Abstract: Oilfields under waterflood often face the problem of plugging injectors either by internal filtration or external filter cake built up inside pore throats. The content of suspended solids shall be reduced to required level of filtration since corrective action of plugging is costly expensive. The performance of nutshell filters, where filtration takes place, is good using pecan and walnut shells. Candlenut shells were used instead of pecan and walnut shells since they were abundant in Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Africa. Physical and chemical properties of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells were tested and the results were compared. Testing, using full-scale nutshell filters, was conducted to determine the oil content, turbidity, and suspended solid removal, which was based on designed flux rate. The performance of candlenut shells, which were deeply bedded in nutshell filters for filtration process, was monitored. Cleaned water outgoing nutshell filters had total suspended solids of 17 ppm, while oil content could be reduced to 15.1 ppm. Turbidity, using candlenut shells, was below the specification for injection water, which was less than 10 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). Turbidity of water, outgoing nutshell filter, was ranged from 1.7-5.0 NTU at various dates of operation. Walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells had moisture content of 8.98 wt%, 10.95 wt%, and 9.95 wt%, respectively. The porosity of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells was significantly affected by moisture content. Candlenut shells had property of toluene solubility of 7.68 wt%, which was much higher than walnut shells, reflecting more crude oil adsorption. The hardness of candlenut shells was 2.5-3 Mohs, which was close to walnut shells’ hardness. It was advantage to guarantee the cleaning filter cake by fluidization process during backwashing.
Abstract: An ammonium based ionic liquid (methyltrioctylammonium chloride) [N8 8 8 1] [Cl] was investigated as an extraction potential solvent for volatile organic solvents (in this regard, solutes), which includes alkenes, alkanes, ketones, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrahydrofuran (THF), alcohols, thiophene, water and acetonitrile based on the experimental activity coefficients at infinite THF measurements were conducted by the use of gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures (313.15 to 343.15) K. Experimental data of activity coefficients obtained across the examined temperatures were used in order to calculate the physicochemical properties at infinite dilution such as partial molar excess enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy term. Capacity and selectivity data for selected petrochemical extraction problems (heptane/thiophene, heptane/benzene, cyclohaxane/cyclohexene, hexane/toluene, hexane/hexene) were computed from activity coefficients data and compared to the literature values with other ionic liquids. Evaluation of activity coefficients at infinite dilution expands the knowledge and provides a good understanding related to the interactions between the ionic liquid and the investigated compounds.
Abstract: Protorhus longifolia is known as a medicinal plant that has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as hemiplegic paralysis, blood clotting related diseases, diarrhoea, heartburn, etc. The study reports a High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profile of Protorhus longifolia methanolic extract and its qualitative analysis of gallic acid, rutin, and quercetin. HPTLC analysis was achieved using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, CAMAG Automatic Developing Chamber 2 (ADC2), CAMAG visualizer 2, CAMAG Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) scanner and visionCATS CAMAG HPTLC software. Mobile phase comprising toluene, ethyl acetate, formic acid (21:15:3) was used for qualitative analysis of gallic acid and revealed eight peaks while the mobile phase containing ethyl acetate, water, glacial acetic acid, formic acid (100:26:11:11) for qualitative analysis of rutin and quercetin revealed six peaks. HPTLC sillica gel 60 F254 glass plates (10 × 10) were used as the stationary phase. Gallic acid was detected at the Rf = 0.35; while rutin and quercetin were not evident in the extract. Further studies will be performed to quantify gallic acid in Protorhus longifolia leaves and also identify other biomarkers.
Abstract: Air travel, and the use of airports, has experienced proliferative growth in the past few decades, resulting in the concomitant release of air pollutants. Air pollution needs to be monitored because of the known relationship between exposure to air pollutants and increased adverse effects on human health. This study monitored a group of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); specifically BTEX (viz. benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes), as many are detrimental to human health. Through the use of passive sampling methods, the spatial variability of BTEX within an international airport was investigated, in order to determine ‘hotspots’ where occupational exposure to BTEX may be intensified. The passive sampling campaign revealed BTEXtotal concentrations ranged between 12.95–124.04 µg m-3. Furthermore, BTEX concentrations were dispersed heterogeneously within the airport. Due to the slow wind speeds recorded (1.13 m.s-1); the hotspots were located close to their main BTEX sources. The main hotspot was located over the main apron of the airport. Employees working in this area may be chronically exposed to these emissions, which could be potentially detrimental to their health.
Abstract: Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.
Abstract: Wax and asphaltene are high molecular weighted compounds that contribute to the stability of crude oil at a dispersed state. Transportation of crude oil along pipelines from the oil rig to the refineries causes fluctuation of temperature which will lead to the coagulation of wax and flocculation of asphaltenes. This paper focuses on the prevention of wax and asphaltene precipitate deposition on the inner surface of the pipelines by using a wax inhibitor and an asphaltene dispersant. The novelty of this prevention method is the combination of three substances; a wax inhibitor dissolved in a wax inhibitor solvent and an asphaltene solvent, namely, ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer dissolved in methylcyclohexane (MCH) and toluene (TOL) to inhibit the precipitation and deposition of wax and asphaltene. The objective of this paper was to optimize the percentage composition of each component in this inhibitor which can maximize the viscosity reduction of crude oil. The optimization was divided into two stages which are the laboratory experimental stage in which the viscosity of crude oil samples containing inhibitor of different component compositions is tested at decreasing temperatures and the data optimization stage using response surface methodology (RSM) to design an optimizing model. The results of experiment proved that the combination of 50% EVA + 25% MCH + 25% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of 67% while the RSM model proved that the combination of 57% EVA + 20.5% MCH + 22.5% TOL gave a maximum viscosity reduction of up to 61%.
Abstract: The processes of complexation of the Zn-tetraarylporphyrins with eight 4-(4-(3,6-bis(t-butyl)carbazol-9-yl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (ZnP1) and eight 4-(4-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9-H-carbazol-9-yl)phenoxy)methyl)-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (ZnP2)with the 1,10-diaza-4,7,13,18tetraoxabicyclo[8.5.5]eicosane (L1),1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane (L2)and 1,10-diaza-5,6,14,15-dibenzo-4,7,13,16,21,24 hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane (L3) were investigated by the method of spectrophotometric titration and 1H NMR-spectroscopy. We determined the structures of the host-guest complexes, and their stability constants in toluene were calculated. It was found out that the ZnP1 interacts with the guest molecules L1, L2 with the formation of stable "nest" type complexes and does not form similar complexes with the L3 (presumably due to the fact that the L3 does not match the size of the porphyrin ZnP(1) cavity). On the other hand, the porphyrin ZnP2 binds all of the ligands L1-L3, however complexes thus formed are less stable than complexes ZnP1-L1, ZnP1-L2. In the report, we will also discuss the influence of the alkali cations additives on the stability of the complexes between the porphyrin ZnP1, ZnP2 hosts and guest molecules of the ligands L1-L3.
Abstract: We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.
Abstract: A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.
Abstract: The kinetics of the oxidation of amitriptyline (AT) by sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide (C6H5SO2NBrNa) has been studied in an acidic buffer medium of pH 1.2 at 303 K. The oxidation reaction of AT was followed spectrophotometrically at maximum wavelength, 410 nm. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence each on concentration of AT and concentration of sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide. The reaction also shows an inverse fractional order dependence at low or high concentration of HCl. The dielectric constant of the solvent shows negative effect on the rate of reaction. The addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT have no significant effect on the rate. The rate is unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength (NaClO4) of the medium. Addition of reaction mixtures to be aqueous acrylamide solution did not initiate polymerization, indicating the absence of free radical species. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and oxidation product of AT is identified. The Michaelis-Menton type of kinetics has been proposed. The CH3C6H5SO2NHBr has been assumed to be the reactive oxidizing species. Thermodynamical parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is presented.
Abstract: Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.
Abstract: Honeycomb sandwich panels have been widely used as protective structural elements against blast loading. The main advantages of these panels include their light weight due to the presence of voids, as well as their energy absorption capability. Terrorist activities have imposed new challenges to structural engineers to design protective measures for vital structures. Since blast loading is not usually considered in the load combinations during the design process of a structure, researchers around the world have been motivated to study the behavior of potential elements capable of resisting sudden loads imposed by the detonation of explosive materials. One of the best candidates for this objective is the honeycomb sandwich panel. Studying the effects of explosive materials on the panels requires costly and time-consuming experiments. Moreover, these type of experiments need permission from defense organizations which can become a hurdle. As a result, modeling and simulation using an appropriate tool can be considered as a good alternative. In this research work, the finite element package ABAQUS® is used to study the behavior of hexagonal and squared honeycomb steel sandwich panels under the explosive effects of different amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT). The results of finite element modeling of a specific honeycomb configuration are initially validated by comparing them with the experimental results from literature. Afterwards, several configurations including different geometrical properties of the honeycomb wall are investigated and the results are compared with the original model. Finally, the effectiveness of the core shape and wall thickness are discussed, and conclusions are made.
Abstract: Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.
Abstract: The world crude oil demand is projected to rise to 108.5 million bbl/d by the year 2035. With reserves estimated at 869 billion tonnes worldwide, coal remains an abundant resource. The aim of this work was to produce a high value hydrocarbon liquid product using a Direct Coal Liquefaction (DCL) process at, relatively mild operating conditions. Via hydrogenation, the temperature-staged approach was investigated in a dual reactor lab-scale pilot plant facility. The objectives included maximising thermal dissolution of the coal in the presence of tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent in the first stage with 2:1 and 3:1 solvent: coal ratios. Subsequently, in the second stage, hydrogen saturation, in particular, hydrodesulphurization (HDS) performance was assessed. Two commercial hydrotreating catalysts were investigated viz. NickelMolybdenum (Ni-Mo) and Cobalt-Molybdenum (Co-Mo). GC-MS results identified 77 compounds and various functional groups present in the first and second stage liquid product. In the first stage 3:1 ratios and liquid product yields catalysed by magnetite were favoured. The second stage product distribution showed an increase in the BTX (Benzene, Toluene, Xylene) quality of the liquid product, branched chain alkanes and a reduction in the sulphur concentration. As an HDS performer and selectivity to the production of long and branched chain alkanes, Ni-Mo had an improved performance over Co-Mo. Co-Mo is selective to a higher concentration of cyclohexane. For 16 days on stream each, Ni-Mo had a higher activity than Co-Mo. The potential to cover the demand for low–sulphur, crude diesel and solvents from the production of high value hydrocarbon liquid in the said process, is thus demonstrated.
Abstract: Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most
effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble
gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are
many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact
between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing
particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed
towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The
primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles
as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas
temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this
paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new
design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing).
The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon
disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor.
Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150°C was
processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was
used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure
drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental
device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was
observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from
150°C to 40°C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of
a liquid-gas ratio, but no too much as for the common venturi
scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %.
The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to
commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of
amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.
Abstract: Considering palm oil as non-drying oil owing to its
low iodine value, an attempt was taken to increase the unsaturation in
the fatty acid chains of palm oil for the preparation of alkyds. To
increase the unsaturation in the palm oil, sulphuric acid (SA) and
para-toluene sulphonic acid (PTSA) was used prior to alcoholysis for
the dehydration process. The iodine number of the oil samples was
checked for the unsaturation measurement by Wijs method. Alkyd
resin was prepared using the dehydrated palm oil by following
alcoholysis and esterification reaction. To improve the film properties
0.5wt.% multi-wall carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were used to
manufacture polymeric film. The properties of the resins were
characterized by various physico-chemical properties such as density,
viscosity, iodine value, saponification value, etc. Structural
elucidation was confirmed by Fourier transform of infrared
spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance; surfaces of the
films were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscope.
In addition, pencil hardness and chemical resistivity was also
measured by using standard methods. The effect of enhancement of
the unsaturation in the fatty acid chain found significant and
motivational. The resin prepared with dehydrated palm oil showed
improved properties regarding hardness and chemical resistivity
testing. The incorporation of MWCNTs enhanced the thermal
stability and hardness of the films as well.
Abstract: Poly vinyl acetate (PVA)-based titania (TiO2)–carbon
nanotube composite nanofibers (PVA-TCCNs) with various
PVA-to-solvent ratios and PVA-based TiO2 composite nanofibers
(PVA-TN) were synthesized using an electrospinning process,
followed by thermal treatment. The photocatalytic activities of these
nanofibers in the degradation of airborne monocyclic aromatics under
visible-light irradiation were examined. This study focuses on the
application of these photocatalysts to the degradation of the target
compounds at sub-part-per-million indoor air concentrations. The
characteristics of the photocatalysts were examined using scanning
electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible
spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. For all the
target compounds, the PVA-TCCNs showed photocatalytic
degradation efficiencies superior to those of the reference PVA-TN.
Specifically, the average photocatalytic degradation efficiencies for
benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX) obtained using
the PVA-TCCNs with a PVA-to-solvent ratio of 0.3 (PVA-TCCN-0.3)
were 11%, 59%, 89%, and 92%, respectively, whereas those observed
using PVA-TNs were 5%, 9%, 28%, and 32%, respectively.
PVA-TCCN-0.3 displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation
efficiency for BTEX, suggesting the presence of an optimal
PVA-to-solvent ratio for the synthesis of PVA-TCCNs. The average
photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX decreased from 11% to 4%, 59%
to 18%, 89% to 37%, and 92% to 53%, respectively, when the flow
rate was increased from 1.0 to 4.0 L min1. In addition, the average
photocatalytic efficiencies for BTEX increased 11% to ~0%, 59% to
3%, 89% to 7%, and 92% to 13%, respectively, when the input
concentration increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm. The prepared
PVA-TCCNs were effective for the purification of airborne aromatics
at indoor concentration levels, particularly when the operating
conditions were optimized.
Abstract: Alkylated silicon nanocrystals (C11-SiNCs) were
prepared successfully by galvanostatic etching of p-Si(100) wafers
followed by a thermal hydrosilation reaction of 1-undecene in
refluxing toluene in order to extract C11-SiNCs from porous silicon.
Erbium trichloride was added to alkylated SiNCs using a simple
mixing chemical route. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first
investigation on mixing SiNCs with erbium ions (III) by this
chemical method. The chemical characterization of C11-SiNCs and
their mixtures with Er3+(Er/C11-SiNCs) were carried out using X-ray
photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of C11-
SiNCs and their mixtures with Er3+ were investigated using Raman
spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The erbium mixed
alkylated SiNCs shows an orange PL emission peak at around 595
nm that originates from radiative recombination of Si. Er/C11-SiNCs
mixture also exhibits a weak PL emission peak at 1536 nm that
originates from the intra-4f transition in erbium ions (Er3+). The PL
peak of Si in Er/C11-SiNCs mixture is increased in the intensity up to
three times as compared to pure C11-SiNCs. The collected data
suggest that this chemical mixing route leads instead to a transfer of
energy from erbium ions to alkylated SiNCs.
Abstract: The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.
Abstract: The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this directon, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.