the yeasts could only partially degrade the DIW from the Mozzarella cheese production, due to the accumulation of a metabolic product beyond the threshold of toxicity. In this case, a dilution of the DIW was required to obtain a more efficient degradation of the carbon compounds and an higher yield in oleaginous biomass. The fatty acid distribution of the microbial oils obtained showed a prevalence of oleic acid, and is compatible with the production of a II generation biodiesel offering a good resistance to oxidation as well as an excellent cold-performance.

CFD Study of Turbine Submergence Effects on Aeration of a Stirred Tank

For many chemical and biological processes, the understanding of the mixing phenomenon and flow behavior in a stirred tank is of major importance. A three-dimensional numerical study was performed using the software Fluent, to study the flow field in a stirred tank with a Rushton turbine. In this work, we first studied the flow generated in the tank with a Rushton turbine. Then, we studied the effect of the variation of turbine’s submergence on the thermodynamic quantities defining the flow field. For that, four submergences were considered, while maintaining the same rotational speed (N =250rpm). This work intends to optimize the aeration performances of a Rushton turbine in a stirred tank.

Effect of Catalyst Preparation on the Performance of CaO-ZnO Catalysts for Transesterification

In this research, CaO-ZnO catalysts (with various Ca:Zn atomic ratios of 1:5, 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) prepared by incipientwetness impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods were used as a catalyst in the transesterification of palm oil with methanol for biodiesel production. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques, including BET method, CO2-TPD, and Hemmett Indicator. The effects of precursor concentration, and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were studied under reaction conditions of a 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 6 wt% catalyst, reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 8 h. At Ca:Zn atomic ratio of 1:3 gave the highest FAME value owing to a basic properties and surface area of the prepared catalyst.

Conversion of Methanol to Propylene over a High Silica B-HZSM-5 Catalyst

Hydrothermally synthesized high silica borosilicates with the MFI structure was subjected to several characterization techniques. The effect of boron on the structure and acidity of HZSM-5 catalyst were studied by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, solid state NMR, NH3-TPD. It was confirmed that boron had entered the framework in the boron samples. The results also revealed that strong acidity was weakened and weak acidity was strengthened by the boron added zeolite framework compared with parent catalyst. The catalytic performance was carried out in a fixed bed at 460°C for methanol to propylene (MTP) reaction. The results of MTP reaction showed a great increment of the propylene selectivity and excellent stability for the B-HZSM-5. The catalyst exhibited about 81% selectivity to C2 = - C4 = olefins with 40% selectivity of propylene as major component at near 100% methanol conversion, and the stable performance in the studied period was 100h.

Structural Analysis of Lignins from Different Sources

Five lignin samples were fractionated with Acetone/Water mixtures and the obtained fractions were subjected to extensive structural characterization, including Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy (31P-NMR). The results showed that for all studied lignins the solubility increases with the increment of the acetone concentration. Wheat straw lignin has the highest solubility in 90/10 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture, 400 mg lignin being dissolved in 1 mL mixture. The weight average molecular weight of the obtained fractions increased with the increment of acetone concentration and thus with solubility. 31P-NMR analysis based on lignin modification by reactive phospholane into phosphitylated compounds was used to differentiate and quantify the different types of OH groups (aromatic, aliphatic, and carboxylic) found in the fractions obtained with 70/30 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture.

A Comparison of Dilute Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatments in Biofuel Production from Corncobs

Biofuels, like biobutanol, have been recognized for being renewable and sustainable fuels which can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. To convert lignocellulosic biomass to biofuel, pretreatment process is an important step to remove hemicelluloses and lignin to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute acid pretreatment has been successful developed for pretreatment of corncobs and the optimum conditions of dilute sulfuric and phosphoric acid pretreatment were obtained at 120 °C for 5 min with 15:1 liquid to solid ratio and 140 °C for 10 min with 10:1 liquid to solid ratio, respectively. The result shows that both of acid pretreatments gave the content of total sugar approximately 34–35 g/l. In case of inhibitor content (furfural), phosphoric acid pretreatment gives higher than sulfuric acid pretreatment. Characterizations of corncobs after pretreatment indicate that both of acid pretreatments can improve enzymatic accessibility and the better results present in corncobs pretreated with sulfuric acid in term of surface area, crystallinity, and composition analysis.

Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts

Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1, pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of 0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the variation of reaction conditions.