Abstract: The aim of this paper is to perform a thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IAEA 10 MW benchmark reactor solving analytically and numerically, by mean of the finite volume method, respectively the steady state and transient forced convection in rectangular narrow channel between two parallel MTR-type fuel plates, imposed under a cosine shape heat flux. A comparison between both solutions is presented to determine the minimal coolant velocity which can ensure a safe reactor core cooling, where the cladding temperature should not reach a specific safety limit 90 °C. For this purpose, a computer program is developed to determine the principal parameter related to the nuclear core safety, such as the temperature distribution in the fuel plate and in the coolant (light water) as a function of the inlet coolant velocity. Finally, a good agreement is noticed between the both analytical and numerical solutions, where the obtained results are displayed graphically.
Abstract: The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.
Abstract: The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.
Abstract: Radiative heat transfer in participating medium was
carried out using the finite volume method. The radiative transfer
equations are formulated for absorbing and anisotropically scattering
and emitting medium. The solution strategy is discussed and the
conditions for computational stability are conferred. The equations
have been solved for transient radiative medium and transient
radiation incorporated with transient conduction. Results have been
obtained for irradiation and corresponding heat fluxes for both the
cases. The solutions can be used to conclude incident energy and
surface heat flux. Transient solutions were obtained for a slab of heat
conducting in slab and by thermal radiation. The effect of heat
conduction during the transient phase is to partially equalize the
internal temperature distribution. The solution procedure provides
accurate temperature distributions in these regions. A finite volume
procedure with variable space and time increments is used to solve
the transient radiation equation. The medium in the enclosure
absorbs, emits, and anisotropically scatters radiative energy. The
incident radiations and the radiative heat fluxes are presented in
graphical forms. The phase function anisotropy plays a significant
role in the radiation heat transfer when the boundary condition is
Abstract: A 3D-conjugate numerical investigation was conducted to predict heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular cross-sectional micro-channel employing simultaneously developing Tow-phase flows. The sole purpose for analyzing two phase flow heat transfer in rectangular micro channel is to pin point what are the different factors affecting this phenomenon. Different methods and techniques have been undertaken to analyze the equations arising constituting the flow of heat from gas phase to liquid phase and vice versa.Different models of micro channels have been identified and analyzed. How the geometry of micro channels affects their activity i.e. of circular and non-circular geometry has also been reviewed. To the study the results average Nusselt no plotted against the Reynolds no has been taken into consideration to study average heat exchange in micro channels against applied heat flux. High heat fluxes up to 140 W/cm2 were applied to investigate micro-channel thermal characteristics.
Abstract: The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study, the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.
Abstract: This work deals with heat and mass transfer by steady laminar boundary layer flow of a Newtonian, viscous fluid over a vertical flat plate with variable surface heat flux embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of thermophoresis particle deposition effect. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into no-similar form by using special transformation and solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference method. Many results are obtained and a representative set is displaced graphically to illustrate the influence of the various physical parameters on the wall thermophoresis deposition velocity and concentration profiles. It is found that the increasing of thermophoresis constant or temperature differences enhances heat transfer rates from vertical surfaces and increase wall thermophoresis velocities; this is due to favorable temperature gradients or buoyancy forces. It is also found that the effect of thermophoresis phenomena is more pronounced near pure natural convection heat transfer limit; because this phenomenon is directly a temperature gradient or buoyancy forces dependent. Comparisons with previously published work in the limits are performed and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.
Abstract: The forced convection heat transfer in high porosity metal-foam filled tube heat exchangers are studied in this paper. The Brinkman Darcy momentum model and two energy equations for both solid and fluid phases in porous media are employed .The study shows that using metal-foams can significantly improve the heat transfer in heat exchangers.
Abstract: In this paper, the innovative intelligent fuzzy weighted
input estimation method (FWIEM) can be applied to the inverse heat
transfer conduction problem (IHCP) to estimate the unknown
time-varying heat flux efficiently as presented. The feasibility of this
method can be verified by adopting the temperature measurement
experiment. We would like to focus attention on the heat flux
estimation to three kinds of samples (Copper, Iron and Steel/AISI 304)
with the same 3mm thickness. The temperature measurements are then
regarded as the inputs into the FWIEM to estimate the heat flux. The
experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate the
unknown time-varying heat flux on-line.
Abstract: The present paper is an experimental investigation of
roughness effects on nucleate pool boiling of refrigerant R113 on
horizontal circular copper surfaces. The copper samples were treated
by different sand paper grit sizes to achieve different surface
roughness. The average surface roughness of the four samples was
0.901, 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09, respectively. The experiments were
performed in the heat flux range of 8 to 200kW/m2. The heat transfer
coefficient was calculated by measuring wall superheat of the
samples and the input heat flux. The results show significant
improvement of heat transfer coefficient as the surface roughness is
increased. It is found that the heat transfer coefficient of the sample
with Ra=0.901 is 3.4, 10.5, and 38.5% higher in comparison with
surfaces with Ra of 0.735, 0.65, and 0.09 at heat flux of 170 kW/m2.
Moreover, the results are compared with literature data and the well
known Cooper correlation.
Abstract: One of the potential and effective ways of
storing thermal energy in buildings is the integration of brick with phase change materials (PCMs). This paper presents a two-dimensional model for simulating and analyzing of PCM
in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The numerical approach has been used with the real weather data of a selected city of Iran (Tehran). Two kinds of brick integrated PCM are investigated and compared base on
outdoor weather conditions and the amount of energy
consumption. The results show a significant reduction in
maximum entering heat flux to building about 32.8%
depending on PCM quantity. The results are analyzed by
various temperature contour plots. The contour plots
illustrated the time dependent mechanism of entering heat flux for a brick integrated with PCM. Further analysis is developed to investigate the effect of PCM location on the inlet heat flux. The results demonstrated that to achieve maximum performance of PCM it is better to locate PCM near the outdoor.
Abstract: In the present study, Convective heat transfer
coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar
flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube
were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5%
and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles
were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume
concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction
factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle
volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer
coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient
enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and
increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to
distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of
nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the
average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume
concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction
factor for nanofluids.
Abstract: A CFD study on heat flux reduction in hypersonic flow with opposing jet has been conducted. Flowfield parameters, reattachment point position, surface pressure distributions and heat flux distributions are obtained and validated with experiments. The physical mechanism of heat reduction has been analyzed. When the opposing jet blows, the freestream is blocked off, flows to the edges and not interacts with the surface to form aerodynamic heating. At the same time, the jet flows back to form cool recirculation region, which reduces the difference in temperature between the surface and the nearby gas, and then reduces the heat flux. As the pressure ratio increases, the interface between jet and freestream is gradually pushed away from the surface. Larger the total pressure ratio is, lower the heat flux is. To study the effect of the intensity of opposing jet more reasonably, a new parameter RPA has been introduced by combining the flux and the total pressure ratio. The study shows that the same shock wave position and total heat load can be obtained with the same RPA with different fluxes and the total pressures, which means the new parameter could stand for the intensity of opposing jet and could be used to analyze the influence of opposing jet on flow field and aerodynamic heating.
Abstract: The innovative intelligent fuzzy weighted input
estimation method (FWIEM) can be applied to the inverse heat
transfer conduction problem (IHCP) to estimate the unknown
time-varying heat flux of the multilayer materials as presented in this
paper. The feasibility of this method can be verified by adopting the
temperature measurement experiment. The experiment modular may
be designed by using the copper sample which is stacked up 4
aluminum samples with different thicknesses. Furthermore, the
bottoms of copper samples are heated by applying the standard heat
source, and the temperatures on the tops of aluminum are measured by
using the thermocouples. The temperature measurements are then
regarded as the inputs into the presented method to estimate the heat
flux in the bottoms of copper samples. The influence on the estimation
caused by the temperature measurement of the sample with different
thickness, the processing noise covariance Q, the weighting factor γ ,
the sampling time interval Δt , and the space discrete interval Δx ,
will be investigated by utilizing the experiment verification. The
results show that this method is efficient and robust to estimate the
unknown time-varying heat input of the multilayer materials.